Educational Psychology - EDSP 102

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					                          Educational Psychology - EDSP 102

                             Chapter 4 - Student Diversity

 Students Differ: in Performance Level, Learning Rate, & Learning Style; in Ethnicity,
Culture, Social Class, & Home Language; Gender – these differences have implications
for Instruction and Curriculum.

             What Is the Impact of Culture on Teaching and Learning?

Culture: shared norms, traditions, behaviors, Language, and perceptions of a group.
There is much cultural diversity right here in the US.

SES – the tendency is to value the characteristics of mainstream, high-status group and
devalue those of other groups.

Culture is communicated to a child before ethnicity, SES, religion, home language,
gender, & other group identities influence entering school the culture of a child.

Expectation of the School
* Children are expected to speak standard English
* Children are expected to be highly verbal, to work INDEPENDENTLY, & to
COMPETE with other students for grades and recognition.

However, many cultures place a high value on COOPERATION & PEER
ORIENTATION – the culture of the school reflects mainstream middle-class values &
most teachers are from a middle-class background so the child from a DIFFERENT
CULTURE is often at a DISADVANTAGED.

A teacher must understand how students differ in their approaches to learning and create
instructional opportunities that are adapted to students with diverse backgrounds and
exceptionalities.

                     How Does SES Affect Student Achievement?

SES: a person’s income, occupation, education, & prestige in society (power, wealth,
prestige). Most commonly looked at by years of education and income (most
quantifiable).

Upper (3%), Upper-Middle (22%), Lower-Middle (34%),, Upper-Working (28%),,
Lower-Working (13%).

Lower-Working Class – contains an impoverished subgroup – Urban Underclass: have
experienced particularly severe difficulties in terms of UNEMPLOYMENT, CRIME &
SOCIAL DISORGANIZATION.




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Middle-Class: refers to families who wages earning are in occupations requiring
significant education.

Working-Class: refers to families who have relatively stable occupations not requiring
higher education.

Lower-Class: refers to those in the in the urban or rural underclass who are often
unemployed and might be living on government assistance.

The majority of low-income families in the US are white. Explain. And there are many
non-white middle-class families.

                          The Role of Child-Rearing Practices

Many children from low-income families receive an upbringing that is less consistent
with what they will be expected to do in school that that of middle-class children –
CULTURAL DEFICIT MODEL.

Children from Disadvantaged Homes – less likely to have access to good health care
(lead poison), mothers are less likely to have received good prenatal care, delaying
COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT, which also influences SCHOOL READINESS.

Lower-Class Families are less likely to… engage in stimulating activities; to have high
expectations expresses to them; to be rewarded for their intellectual development; to have
good models for language uses; to be talked & read to; and to encourage reading and
other learning activities; lack of trips to the zoo, museums, concerts; parents are less
likely to be able to help their children succeed in school and be involved in their
education; to expect and demand high achievement from their children; and to demand
good behavior and obedience.

                  The Link Between Income and Summer Learning

High SES children continue to make progress over the summer. Middle-class children
are more likely to be engaged in school-like activities during the summer and have
available more school-like materials. Lower-class will be receiving less academically
relevant stimulation at home and will forget what they learned in school.

Lower-class students have difficulties in school in part because their upbringing
emphasizes different behaviors from those valued in school. Schools represent milled-
class values

Middle-class Values include… INDIVIDUALITY (students competing for grades,
teacher attention & praise)& FUTURE TIME ORIENTATION.

Lower-class - More interest in COOPERATION (have been helped by others).




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Cooperative Learning strategies would then work well with lower-class students.

                             School and Community Factors

AT-Risk: children from low-income families are placed at-risk for school failure by the
characteristics of the community they live in and the schools they attend.

Poor school Funding; less paid teachers; more money is spent on security& for children
with difficulties (special needs); lack of resources.

For impoverished neighborhoods…Crime; lack of a positive role model; inadequate
social & health services; poor motivation, achievement, & mental health.

Many children succeed despite the odds.

     Is the Low Achievement of Children from Low-Income Groups Inevitable?

Intensive Intervention Programs are necessary…
Reading Recovery; tutorial programs (consider COMMUNITY SERVICE PROGRAMS
you can work with)

Success For All - combines effective instructional programs, tutoring, & family support
services (has demonstrated substantial and lasting impacts on achievement of children in
high poverty schools.

Reduce the Size of Schools – especially class size. Need improved health care and social
interventions that go beyond the school.

           How Do Ethnicity & Race Affect Students’ School Experiences?

 Ethnic Group: one in which individuals has a shared sense of identity (based on place of
common origin, religion, & race).

Race: refers to physical characteristics, such as skin color or hair texture.

IDENTITY within a group is the key.

African Americans, Latinos, and Native Americans have yet to be fully accepted into
mainstream US society… lack of economic success or security (Whites & Asians have).

In the year 2001, the US Census Bureau announced that Hispanics have overtaken
African Americans as the largest minority group.




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        Academic Achievement of Students from Under-Represented Groups

Students from under-represented groups (African Americans, Latinos [Mexican Americans &
Puerto Ricans], and Native Americans) achieve at significantly lower levels than students
from Europeans & Asian Americans.

As indicated on test of ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT

Why? – Reasons

ECONOMICS, SOCIETY, FAMILIES, CULTURE, inadequate responses by school, low
SES – inability to provide their children with the stimulation & academic preparation
necessary; unemployment; single parent families; academically inferiority, overcrowded
urban schools.

Middle-class – moves to the Suburbs or send their children to private or parochial
schools. Remaining children attend lowest quality, worst funded schools where the
teachers are less qualified and least experienced.

Instructions – instructions received by minority students are inconsistent with their
cultural background. Academic excellence is seen as “acting white” – Resistant Culture.

Cooperation is stressed more than competition in the culture. Lack of respect for the
students’ home language and dialect is at issue

Self-Fulfilling Prophecy – low expectation that leads to these decisions…
*Students being placed into low ability groups through TRACKING
*Students being place in special education classes

African-American students rise above these low expectations by having high expectations
for themselves –survival mechanism.

                            Effects of School Desegregation

Before 1954, African Americans, white, Latinos, and Native Americans students were
legally required to attend separate school, (Separate but Equal).

BUSING – was very common where student were bused miles away from their nearest
public school to separate school.

Separate but Equal was rule unconstitutional through the 1954 Brown –vs.- the Board of
Education Topeka (Thurgood Marshall). The case did away with segregation and
resulted in desegregation. It can down from the Supreme Court but schools were slow to
comply. In the 1970’s segregation still continued due to past discriminatory practices –
deliberately drawing neighborhood boundary lines to separate schools along racial lines.




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School desegregation was suppose to increase the academic achievement of low income
students from under-represented groups by giving them opportunities to interact with
more middle-class, achievement oriented peers.

? Why didn’t it work?

Middle class families would MOVE rather than be a part of desegregation.

               How Do Language Differences and Bilingual Programs
                         Affect Student Achievement?

1980’s – only 13% of all US children aged 5-14 were from non-English speaking
families.
2026 – Projection – 25% of all students will come from homes in which the primary
language is not English. (most will speak Spanish).

Language Minority: in the US, native speakers of any language other than English
(primary language is not English)

Limited English Proficient: smaller number of students who have not yet attained an
adequate level of English to succeed in an English-only program. These students are
learning English as a Second Language (ESL).

English As A Second Language (ESL): subject taught in English classes and programs
for students who are not native speakers of English.

The larger ISSUE is how to get these individuals with limited English Proficiency to
function effectively in US.

A related issue is that parents want to maintain their group identity and pride. The US
see is as an issue of the MELTING POT PHILOSOPHY: assimilating these individuals
into mainstream America so that cultural differences will disappear.

                                  Bilingual Education

Refers to programs for students who are acquiring English that teaches the students in
their first language part of the time while English is being learned.

Bilingual Education Program include…
* Instruction in ESL (for students with limited English proficiency)
* Some instruction in Spanish (predominant language).
* Designed to support students in Spanish until they can make the transition into the
regular classroom in English.
* Teach students with limited English proficiency in their primary language in
Kindergarten but move them to English-only classes by the end of 2nd or 3rd grade. In
some cases instructions in ones primary language can go up to 6th grade.



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Two-way Bilingual Program: program in which students from different language
backgrounds learn one another’s language. (Dual Immersion).

                          Effectiveness of Bilingual Programs

* Children in these programs achieve in English as well or better than children taught in
only in English.

* Bilingual Instruction had a clear positive impact on reading performance in their first
language, which is a strong predictor of their ultimate literacy in English.

* Increased students’ self-esteem

* Identified effective forms of instruction (Cooperative Learning Programs – which have
helped in transition to English-only instruction).

* Success For All – combines cooperative learning with one-on-one tutoring for primary
grade students and family support services.

Bilingualism does not interfere with performance in either language. It actually shows
increase achievement in areas other that the language studied.

The US is one of the few countries in the world in which most students graduate from
high school knowing only one language.


Bilingual Education – Problems…
* Lack of teacher who are bilingual.
* Difficulty of the transition from the bilingual program to the English-only mainstream
program.
* The goals of bilingual education sometimes conflict with those of desegregation by
removing language minority students from classes containing white or African-American
students.
* Sink or Swim – total emersion.
* Students being assigned to special education classes because of academic difficulties.




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                                  Multicultural Education

It is Education that teaches the value of cultural diversity.

Dimensions of Multicultural Education

Content Integration: is teachers’ use of examples, data, and information from a variety of
cultures (teaching about different cultures and contributions made by individuals).

Knowledge Construction: refers to teachers helping students understand how knowledge
is created and how it is influenced by the racial, ethnic, and social class positions of
individuals and groups (see history from the perspective of another culture).

Prejudice Reduction: involves both development of positive relationships among students
of different ethnic backgrounds and development of more democratic and tolerant
attitudes towards others.

Equity Pedagogy: refers to the use of teaching techniques that facilitate the academic
success of students from different ethnic and social class groups (African-Americans
learn best with active cooperative methods).

Empowering School Culture: is one in which school organization and practices are
conducive to the academic and emotional growth of all students (this school would
eliminate tracking or ability grouping; increase inclusion).

How Do Gender and Gender Bias Affect Students’ School Experience?

Gender roles are the first that individuals learn and that all societies treat males different
from females; it is a learned behavior. Socialization experiences account for the
differences.

Do Males and Females Think and Learn Differently?

Early 1970’s – gender differences in intelligence or academic achievement (determined
by standardized test which are generated by white males).

Differences are caused by cultural expectation and norms (i.e., males perform better in
math than girls.

What accounted for these differences? The answer is with Teacher interaction between
the males and females with the solving of math problems in the early grades.




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Generally –
MALES score higher on test of general knowledge, mechanical reasoning, and mental
rotation.

FEMALES score higher on language measures (reading and writing assessment and on
attention and planning tasks.

No differences – general verbal ability, arithmetic skills, abstract reasoning, special
visualization, or memory span.

Sex-Role Stereotyping and Gender Bias

Explanation of Behavioral Difference – EXPERIENCES (socialization)– pink vs. blues;
child rearing practices (boys don’t cry).

Differences in approved gender roles between boys and girls tend to be much stronger in
low SES families than in high SES families.

Sex-role Behavior – continues throughout life and schools contribute to it.
MALES: receive more attention from their teachers; receive more disapproval and blame
from their teachers; engage in more interaction with their teachers (such as approval,
instruction giving, and being listened to). Creative behavior of males was rewarded three
times as often.
FEMALES: teachers tend to push females more promptly and explicitly for aggressive
behavior

How Do Students Differ in Intelligence and Learning Styles?

Intelligence: general aptitude for learning, often measured by the ability to deal with
abstractions and to solve problems. It’s defined as a general aptitude for learning or an
ability to acquire and use knowledge or skills.

Individuals vary in their aptitude for learning any specific types of knowledge or skill
taught in a specific way.

Alfred Binet (French)– devised the first measure of intelligence in 1904. He believed in
the rights of students to a good education. He believed that there would be a relationship
between his measure and students’ performance in the classroom.

Intelligence Quotient (IQ) – measured by Deviation IQ – performance looked at in
reference to a group – Normal Distribution. The test has a mean of 100 and a SD of 16.

Spearman’s G – General Intelligence exists across all learning situations and is combined
with the skills a person has toward the tasks.




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Intelligence is a product of heredity and environment. It is shaped by factors in a
person’s social environment (how much a child is read to and talked to). Children of
high-achieving parents are provided an enriching environment and activities.

Schooling influences IQ. IQ is not a fixed, unchangeable attribute of individuals but can
change as individuals respond to changes in their environment.

Intelligence is only one of many factors that influence the amount children are likely to
learn in a given lesson or course. Other important factors are…prior knowledge (the
amount students’ knew beforehand), motivation, and the quality and nature of instruction.

Intelligence – Mental Retardation -Gifted
Deviation IQ – Mean 100, SD 15. Two SD’s above the mean/two SD’s below the mean
begins to identify giftedness and mental retardation.

Misuses of Intelligent Test
*in assigning students to special education classes
*in assigning students to track or ability groups


Actual performance is far more important than IQ and is more directly susceptible to
being influenced by teachers and schools.

                              Theories of Learning Styles

Students differ in the way they learn…
Visual Learner
Auditory Learner

Learning Styles: orientations for approaching learning tasks and processing information.

Field Dependent: cognitive style in which patterns are perceived as a whole.
*Have difficulty separating out specific aspects of a situation or pattern
*Tend to be oriented toward people and social relationships
*Better at recalling such social information as conversations and relationships
*Work best in groups
*Prefer subjects like History and Literature


Field Independent: cognitive style in separate parts of a pattern are perceived and
analyzed.
*Are more able to see the parts that make up a larger pattern
*More likely to do well with numbers, science, and problem-solving tasks




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