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Chapter 7 - Staffing

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									                          Student Study Guide and Workbook

                                      to accompany

                                Work in the 21st Century:

              An Introduction to Industrial-Organizational Psychology

                                     Frank J. Landy
                                      Jeff M. Conte
                               San Diego State University

                                  Prepared by Jeff Conte

                                San Diego State University

Welcome to the Student Study Guide and Workbook for the textbook, Work in the 21st

Century: An introduction to industrial-organizational psychology (Second Edition). This

study guide and workbook includes learning objectives, chapter outlines, glossary terms,

practice exam questions, active exercises, and practice exam answers. It was designed

with you, the student, in mind as a way to review for exams and to facilitate active

learning and practical application of the ideas and principles discussed in class and in the

textbook. Good luck as you learn more about I-O psychology!

Jeff Conte
                               Table of Contents

Chapter 1: What Is Industrial And Organizational Psychology?
      Learning Objectives
      Chapter Outline
      Glossary Terms
      Practice Questions
      Answers to Practice Questions

Chapter 2: Studying And Interpreting Worker Behavior
      Learning Objectives
      Chapter Outline
      Glossary Terms
      Practice Questions
      Answers to Practice Questions

Chapter 3: Individual Differences and Assessment
      Learning Objectives
      Chapter Outline
      Glossary Terms
      Practice Questions
      Answers to Practice Questions

Chapter 4: Understanding Performance
      Learning Objectives
      Chapter Outline
      Glossary Terms
      Practice Questions
      Answers to Practice Questions
Chapter 5: Performance Measurement
      Learning Objectives
      Chapter Outline
      Glossary Terms
      Practice Questions
      Answers to Practice Questions

Chapter 6: Staffing Decisions
      Learning Objectives
      Chapter Outline
      Glossary Terms
      Practice Questions
      Answers to Practice Questions

Chapter 7: Training And Development
      Learning Objectives
      Chapter Outline
      Glossary Terms
      Practice Questions
      Answers to Practice Questions

Chapter 8: The Motivation To Work
      Learning Objectives
      Chapter Outline
      Glossary Terms
      Practice Questions
      Answers to Practice Questions

Chapter 9: Emotions, Attitudes, And Work
      Learning Objectives
      Chapter Outline
      Glossary Terms
      Practice Questions
      Answers to Practice Questions
Chapter 10: Stress And Worker Well-Being
      Learning Objectives
      Chapter Outline
      Glossary Terms
      Practice Questions
      Answers to Practice Questions

Chapter 11: Fairness And Diversity In The Workplace
      Learning Objectives
      Chapter Outline
      Glossary Terms
      Practice Questions
      Answers to Practice Questions

Chapter 12: Leadership
      Learning Objectives
      Chapter Outline
      Glossary Terms
      Practice Questions
      Answers to Practice Questions

Chapter 13: Teams In Organizations
      Learning Objectives
      Chapter Outline
      Glossary Terms
      Practice Questions
      Answers to Practice Questions

Chapter 14: The Organization Of Work Behavior
      Learning Objectives
      Chapter Outline
      Glossary Terms
      Practice Questions
      Answers to Practice Questions
           Chapter 1: What Is Industrial And Organizational Psychology?

                                  Learning Objectives

Module 1.1
Explain the importance of work in people’s lives.
Explain how I-O psychology contributes to society.
Explain how this course can be helpful in providing knowledge about the 21 st Century

Module 1.2
Describe the early history of I-O psychology in terms of major events and people.
Describe the major challenges to I-O psychology in the 21st Century.
Explain how to prepare for a career in I-O psychology.
Explain the steps needed to improve one’s chances of getting accepted into an I-O
psychology graduate program.

Module 1.3
Explain the meaning and significance of multiculturalism in the workplace.
Understand the influence of culture on work behavior.

Module 1.4
Describe the paper and electronic resources available to those interested in I-O

                                    Chapter Outline

                                    Chapter Outline


The Importance of Work in People’s Lives

 The Concept of “Good Work” vs. “Good Job”

How Does I-O Psychology Contribute to Society?

 What Is I-O Psychology?

 The Demographics of I-O Psychologists

SIOP as a Resource
How This Course Can Help You

   Knowledge about the 21st Century Workplace

The Importance of Understanding the Younger Worker


The Past: A Brief History of I-O Psychology

 1876 – 1930

 1930 – 1964

The Present: Demographics of I-O Psychologists

       Pathways to a Career in Psychology: A Curious Mixture

The Future: The Challenges to I-O Psychology in the 21st Century

A Personal View of the Future: The Possibility of a Career in I-O

 Education and Training

Getting into a Graduate Program




The Multicultural Nature of Work in the 21st Century

 Why Should Multiculturalism Be Important to You?

 Why Is Multiculturalism Important for I-O Psychology?

Some Theories of Cultural Influence
 Hofstede’s Theory

 Schwartz’s Theory

 Some Thoughts on Theories of Cultural Influence





Glossary Terms for Chapter 1 – What is Industrial and Organizational Psychology?

This list of key terms and important concepts from Chapter 1 can be used in conjunction
with reviewing the material in the textbook. After reviewing Chapter 1 in the textbook,
define each of the following key terms and important concepts fully. Check your
answers with the textbook, and review terms with which you have difficulty. Good lu ck!

Module 1.1
industrial-organizational (I-O) psychology
Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology (SIOP)
personnel psychology
Human Resources Management (HRM)
organizational psychology
human engineering or human factors psychology
scientist-practitioner model
TIP (The Industrial-Organizational Psychologist)
welfare-to-work program
virtual team

Module 1.2
Stanford-Binet test
Scientific Management
time and motion studies
revery obsession
Hawthorne studies
Human Relations Movement
Title VII of Civil Rights Act of 1964
American Psychological Association (APA)

Module 1.3
"West versus the Rest” mentality
collectivist culture
individualist culture
power distance
uncertainty avoidance
long-term versus short-term orientation
horizontal culture
vertical culture

Module 1.4
No glossary terms in this module
                            Practice Questions for Chapter 1

Multiple Choice Items: Please choose the correct answer to the following questions.

1. Which of the following is not one of the three major concentrations of I-O
   a. personnel psychology
   b. industrial technology
   c. human engineering
   d. organizational psychology

2. Motivation, stress, leadership, and teamwork are addressed by:
   a. personnel psychology
   b. industrial technology
   c. human engineering
   d. organizational psychology

3. The Hawthorne studies were used to examine the effects of:
   a. revery obsession
   b. mass group testing
   c. manipulating workplace lighting
   d. time and motion

4. I-O psychology is defined as:
   a. the influence of an individual’s personality on work and non-work behaviors.
   b. the application of psychological principles, theory, and research to the work
   c. the concept of contextual work and organizational citizenship behavior.
   d. the study of ways to maximize productivity .

5. All of the following studies examined productivity in the workplace except:
   a. time and motion
   b. revery obsession
   c. Hawthorne studies
   d. Stanford-Binet

6. When individuals from different geographic locations work together, it is known as:
   a. telecommuting
   b. virtual teams
   c. digitization
   d. welfare-to-work
7. An expatriate is:
    a. the distribution of emotional roles between genders
    b. a manager or professional assigned to work abroad
    c. a culture that minimizes distances between individuals
    d. a culture that depends on the distances between individuals

8. Which of the following countries has a collectivist culture?
   a. United States
   b. German
   c. Japan
   d. France

9. Which of the following is not one of the dimensions in Hofstede’s theory of culture?
   a. power distance
   b. uncertainty avoidance
   c. conscientiousness
   d. masculinity/femininity

10. The “West versus the Rest” mentality refers to the:
    a. degree to which individuals are expected to look after themselves versus the
    b. degree to which members of a culture feel comfortable in unpredictable situations.
    c. extent of immediate versus delayed gratification of members of a culture.
    d. tendency to apply American theories to non-American situations.
                                Exercises for Chapter 1

Exercise 1-1. When Elton Mayo arrived in the United States, he observed that factory
work was difficult and boring. As a result, he believed that the nature of this work
caused restlessness among employees and a resistance to do what managers wanted them
to do. Much modern factory work has been automated, greatly reducing physical strain
and fatigue. Has this eliminated the restlessness and resistance of factory workers?
Explain why or why not.

Exercise 1-2. At the outset of World War II, applied psychologists standardized the
inside of airplanes, drastically reducing accidents and increasing efficiency. Describe 3
things in your everyday environment that could be standardized in order to increase
safety and/or efficiency.

Exercise 1-3. Consider the graph that appears in your textbook in Figure 1.3, which
compares and contrasts various countries in terms of culture. Examine the curve that
describes Japan. Assume that an American Company will open a plant in Japan and
plans to have supervisors be sympathetic and nurturing to employees. What does
Hofstede’s theory of culture say about the probable success or failure of that plan?
Justify your answer.
Exercise 1-4. In 2 files that are included on this CD (Masters_Programs1.doc;
Doctoral_Programs1.doc) are separate lists of Masters and PhD programs in I-O
psychology. If you are interested in pursuing a career in I-O psychology, it is
recommended that you first spend some time examining the various graduate
programs available and then spend some time on the websites of those programs.
Identify 3-5 programs that you are interested in and describe why those programs
fit your research and career interests below. Next, you might request further
information about the program -- this is usually most easily done via e-mail that
can be found on the program’s website.

Exercise 1-5: Identify current changes and events in society or the workplace and predict
challenges to industrial-organizational psychology that will result from these changes and
events. You can think in terms of important changes or events in society as well as
demographic shifts in society and in organizations.

                Answer Key for Multiple Choice Questions for Chapter 1
 1. b
 2. d
 3. c
 4. b
 5. d
 6. b
 7. b
 8. c
 9. c
10. d
                  Chapter 2: Methods and Statistics in I-O Psychology

                                  Learning Objectives

Module I
Describe the five steps in the scientific method.
Explain the Daubert Challenge and the requirements needed to present a theory in court.

Module II
Describe the three basic types of research designs.
Explain the difference between qualitative and quantitative research.

Module III
Explain the purpose of correlation, multiple correlation, and regression.
Describe the purpose of meta-analysis.

Module IV
Define reliability and how it can be measured.
Identify three approaches that can be used to gather validity evidence.

                                     Chapter Outline


What is Science?

The Role of Science in Society

Why Do I-O Psychologists Engage in Research?


Research Design

Methods of Data Collection

       Qualitative and Quantitative Research

Case Study 2.1: A Case Study in Triangulation: The Financial Consultant

Generalizability and Control in Research




Descriptive and Inferential Statistics

         Descriptive Statistics

Inferential Statistics

Statistical Significance

         The Concept of Statistical Power

Correlation and Regression

         The Concept of Correlation

         The Correlation Coefficient

         Multiple Correlation

Correlation and Causation




         Test-Retest reliability

         Equivalent Forms Reliability

         Internal Consistency

         Inter-rater Reliability


Criterion-Related Validity

                 Predictive validity

                 Concurrent validity
       Content-Related Validity

Construct-Related Validity

Validity and the Law: A Mixed Blessing

Glossary Terms for Chapter 2 – Studying and Interpreting Worker Behavior

This list of key terms and important concepts from Chapter 2 can be used in conjunction
with reviewing the material in the textbook. After reviewing Chapter 2 in the textbook,
define each of the following key terms and important concepts fully. Check your
answers with the textbook, and review terms with which you have difficulty. Good luck!

Module I
expert witness
Daubert Challenge
peer reviewed

Module II
research design
experimental design
quasi-experimental design
non-experimental design
observational design
survey design
quantitative methods
qualitative methods
job analysis
experimental control
statistical control

Module III
descriptive statistics
measure of central tendency
inferential statistics
statistical significance
statistical power
correlation coefficient
regression line
multiple correlation coefficient
statistical artifacts

Module IV
test-retest reliability
equivalent forms reliability
internal consistency
generalizability theory
criterion-related validity
validity coefficient
predictive validity design
concurrent validity design
Content-related validation design
construct validity

                             Practice Questions for Chapter 2

Multiple Choice Items: Please choose the correct answer to the following questions.

1. All of the following methods are common to all sciences except:
a. Science depends on data.
b. Science sets out to prove theories or hypotheses.
c. Science must be communicable, open, and public.
d. Scientists should be objective and not influenced by biases or prejudices.

2. The opposing lawyers in a case have asked the judge to prevent Dr. Jones, an expert
witness, from testifying in front of a jury after calling into question his scientific
credibility. This is called a(n)
a. Expert Challenge.
b. Credibility Challenge.
c. Reliability Challenge.
d. Daubert Challenge.

3. Dr. Brown is conducting a scientific experiment and has randomly assigned the
participants into two training groups, which receive training programs. What type of
research design is Dr. Brown using?
a. Quasi-experimental design
b. Experimental design
c. Non-experimental design
d. Survey design

4. In I-O psychology, field studies are often non-experimental in design. All of the
following help explain the popularity of non-experimental field studies except:
a. The extent to which a laboratory experiment can reasonably simulate “work” is
b. Laboratory experiments are more likely to use samples that are not representative of
the population to which I-O psychologists would like to generalize.
c. Non-experimental designs in the field are most effective in leading to causal
d. In the field, workers can seldom be randomly assigned to conditions or treatments.

5. ___________ methods rely heavily on tests, rating scales, questionnaires, and
physiological measures, while ___________ methods of investigation generally produce
flow diagrams and narrative descriptions of events or processes.
a. Objective; Subjective
b. Subjective; Objective
c. Qualitative; Quantitative
d. Quantitative; Qualitative

6. Dr. Young is in the process of combining information from multiple sources to test a
theory. According to Rogelberg and Brooks-Laber (2002), this approach is referred to as
a. Triangulation
b. Unification
c. Mergence
d. Convergence

7. Each of the following is directly related to increasing the extent to the results of a study
can be generalized to a larger population except:
a. Collecting data at several different points in time.
b. Using a representative sample of the population being studied.
c. Making the sample size larger.
d. Collecting data from many different organizations.

8. All of the following are characteristics that can be used to describe a score distribution
a. Mean
b. Significance
c. Skew
d. Median

9. Inferential statistics are used to:
a. extrapolate data into the future.
b. compare the results of different analyses.
c. reveal patterns in a set of data.
d. draw a conclusion based on results from sample data.

10. A correlation of r = –.79 indicates that there is a
a. high negative association between two variables.
b. high positive association between two variables.
c. low negative association between two variables.
d. low positive association between two variables.

                                  Exercises for Chapter 2

Exercise 2-1. Assume you are an I-O psychologist who works for a large manufacturing
firm. You are asked to analyze data from intelligence test scores for a group of
applicants who are being screened for a variety of positions in the organization. First,
calculate the mean, median, and mode for the following intelligence test scores.

122 118 102 107
 85 87 119 101
 93 184 114 117
 97 86 126 101
 88 137 136 132

Mean: _______ Median: ________ Mode: ________

Given these scores, what are the mean and median for this group of applicants? What
can you say about the intelligence test and the distribution of test scores for these
applicants? If the mean for this intelligence test is 100 across the general population,
what can you conclude about the sample of applicants (i.e., how does this sample
compare to the general population)?
Exercise 2-2. Provide an example of how each type of reliability discussed in the chapter
(test-retest, alternate forms, internal consistency, inter-rater) could be assessed with
scores obtained from a particular sport or event in the Summer or Winter Olympics. Note
that you will likely have to use examples of scores from different sports to assess all 4
types of reliability. In addition, discuss why reliability is such an important concern in
the Olympics, and more generally, in organizations.

Exercise 2-3. The results of pairs ice skating at the 2002 Salt Lake City Winter
Olympics were challenged as a result of questions about whether certain judges gave
biased ratings. Suggestions about how to reduce or eliminate such biased ratings in
future skating events included increasing the number of judges from 9 to 14 and having a
computer choose among the scores, with none of the judges knowing whose scores would
be included. Identify which type of reliability is of concern here and describe how this
new system would increase the reliability of ratings. How might corporations adapt this
approach to increase the reliability of performance ratings of their employees?

                Answer Key for Multiple Choice Questions for Chapter 2
 1. b
 2. d
 3. b
 4. c
 5. d
 6. a
 7. c
 8. b
 9. d
10. a
                     Chapter 3 – Individual Differences and Assessment

                                         Learning Objectives

Module 3.1
Identify the broad categories used to study individual differences.
Explain the difference between the fields of psychometrics and differential psychology.
Explain the assumptions made by I-O psychologists when the individual difference model is applied.

Module 3.2
Identify the three broad categories that are described in the taxonomy of human abilities.
Explain “g” and its importance in the workplace.
Describe the major types of physical abilities that relate to job performance.
Understand the Five Factor Model of Personality and its links to job performance.
Explain some of the practical issues associated with personality measures.
Identify the six interest types associated with the acronym RIASEC.
Define tacit, procedural, and declarative knowledge.
Identify how competencies are different from individual KSAOs.
Understand what is meant by the term “emotional intelligence”.

Module 3.3
Describe how norming helps in understanding the meaning of a test score.
Understand the different types of administrative test categories.
Explain how the concepts of bias, fairness, and culture differ.

Module 3.4
Understand the different kinds of cognitive ability tests.
Distinguish between “screen in” and “screen out” personality tests.
Differentiate between the content of testing and the process of testing.
Understand the distinction between unstructured and structured interviews.
Describe the purposes and characteristics of assessment centers.
Understand the purposes of work samples and situational judgment tests.

Module 3.5
Explain why I-O psychologists are interested in predictors with incremental validity.
Describe the purpose of graphology and the scientific evidence regarding its usefulness.
Understand the arguments for and against the use of polygraphs in the workplace.
Describe the arguments for and against the use of drug and alcohol testing at work.
Identify changes to testing that have been brought about by computer-based assessment.

                                            Chapter Outline

Some Background
Differential Psychology, Psychometrics, and I-O Psychology
Identifying Indiuvidual Differences
Varieties of Individual Differences

Cognitive Abilities
 Intelligence as “g”
 Is “g” Important at Work?
 Is “g” as Important in Other Countries as it is in the U.S.?
 Can Your Level of “g” Change?
 Cognitive Abilities beyond “g”
Physical, Sensory, and Psychomotor Abilities
 Physical Abilities
 Sensory Abilities
 Psychomotor Abilities
 The Five Factor Model
  A Caution
Vocational Interests
Emotional Intelligence

The Past and Present of Testing
What is a Test?
The meaning of a test score
Test Users and Test Interpretation
What is a Test Battery
Where to Find Tests
Administrative Categories
Speed vs. Power Tests
Group vs. Individual Tests
Paper and Pencil vs. Performance Tests
Testing and Culture

Assessment Content versus Process
Cognitive Ability Tests
Knowledge Tests
Tests of Physical Abilities
       Psychomotor tests
       Practical Issues in Personality Testing
 Integrity Testing
 Emotional Intelligence Testing
Interests and Values
Individual Assessment
       Interview Content
       Interview Process
Assessment Centers
Work Samples and Situational Tests

Incremental Validity
Biographical Data
Grades and Letters of Recommendation
Minimum Qualifiications
Useless Assessment Practices
Drug and Alcohol Testing
Computer and Internet Assessment
         Computer Adaptive Testing
         Who is a Candidate
Testing and Demographic Differences

                              Glossary Terms for Chapter 3

This list of key terms and important concepts from Chapter 3 can be used in conjunction
with reviewing the material in the textbook. After reviewing Chapter 3 in the textbook,
define each of the following key terms and important concepts fully. Check your
answers with the textbook, and review terms with which you have difficulty. Good luck!

individual differences

mental test

differential psychology


mental ability



intelligence test


cognitive ability


general mental ability
g-ocentric model

physical abilities






perceptual-motor abilities




Intelligence Quotient

Flynn effect


standard deviation


muscular tension

muscular power

muscular endurance

sensory abilities

Americans with Disabilities Act
psychomotor abilities

sensorimotor abilities

motor abilities

Big 5

Five Factor Model (FFM)


functional personality at work


emotionally stability




positive valence

negative valence



social desirability

vocational interest



people skills

tacit knowledge

procedural knowledge

declarative knowledge


measurement modes

level of specificity


job analysis

emotional intelligence (EI)


mental test



norm group

test battery

speed test

power test

group test

individual test

paper and pencil test

performance test
Mental Measurements Yearbook




cognitive ability test

cognitive test battery

knowledge test

psychomotor abilities

screen out test

screen in test

emotional intelligence (EI)

emotional intelligence quotient (EQ)

individual assessment

situational interview

structured interview

unstructured interview

assessment center

work sample test

situational judgment test


ecology model

incremental validity



overt integrity test

personality based integrity test

Computer Adaptive Testing (CAT)

routing test

                              Practice Questions for Chapter 3

Multiple Choice Items: Please choose the correct answer to the following questions.
Answers are shown at the end of the chapter in this Study Guide.

1. All of the following are fundamental assumptions that I-O psychologists make when
     they apply the individual differences model except:
a. The attribute levels of various people in a group can be brought to the same level
 through training.
b. Different jobs require different attributes.
c. Adults have a variety of attributes, the levels of which remain relatively stable over
d. The attributes can be measured accurately.

2. Fleishman’s taxonomy of 52 abilities can be divided into the categories of cognitive
    abilities, perceptual-motor abilities, and
a. Problem solving abilities.
b. Emotional abilities.
c. Performance abilities.
d. Physical abilities.

3. Measures of “g” assess all of the following except:
a. Knowledge acquisition.
b. Perceptual ability.
c. Reasoning ability.
d. Problem-solving ability.
4. As the complexity of a job ___________, the predictive value of general intelligence
     tests ___________.
a. increases; stays the same.
b. increases; decreases.
c. increases; increases.
d. decreases; stays the same.

5. Which of the following is false concerning the Five Factor Model?
a. It gives a representation of how a person typically responds to people and events.
b. It describes the potential importance of personality variables in understanding job
c. It is the result of both statistical analyses and a conceptual analysis.
d. It can be used to identify evidence of psychopathology.

6. Salma and her colleagues have noticed that a particular employee has a very high
    level of integrity. The employee would be most expected to rank high on all of the
    following factors of the Five Factor Model except:
a. Extraversion
b. Emotional Stability
c. Agreeableness
d. Conscientiousness

7. Tett (1995) suggests that the “dependable” aspect of Conscientiousness might be
    counterproductive in which of the following occupations?
a. Salesperson
b. Programmer
c. Lawyer
d. Musician

8. Which of the following is false concerning faking on a personality test?
a. It may not be faking since personality is all about self-presentation.
b. There is currently no way to measure if someone is faking a personality test.
c. One perspective says there is not much to distinguish self-efficacy from faking.
d. Some people try to respond simply as the ideal candidate.

9. Skills are
a. Practiced acts.
b. Innate abilities.
c. Always technically-based.
d. Not dependent on certain abilities.

10. Joseph possesses a combination of skills, knowledge, abilities, and personality
    characteristics that allow him to complete his project management tasks. What are
    the sets of behaviors called that allow him to do his job well?
a. Proficiencies
b. Competencies
c. Behavioral categories
d. Individual difference characteristics

11. A test battery is a
a. method of combining incongruent test results.
b. special tool used to administer a test.
c. test taken over a very long period of time (e.g., 2 years).
d. collection of tests rather than a single test.

12. All of the following are true of speed tests except:
a. They have rigid and demanding time limits.
b. They may reduce the risk of legal challenges.
c. Most test takers are unable to finish them in the allotted time.
d. The emphasis on speed may introduce unfairness.

13. Which of the following is false concerning tests of psychomotor abilities?
a. They may involve complex tasks or simple actions.
b. They usually involve a task that requires dexterity.
c. They involve the coordinated movement of the limbs.
d. Ideally, they should be administered for all jobs.

14. _____________ identify signs of psychopathology, while _____________ identify
variations of normal personality.
a. Screen out tests; Screen in tests
b. Screen in tests; Screen out tests
c. Psychometric tests; Norm tests
d. Norm tests; Psychometric tests

15. All of the following are criticisms of individual assessment except:
a. It is not validated as rigorously as other traditional forms of assessment.
b. Too little emphasis is placed on personality attributes.
c. Assessment summaries may only be influenced by one or two parts of the process.
d. Many individual assessments invade the privacy of the candidate.

16. Sarah, in an interview for a Disc Jockey position, was asked to describe how she
would respond to a dissatisfied client. She most likely experienced what type of
a. Behavioral interview
b. Hypothetically-based interview
c. Situational interview
d. Unstructured interview

17. In a work sample test, the task assigned and the equipment used to complete the task:
a. Are very general so the test can be used for any position.
b. Will often lead to non-valid results.
c. Should only be somewhat relevant to the actual job.
d. Are designed to be realistic simulations of the actual job.
18. Dominic has interviewed and given a paper and pencil test to a number of people
applying for a job at his company. He notices that the validity of the paper and pencil
test of general mental ability is moderate, and that the validity of the test combined with
the interview is significantly higher. He might conclude that the value of the interview is:
a. negligible.
b. incremental.
c. observable.
d. nonexistent.

19. Graphology:
a. assesses traits based on the characteristics of a person’s handwriting.
b. is the study of graphs.
c. is a valid predictor of job performance.
d. assesses personality through vocal intonations.

20. The outcomes most commonly predicted by drug tests are:
a. Poor performance and apathy.
b. Voluntary terminations and aggression.
c. Absenteeism and involuntary terminations.
d. Absenteeism and poor performance.

                                 Exercises for Chapter 3

Exercise 3-1. As you saw in Chapter 3 in the textbook, the term “Intelligence Quotient”
or “IQ” is no longer scientifically meaningful. When intelligence tests were first
administered, they were scored by dividing a child’s mental age by his or her
chronological age, resulting in an intelligence quotient. If chronological age and mental
age were identical, then the quotient equaled 1.00. This quotient was then multiplied by
100 to eliminate decimal points, resulting in the convention that “normal intelligence” for
any age was 100. If mental age exceeded chronological age, the “IQ” score was greater
than 100 (or above “normal”). Given the fact that intelligence seems to stabilize in the
late teenage years, what problems arise in using the old IQ scoring method for describing
adult intelligence?
Exercise 3-2. This exercise involves a “matching test.” In the left-hand column, we have
listed a series of job titles with which you are likely familiar. In the right hand column,
we have listed various cognitive abilities, which are taken from Fleishman’s list of
abilities and which are defined in Table 3.1. Your task is to place the letter of the job in
the space next to the cognitive ability that would be important for successful performance
of that job. In the space below, explain why you have chosen to match each ability and

JOB TITLES                                                  ABILITIES

A. Air traffic Controller                                  Deductive Reasoning __
B. Waiter                                                  Number Facility __
C. Automobile Mechanic                                     Originality __
D. District Attorney                                       Time Sharing __
E. Accountant                                              Memorization __
F. Paramedic                                               Information Ordering __
G. Marketing Consultant                                    Inductive Reasoning __

Exercise 3-3. Identify 1 job for which each Big Five personality dimension would be an
important predictor of job performance. Describe why each job would require a high
level of that particular Big Five personality dimension.






Exercise 3-4. There is some debate about which commonly assessed KSAOs overlap
with Emotional Intelligence. Describe which KSAOs commonly assessed by I-O
psychologists you believe emotional intelligence overlaps with, or alternatively, make a
case for why you believe that Emotional Intelligence is a unique construct that is
independent of the KSAOs that I-O psychologists typically study.
        Answer Key for Multiple Choice Questions for Chapter 3
 1. a
 2. d
 3. b
 4. c
 5. d
 6. a
 7. d
 8. b
 9. a
10. b
11. d
12. b
13. d
14. a
15. b
16. c
17. d
18. b
19. a
20. c

                                  Learning Objectives

Module I
Understand and describe the components of Campbell’s model of job performance.
Distinguish between effectiveness and productivity.
Describe the concepts of criterion deficiency, contamination, and relevance.

Module II
Distinguish between task performance and contextual performance.
Understand the different types of performance measures.
Describe the different kinds of counterproductive employee behaviors.

Module III
Identify the uses of job analysis information.
Understand the difference between task- and worker-oriented job analytic approaches.
Describe how job analyses are conducted.

Module IV
Understand how electronic performance monitoring can be used as part of job analysis.
Describe the purpose and outcomes of cognitive task analysis.
Describe how computer-based and internet-based approaches can be used in job analysis.
Explain the purpose of competency modeling in the context of job analysis.

Module V
Describe the purpose of job evaluation and indicate how it differs from job analysis.
Explain the concept of comparable worth and its relationship with job evaluation.
Explain the importance of job analysis in employment discrimination cases.

                                    Chapter Outline


Campbell’s Model of Job Performance

Criterion Deficiency and Contamination


Task Performance versus Contextual Performance

Types of Performance Measures

       Adaptive Performance
       The Case of Expert Performance

Constraints on Performance



The Uses of Job Analysis Information

A Brief History of Job Analysis

Types of Job Analysis

How Job Analysis Is Done


Electronic Performance Monitoring as Part of a Job Analysis

Cognitive Task Analysis

The Context of Work

A New Addition to Job Analysis Instruments: The Personality-Related Position
Requirements Form (PPRF)

A Summary Of The Job Analysis Process

An Example of a PC-Based Job Analysis Instrument


Competency Modeling


The Concept of Comparable Worth

Job Analysis and Employment Litigation

                             Glossary Terms for Chapter 4
This list of key terms and important concepts from Chapter 4 can be used in conjunction
with reviewing the material in the textbook. After reviewing Chapter 4 in the textbook,
define each of the following key terms and important concepts fully. Check your
answers with the textbook, and review terms with which you have difficulty. Good luck!

Module 1
determinants of performance
performance components
declarative knowledge
procedural knowledge
criterion deficiency
criterion contamination
ultimate criterion
actual criterion

Module 2
organizational citizenship behavior
generalized compliance
task performance
contextual performance
objective performance measure
judgmental measure
personnel measure
adaptive performance
expert performance
deliberate practice
counterproductive employee behavior (counterproductive performance)
Lordstown Syndrome

Module 3
job analysis
job ladder or job family
job psychograph
task-oriented job analysis
worker-oriented job analysis
knowledge, skills, abilities, and other characteristics (KSAOs)
subject matter expert (SME)
critical incident technique
work diary
Module 4
Electronic performance monitoring
cognitive task analysis
think-aloud protocol
context of the work
realistic job preview (RJP)
Personality-Related Position Requirements Form (PPRF)
Work Profiling System (WPS)
Dictionary of Occupational Titles (D.O.T.)
Occupational Information Network (O*NET)
competency modeling

Module 5
job evaluation
compensable factors
comparable worth
Equal Pay Act of 1963

                            Practice Questions for Chapter 4

Multiple Choice Items: Please choose the correct answer to the following questions.
Answers are shown at the end of the chapter in this Study Guide.

1. All of the following are direct determinants of job performance except:
a. motivation.
b. procedural knowledge and skill.
c. personality factors.
d. declarative knowledge.

2. According to Campbell, which of the following is a performance component that is
essential at some level for every job?
a. Demonstrated effort.
b. Motivation.
c. Personal accountability.
d. General proficiency.

3. A help-desk operator’s performance at Chips and Bytes Computer Company is
evaluated by assessing the number of calls he takes on any given day. The other aspects
of his job (e.g., customer satisfaction) are not included. The resulting performance
measure would be considered a(n)
a. Actual criterion
b. Ultimate criterion
c. Contaminated criterion
d. Deficient criterion
4. John works at Lunar Company as an administrative assistant. He often volunteers to
do additional tasks to help others and consistently puts in extra effort in completing his
own tasks. This is an example of
a. contextual performance.
b. task performance.
c. citizenship performance.
d. overall performance.

5. All of the following are aspects of organizational citizenship behavior except:
a. Altruism
b. Responsibility
c. Generalized compliance
d. Contextual performance

6. All of the following are circumstances of today’s workplace that seem to require
adaptive performance except:
a. Reliance on the status quo
b. Globalization
c. Changing technologies
d. Corporate restructuring

7. Sheryl is frustrated with her job and, in recent weeks, has been sabotaging the projects
of her coworkers. This is an example of
a. revenge
b. performance monitoring
c. hostile action
d. counterproductive behavior

8. All of the following are purposes of a job analysis except:
a. To determine the necessary human attributes.
b. To determine how tasks are carried out.
c. To decide who to hire for a position.
d. To understand the important tasks of a job.

9. All of the following may be potential distorting influences in job analysis data
collection except:
a. The desire to make one’s own job look more difficult.
b. Objective reporting by the SME.
c. The desire of the SME to conform to what others report.
d. Mere carelessness.

10. What is cognitive task analysis?
a. A method of distilling job performance into measurable units.
b. A precursor to the think-aloud protocol.
c. A job analysis method that focuses on specific tasks.
d. A technique used to quantify job analysis information.
                                   Chapter 4 Exercises

Exercise 4.1. Choose an occupation that you are interested in pursuing and, using
O*NET (, identify the top 5 KSAOs that are required for
successful performance in this occupation. Discuss the benefits of an electronic resource
such as O*NET to managers or Human Resource representatives who have some job
openings that they would like to fill in this particular occupation.

Exercise 4.2. Search O*NET ( for “Industrial-
Organizational Psychologist”. Go to the Details Report, and identify the top 3
knowledges, the top 3 skills, and the top 3 abilities that are required for successful
performance as an Industrial-Organizational Psychologist. Given what you have learned
so far in this course, describe why these KSAs are important for successful job
performance as an Industrial-Organizational Psychologist.

Exercise 4.3. The concepts of criterion deficiency and criterion contamination were
discussed in the text in Chapter 5. For each performance measure below, identify 1 way
in which it may be deficient and 1 way in which it may be contaminated.

a) Number of properties sold in a month by a real estate agent

b) Number of drinks mixed per night for a bartender

c) Number of arrests for a police officer
d) Number of marriages performed by a minister

e) Number of problems solved by software help desk operator

Exercise 4.4. Consider each of the following measures and categorize each as a
performance measure, an effectiveness measure, a productivity measure, or none of those
three. Explain why you placed each measure in the particular category or why the
measure does not belong in any of the categories.

A) Order of finish in an athletic competition

B) A supervisory rating of overall performance

C) Profit on the output of a single machine operator over a one hour period

D) Time it takes a computer programmer to debug a subroutine

E) The number of times a production shift has won the “least lost days through injury”
award of the company over a 10 year period

Exercise 4.5. Examine the following list of work context factors, which have been taken
from Table 5.4. For each work context factor, identify 1 job that would be influenced by
that factor. Use a different job or occupation for each factor.

Job requires you to assume an adversarial role:____________________________
Job includes great responsibility for the safety of others:______________________
Job involves encounters with angry or discourteous people:____________________
Job is performed under extreme temperatures (hot or cold):____________________
The consequences of an error on this job are catastrophic: _____________________
Worker has little or no control over the work: _______________________________
Job requires high levels of vigilance: ______________________________________
The work is monotonous: _______________________________________________
There are strong competitive pressures in this job: ____________________________
There are frequent and strict deadlines: ____________________________________

Exercise 4.6. Identify 3 ways in which competency modeling differs from job analysis.




               Answer Key for Multiple Choice Questions for Chapter 4

 1. c
 2. a
 3. d
 4. a
 5. b
 6. a
 7. d
 8. c
 9. b
10. a

                                  Learning Objectives

Module I
Identify the uses for performance (criterion) data.
Describe the differences between performance appraisal and performance management.
Understand the influences on perceptions of fairness in performance measurement.

Module II
Identify the structural characteristics of performance ratings scales.
Describe the different rating formats that are available for performance measurement.
Distinguish among behaviors rating scales (BARS, MSS, and BOS).

Module III
Identify the different rating sources that can be included in the performance evaluation
Understand the common rating errors that occur in performance evaluation.
Describe rater training approaches and how they can be used to reduce rating errors.

Module IV
Understand how the social context of the work environment can affect performance
Describe the issues that should be considered regarding the performance feedback
Explain the potential effects of culture on performance evaluation processes and ratings.
Understand how the law and legal considerations are related to performance evaluation.

                                    Chapter Outline

Uses for Performance Information

 Types of Performance Data

 Relationships among Performance Measures

 Hands-On Performance Measures

 Electronic Performance Monitoring

 Performance Management

 Perceptions of Fairness in Performance Management

Close-Up on a Rating System

Theories of Performance Rating

Focus on Performance Ratings

 Overall Performance Ratings

   A “New” Perspective on Overall Performance

 Trait Ratings

 Task-Based Ratings

 Critical Incidents Methods

 OCB and Adaptive Performance Ratings

 Structural Characteristics of Scales

Rating Formats

 Graphic Rating Scales


 Behavioral Rating

Employee Comparison Methods

 A New Variation on the Paired Comparison Method: CARS

 Concluding Thoughts on Performance Rating Formats


Rating Sources



 Subordinate Ratings

 Customer and Supplier Ratings

 360 Degree Systems

Rating Distortions

Rater Training

 Administrative Training

 Psychometric Training

 Frame-of-Reference Training

The Reliability and Validity of Ratings





The Motivation to Rate

 Rater Goals, Ratee Goals, Organizational Goals

Goal Conflict

Performance Feedback

 “Destructive” Criticism

 360 Degree Feedback

Performance Evaluation and Culture

Performance Evaluation and the Law
                            Glossary Terms for Chapter 5

This list of key terms and important concepts from Chapter 5 can be used in conjunction
with reviewing the material in the textbook. After reviewing Chapter 5 in the textbook,
define each of the following key terms and important concepts fully. Check your
answers with the textbook, and review terms with which you have difficulty. Good luck!

Module 1
objective performance measure
judgmental performance measure
hands-on-performance measurement
walk-through testing
electronic performance monitoring
performance management
distributive justice
procedural justice
interpersonal justice

Module 2
task performance
contextual performance
counterproductive performance (counterproductive employee behavior)
critical incidents
graphic rating scale
weighted checklist
forced choice format
behaviorally anchored rating scales (BARS)
mixed standard scale
behavioral observation scale
employee comparison methods
paired comparison

Module 3
360 degree feedback
rating errors
central tendency error
leniency error
severity error
halo error
psychometric rater training
Frame-of-Reference (FOR) Training
Module 4
destructive criticism
360 degree feedback
modesty bias
forced distribution rating system
policy capturing

                             Practice Questions for Chapter 5

Multiple Choice Items: Please choose the correct answer to the following questions.
Answers are shown at the end of the chapter in this Study Guide.

1. Which of the following is false concerning performance measures?
a. Relationships among different types are generally low to moderate.
b. They are interchangeable and may be substituted for one another.
c. Each type gives a different perspective on performance.
d. There are low correlations between supervisory ratings and objective measures.

2. All of the following are likely to make employees feel more positively toward
performance monitoring except:
a. They believe the activities monitored are job relevant.
b. They are able to delay or prevent monitoring at particular times
c. They are aware when it is taking place so they can censor their actions.
d. They are able to participate in the design of the monitoring system.

3. Performance ___________ systems are developed by HR and handed to managers to
use in evaluation of subordinates; performance ___________ feedback occurs whenever
a supervisor or subordinate feels a discussion about expectations and performance is
a. criteria; management
b. management; criteria
c. appraisal; management
d. management; appraisal

4. James works at Solar Company and has just undergone a performance review. He
feels that the process by which the ratings were assigned was unfair. Which type of
justice issue is this?
a. Interpersonal justice
b. Operational justice
c. Distributive justice
d. Procedural justice

5. A performance rating form used for administrative purposes would be least valid for
which of the following circumstances?
a. Salary adjustment
b. Employee feedback
c. Promotion
d. Firing

6. Which of the following is false concerning task-based ratings?
a. They tend to be the most easily defended in court.
b. They are generally most easily accepted by incumbents.
c. The rating systems are usually direct extensions of job analysis.
d. They rely on some trait analysis for accuracy.

7. Which of the following is not true of mixed standard scales?
a. They have checklist format but also include elements found in BARS scales.
b. It is not apparent to the rater what dimensions are being measured.
c. There are 3 statements for each dimension describing good, average, and poor
d. Scoring is easy since raters tend to be consistent in their judgments.

8. When central tendency error occurs, it is often observed that:
a. average performers receive the best scores.
b. an extreme score is avoided in favor of a “safe” score.
c. average performers are favored.
d. extreme scores are chosen to move people away from the mean.

9. Julie is reluctant to assign bad ratings for her subordinates for fear of “ruffling
feathers.” As a result, she tends to be unusually easy in her ratings. Julie is committing
what type of error?
a. Central tendency error
b. Halo error
c. Leniency error
d. Severity error

10. In looking at how judges perceive performance evaluation, the characteristics most
commonly cited in court decisions include all of the following except:
a. whether raters were consistent over time.
b. whether a job analysis was used to develop the system.
c. whether the raters were given written instructions.
d. whether multiple raters agreed on the ratings.

                                   Chapter 5 Exercises

Exercise 5.1. The concepts of “contextual performance” and “adaptive performance”
share something in common. Examine the list of features below and identify one feature
that these concepts share in common. For the other 5 features, identify whether each
predominantly describes contextual performance or adaptive performance.
1) Applies predominantly to service jobs (e.g., hotel, restaurant jobs).

2) Important when technologies continuously alter workplaces and work procedures.

3) Depend heavily on declarative knowledge.

4) Make substantial contributions when the work involves multicultural environments.

5) Expect individuals to violate organizational rules in some cases.

6) Depend on clear statements of performance expectations.

Exercise 5.2. If you were asked to advise an HR manager about a potential revision of
an organization’s performance appraisal system, what information would you ask for?
What factors would affect whether would you recommend including contextual
performance measures as part of the formal performance appraisal system?

                Answer Key for Multiple Choice Questions for Chapter 5
 1. b
 2. c
 3. c
 4. d
 5. b
 6. d
 7. d
 8. b
 9. c
10. a
                        CHAPTER 6: STAFFING DECISIONS

                                  Learning Objectives

Module I
Understand the three different models of staffing.
Describe the impact of staffing practices on firm performance.
Identify the various stakeholders in the staffing process.
Understand the challenges faced in multinational staffing.

Module II
Describe the three major ways in which staffing outcomes can be evaluated.
Understand the errors and correct decisions that can be made during the staffing process.
Describe the two general approaches that can be used to establish cut scores.
Explain the considerations that go into determining the utility of staffing decisions.

Module III
Understand the practical issues that affect staffing including how to combine information
in making a staffing decision.
Understand the purpose of score banding and how it might be used.
Describe subgroup norming and its current legal status.

Module IV
Identify the types of discrimination cases in which I-O psychologists are typically
Describe the theories of discrimination that the law and the courts recognize.
Understand how to calculate adverse impact using the 4/5ths rule.

                                       Chapter Outline


An Overview of the Staffing Process

The Impact of Staffing Practices on Firm Performance

Stakeholders in the Staffing Process

       Line Managers



Staffing from the International Perspective


          Selection Ratios

          Prediction Errors and Cut Scores

          Establishing Cut Scores


Til Death Us Do Part?: The Concept Of Dynamic Validities



A Staffing Model



Combining Information

          Statistical versus Clinical Decision Making

          The Hurdle System of Combining Scores

          Combinating Scores by Regression (The Compensatory Approach)

          Score Banding

          Subgroup Norming

Selection versus Placement


Number of Decisions to Be Made

          Large Staffing Projects

          Small Staffing Projects


Charges of Employment Discrimination
Theories of Discrimination

       Intentional Discrimination or Adverse Treatment

       Unintentional Discrimination or Adverse Impact

                               Glossary Terms for Chapter 6

This list of key terms and important concepts from Chapter 6 can be used in conjunction
with reviewing the material in the textbook. After reviewing Chapter 6 in the textbook,
define each of the following key terms and important concepts fully. Check your
answers with the textbook, and review terms with which you have difficulty. Good luck!

Module 1
staffing decisions
high performance work practices
power distance
uncertainty avoidance
multinational staffing

Module 2
criterion-related validity
selection ratio (SR)
false positive
false negative
true positive
true negative
cut score
criterion-referenced cut score
norm-referenced cut score
Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures
base rate
utility analysis

Module 3
comprehensive staffing model
clinical decision making
statistical decision making
compensatory system
hurdle system
multiple hurdle system
multiple regression analysis
score banding
standard error of measurement (SEM)
fixed band system
sliding band system
subgroup norming
termination for cause

Module 4
expert witness
adverse (or disparate) treatment
adverse impact
80%” or “4/5ths rule”
adverse impact ratio
class certification
settlement discussions

                             Practice Questions for Chapter 6

Multiple Choice Items: Please choose the correct answer to the following questions.
Answers are shown at the end of the chapter in this Study Guide.

1. Which of the following is least likely to be a high performance work practice?
a. Use of formal job analyses
b. Merit based promotions
c. Use of clinical decision making to hire for line jobs
d. Use of formal assessment devices for selection

2. What is the relationship called between the number of individuals actually hired and
the number assessed?
a. Selection ratio
b. Assessment ratio
c. Correlate ratio
d. Applicant ratio

3. Dana was recently hired by Solar Company after going through its staffing process.
Her test results placed her above the cut score. Unfortunately, her performance has been
less than satisfactory and Dana’s manager is beginning to think that the wrong person
was hired. Dana’s case might be an example of what type of error?
a. False negative
b. True negative
c. False positive
d. True positive
4. What is one consequence of increasing a cut score?
a. Fewer hires will be above average performers
b. Fewer candidates need be assessed
c. More false positive errors
d. More false negative errors

5. An organization is looking to hire individuals to fill 8 positions. So far, 20 people have
applied for these jobs. What is the selection ratio?
a. .40
b. .44
c. 2.25
d. 2.50

6. In __________ decision making, information is combined according to a
mathematical formula. In _________ decision making, the relative value of one
candidate versus another is weighed in the decision maker’s head.
a. statistical; actuarial
b. actuarial; statistical
c. clinical; statistical
d. statistical; clinical

7. The staffing system at Modular Company involves a process whereby a candidate must
successfully pass a cognitive ability test before being allowed to take the physical ability
test. This is an example of a
a. compensatory system.
b. hurdle system.
c. multiple hurdle system.
d. paired system.

8. There are three different strategies for achieving an optimal fit between an applicant
and a job opening. They include all of the following except:
a. Fill each job with the most qualified person.
b. Fill each job with candidates that get along with current employees.
c. Place candidates according to their best talents.
d. Place workers so that all jobs are filled with adequate talent.

9. An industrial plant has just been sued for racial discrimination in promotion decisions
by a group of Hispanic workers. They allege that White workers have been promoted at
a higher rate than Hispanic workers. Which one of the following, based on the 80% rule,
would indicate that there is adverse impact against the Hispanic workers?
a. Hispanic promotion rate: 19%, White promotion rate: 20%
b. Hispanic promotion rate: 30%, White promotion rate: 35%
c. Hispanic promotion rate: 20%, White promotion rate: 30%
d. Hispanic promotion rate: 75%, White promotion rate: 85%

10. A company administered a test to a group of job candidates two months ago. In
examining the data, an HR representative discovered that a protected group tended not to
do as well on the test as the majority group. This might be an example of what type of
a. Intentional discrimination
b. Adverse treatment
c. Adverse impact
d. This does not qualify as discrimination.

                                  Chapter 6 Exercises

Exercise 6.1. An important exception to the Civil Rights Act of 1964 Title VII
requirements is a Bona Fide Occupational Qualification (BFOQ). In essence, managers
and human resource professionals are allowed to use a demographic characteristic to
make selection and other decisions, but only if the demographic characteristic is
determined to be a BFOQ. The courts have accepted the BFOQ exception only in very
narrow circumstances. For example, for safety purposes, guards for female prisoners
may be only female. An interesting test of the BFOQ exception occurred in the Pan Am
vs. Diaz case in the 1970s. The ruling in this case stated that gender could not be used as
a BFOQ for flight attendants, despite the fact that male business travelers, who were the
majority of passengers back then, preferred that flight attendants were female.

In the 1990s, the Hooters restaurant chain used the BFOQ defense in arguing that they
should have only female waitstaff. Lawyers for Hooters argued that gender was a BFOQ
because having attractive female waitresses was of business necessity; that is, it was the
only thing that set this restaurants apart from similar restaurants. Ultimately, the EEOC
backed down from its stance of requiring male waiters at Hooters, but Hooters restaurant
chain did agree to hire men for other positions such as manager and cook.

In 2003, Hooters Airline was launched in a very competitive airline industry. Hooters
Air appears to fall right in between the Pan Am vs. Diaz case (which did not support the
use of gender as a BFOQ) and the Hooters vs. EEOC case (in which gender was allowed
as a BFOQ). Do you think that Hooters Airline will run into legal problems if they only
hire female stewardesses? How might this airline increase the likelihood that they will
not run into the same problems that were raised in the Pan Am vs. Diaz lawsuit?

Exercise 6.2. As an external I-O consultant, you are asked by a manager in the Human
Resources department of a large organization to calculate whether there is adverse impact
in a selection system that has been used over the last year. You are provided with the
following data:

# of majority group members that applied: 300
# job offers to majority group members: 100
# minority group members that applied: 75
# job offers to minority group members: 15

What is the adverse impact ratio? Given what you found, is there evidence of adverse
impact? If there is adverse impact, what would you recommend in terms of next steps
that the organization takes?

Exercise 6.3. Follow up on Exercise 4.2 in which you searched O*NET
( for “Industrial-Organizational Psychologist.” After going
to the Details Report and identifying the top 3 KSAs that are required for successful
performance as an Industrial-Organizational Psychologist, identify 3-4 predictors that you
would recommend be used in a selection system that is hiring entry-level I-O psychology

                Answer Key for Multiple Choice Questions for Chapter 6
 1. c
 2. a
 3. c
 4. d
 5. a
 6. d
 7. b
 8. b
 9. c
10. c

                                   Learning Objectives

Module I
Understand the importance of training and learning.
Identify the different parts of a training needs analysis.
Describe the individual difference characteristics that influence the learning process.
Describe how learning and motivational theories can be applied to training.
Identify the principles of learning that can be used in training.
Compare massed and distributed practice.
Define learning organizations and identify their features.

Module II
Describe the different methods of training.
Define transfer of training.

Module III
Describe the four-level model used to categorize training criteria.
Discuss four ways to examine the validity of training programs.
Describe three types of training evaluation designs.

Module IV
Identify several kinds of specialized training programs that are commonly used in
Describe 360 degree feedback and its purposes.
Describe hostile working environment and quid pro quo sexual harassment and explain
how training can reduce them.
Describe training approaches used to help people understand other cultures.
Understand the eight dimensions of intercultural sensitivity.

                                     Chapter Outline

Training, Learning, and Performance

Training Needs Analysis

The Learning Process in Training

 Trainee Characteristics

 Learning and Motivational Theories Applied to Training

 Principles of Learning
Learning Organizations


Training Methods

 On-Site Training Methods

 Off-Site Training Methods

 Distance Learning and Computer-Based Training

Training “Critical Thinking”

Transfer of Training


Training Evaluation

Training Criteria

Utility Analysis

Validity of Training Programs

Training Evaluation Designs

Equal Employment Opportunity Issues in Training


Management and Leadership Development

 Assessment Centers

 360 Degree Feedback


 Informal Training
Sexual Harassment Awareness Training

Ethics Training

Cross-Cultural Training

                            Glossary Terms for Chapter 7

This list of key terms and important concepts from Chapter 7 can be used in conjunction
with reviewing the material in the textbook. After reviewing Chapter 7 in the textbook,
define each of the following key terms and important concepts fully. Check your
answers with the textbook, and review terms with which you have difficulty. Good luck!

Module 1
cognitive outcome
skill-based outcome
affective outcome
training needs analysis
organizational analysis
task analysis
person analysis
trainee readiness
performance orientation
mastery orientation
trainee motivation
expectancy framework
positive reinforcement
behavior modification
social learning theory
behavioral modeling
goal setting
active practice
physical fidelity
psychological fidelity
whole learning
part learning
massed practice
distributed practice
learning organization

Module 2
on-the-job training
job rotation
classroom lecture
programmed instruction
linear programming
branching programming
distance learning
computer-based training
critical thinking skills
transfer of training
transfer of training climate

Module 3
training evaluation
reaction criteria
learning criteria
behavioral criteria
results criteria
internal criteria
external criteria
utility analysis
pre-test post-test control group design
Solomon four-group design

Module 4
assessment center
360 degree feedback
informal training
sexual harassment
quid pro quo sexual harassment
hostile working environment sexual harassment
culture shock
cross-cultural training
cultural assimilator
culture-specific assimilator
culture-general assimilator
intercultural sensitivity
                             Practice Questions for Chapter 7

Multiple Choice Items: Please choose the correct answer to the following questions.
Answers are shown at the end of the chapter in this Study Guide.

1. __________ is a relatively permanent change in behavior and human characteristics,
while __________ is the systematic acquisition of skills, concepts, or attitudes that results
in improved performance in another environment.
a. Teaching; learning
b. Learning; teaching
c. Learning; training
d. Training; learning

2. All of the following are considered broad categories of learning outcomes except:
a. Skill-based outcomes
b. Declarative outcomes
c. Cognitive outcomes
d. Affective outcomes

3. Mary, an HR professional, is currently attending a training program where she is
learning how to use a new computer program. She is not averse to making mistakes,
often using them as an opportunity to further understand the computer program and add
to her own knowledge. Mary might be characterized as having a
a. limited orientation.
b. cognitive orientation.
c. performance orientation.
d. mastery orientation.

4. John’s company offers a variety of training methods to learn skills. He is currently
participating in one program that is often used to prepare high-potential employees for
future management responsibilities, providing him with a variety of experiences in
different departments that will likely help him obtain future promotions. What type of
training method is he most likely participating in?
a. Classroom instruction
b. Mentoring
c. Apprenticeship
d. Job rotation

5. Julie is currently in a training program for all managers at a certain level in her
company. All of the trainees are exposed to the same material which is presented in a
very sequential manner. Whether or not she grasps a specific concept is of no
consequence to the presentation of the material. What type of programmed instruction is
she most likely experiencing?
a. Branching programming
b. Linear programming
c. Inclusive programming
d. Reinforcement programming

6. What distinguishes critical thinking from ordinary thought?
a. It requires active involvement in applying the principles under discussion.
b. It involves the simple memorization of facts or principles.
c. It takes a lot longer to do than ordinary thought.
d. It is currently a basic tenet for learning in all areas.

7. Utility analysis is a technique that assesses:
a. the return on investment of training.
b. the overall usefulness of a training program.
c. how easy it is to implement a training program.
d. assesses the influence of training on performance.

8. All of the following are ways to examine the validity of training programs except:
a. Training validity
b. Intraorganizational validity
c. Performance validity
d. Interorganizational validity

9. All of the following are true concerning 360 degree feedback except:
a. Raters who give feedback anonymously are more likely to be honest and open.
b. To help with development, feedback should be timely.
c. It describes the process of collecting feedback from a variety of sources.
d. A recipient is likely to be more open if others are present to hear the feedback.

10. Josh works in the HR department of Lunar Company and has been asked to take steps
to prevent sexual harassment. He might choose to do all of the following except:
a. Establish an effective complaint or grievance process.
b. Educate only the male employees on sexual harassment.
c. Clearly communicate Lunar Company’s zero tolerance policy to employees.
d. Take immediate and appropriate action when an employee complains.

                                   Chapter 7 Exercises

Exercise 7.1. Think of a time when you learned something by observing others in school
or on the job. What types of knowledge or skills did you learn? Describe how such
observational learning was beneficial in the learning process.
Exercise 7.2. Provide an example of a time in school or at work when you benefited
from using the learning principle of active practice. Next, provide an example of a time
in school or at work when you benefited from using the learning principle of distributed
practice. Finally, describe how combining these learning principles by using active and
distributed practice could be used in an organization that is training new computer sales

Exercise 7.3. Based on what you have read about principles of learning in Chapter 8,
describe how you would change your study habits and preparation for exams in this class.
If you wouldn’t change your study habits at all, describe how closely they match with the
research that describes principles of learning in this chapter.

Exercise 7.4. Distance learning is being offered in an increasing number of universities
and businesses. What do you think are the advantages and disadvantages of distance
learning? What concerns would you have about moving from a traditional learning
environment to a distance learning environment in your university and in your job?

                Answer Key for Multiple Choice Questions for Chapter 7
 1. c
 2. b
 3. d
 4. d
 5. b
 6. a
 7. a
 8. c
 9. d
10. b
                      CHAPTER 8: THE MOTIVATION TO WORK

                                       Learning Objectives

Module I
Understand the early history of motivation theory in I-O psychology.
Identify motivational theories using the metaphors described in the text.
Understand the importance and meaning of motivation and its links with performance.

Module II
Identify the classic approaches to motivational theories.
Explain the premise of Maslow’s need hierarchy theory.
Describe the Two Factor Theory developed by Herzberg.
Explain Vroom’s Valence Instrumentality Expectancy theory.

Module III
Describe why goal setting theory is considered a Person-as-Intentional Approach.
Explain Control Theory and the concept of self-regulation.
Identify the four separate avenues that can be used to develop self-efficacy.
Identify the common themes found in modern approaches to motivation theory.

Module IV
Identify the four types of motivational practices managers employ across all cultures.
Understand generational differences and how they relate to work motivation.
Describe three specific types of motivational interventions used in applied settings.
Identify the five job characteristics used for job enrichment.

                                         Chapter Outline


The Central Position of Motivation in Psychology

A Brief History of Motivation Theory in I-O Psychology

Metaphors for Motivation

        Person as Machine

        Person as God-like

The Meaning and Importance of Motivation in the Workplace

        Motivation and Performance

        Motivation and Work-Life Balance

        Motivation and Attitudes
         Motivatoin and Personality


"Person-as-Machine" Theories

         An Internal Mechanical Theory: Maslow's Need Theory

                 Variations on Maslow's theory

         An External Mechanical Theory: Reinforcement Theory

"Person-as-Godlike" Theories: The Scientist Model

         Vroom's VIE Theory

         Equity Theory



         Goal Setting Theory

                 Challenges for goal setting theory

                 Levels of explanation as goal setting

         Control Theories and the Concept of Self-Regulation

The Concept of Self-Efficacy in Modern Motivation Theory

         Action Theory

         Common Theories in Modern Approaches

A New Motivational Topic: The Entrepreneur


Can Motivation Be Measured?

Cross-Cultural Issues in Motivation

Generational Differences and Work Motivation

Motivational Interventions

         Contingent Rewards

         Job Enrichment

                            Glossary Terms for Chapter 8

This list of key terms and important concepts from Chapter 8 can be used in conju nction
with reviewing the material in the textbook. After reviewing Chapter 8 in the textbook,
define each of the following key terms and important concepts fully. Check your
answers with the textbook, and review terms with which you have difficulty. Good luck!

Module 1
behaviorist approach
Field Theory
group dynamics
“person as machine” metaphor
“person as God-like” metaphor
“person as scientist” metaphor
limited rationality
“person as judge” metaphor
work-life balance

Module 2
Maslow’s need theory
Two-factor theory
hygiene needs
motivator needs
ERG theory
reinforcement theory
contingent reward
intermittent reward
continuous reward
VIE theory
Path-Goal theory
equity theory
Dissonance Theory
comparison other
input/outcome ratio

Module 3
person-as-intentional approach
Goal Setting Theory
feedback loop
control theory
Action Theory (Rubicon Theory)
action process
action structure

Module 4
Motivational Trait Questionnaire (MTQ)
job enrichment

                             Practice Questions for Chapter 8

Multiple Choice Items: Please choose the correct answer to the following questions.
Answers are shown at the end of the chapter in this Study Guide.

1. Motivation concerns the conditions responsible for variations in intensity, quality, and
_________ of ongoing behavior.
a. amplitude
b. satisfaction
c. direction
d. learning

2. What type of motivational approach placed the emphasis for behavior and directed
activity directly on the environment?
a. Behaviorist approach
b. Instrumental approach
c. Nature approach
d. Environmental approach

3. Which theory proposed that various forces in the psychological environment have
a. Instinct theory
b. Maslow’s need theory
c. Field theory
d. Metaphor theory

4. What is the basic model for considering the role of motivation in performance?
a. Performance = (Motivation x Ability) + Situational constraints
b. Performance = (Motivation x Ability) – Situational constraints
c. Performance = (Motivation x Situational constraints) + Ability
d. Performance = (Motivation / Situational constraints) + Ability

5. Maslow’s model fits the person-as-machine metaphor well. Which of the following is
false concerning the model?
a. A person will respond to whatever satisfies the lowest level unfulfilled need.
b. Workers in the same department are assumed to be at the same needs level.
c. The behavior of the individual is unconscious and automatic.
d. An employer needs to know at what need level a worker is operating.

6. All of the following are need levels identified by Alderfer (1969; 1972) except:
a. Expectancy
b. Relatedness
c. Existence
d. Growth

7. What is a major problem associated with using contingent reinforcement?
a. The approach cannot consistently predict motivation.
b. The approach makes too many assumptions of behavior.
c. The approach has little or no role for any cognitive activity.
d. The approach is not applicable in today’s workplace.

8. What is the theory called that suggests that tension exists when individuals hold
incompatible thoughts?
a. Dissonance theory
b. Equity theory
c. Comparison theory
d. Incompatibility theory

9. The feedback loop in goal setting theory deals with the discrepancy between:
a. Actual goal accomplishment and expected goal accomplishment of peers.
b. Actual goal accomplishment and the failures the person has experienced.
c. Actual goal accomplishment and the goal to which the person was committed.
d. Actual goal accomplishment and the actual goal accomplishment of peers.

10. Managers, across all cultures, tend to employ all of the following motivational
practices except:
a. Quality improvement interventions
b. Differential distribution of rewards
c. Setting goals and making decisions for employees.
d. Design and redesign of jobs and organizations.

                                   Chapter 8 Exercises

Exercise 8.1. Given what you have learned about Need Theory in this chapter, identify
which of Abraham Maslow’s needs is alluded to in each of the following quotes. Explain
why you choose that particular need level for each quote.
“You’ve reached the pinnacle of success as soon as you become uninterested in money,
compliments, or publicity” (Dr. O. A. Battista, chemist)


Sign: “Don’t cross this field unless you can do it in 9.9 seconds. The bull can do it in 10.”

“There is more credit & satisfaction in being a 1st-rate truck driver than a 10th-rate
executive” (B.C. Forbes, American Publisher, 1880-1954)

“The best parachute packers are those who jump themselves.”

“The greatest use of life is to spend it for something that will outlast it” - William James
(1842-1910), Father of Psychology

Exercise 8.2. Many individuals see themselves as a “go to” person in trying situations.
Construct a scenario using what you have learned about the concept of self-efficacy to
explain how these individuals may have become so confident.
Exercise 8.3. If you were elected as the chair of a fundraising effort in your community,
and you would be using all volunteers to gather the funds, which theory of motivation
would you choose to accomplish this goal through your staff? How would you apply this
theory? Alternatively, which motivational theory would be least useful in this situation?

                Answer Key for Multiple Choice Questions for Chapter 8
 1. c
 2. a
 3. c
 4. b
 5. b
 6. a
 7. c
 8. a
 9. c
10. c

                                  Learning Objectives

Module I
Understand how emotions experienced at work affect work and non-work behavior.
Understand the early history of job satisfaction research.
Describe the antecedents and the consequences of job satisfaction.
Describe the major approaches to measuring job satisfaction.

Module II
Understand the forms of work satisfaction described by Bruggemann and Bussing.
Explain the distinction between moods and emotions.
Describe how dispositions and core evaluations can be helpful in understanding job
Describe the concept of commitment and its different forms.

Module III
Understand the psychological implications of job loss.
Describe the arguments of the proponents and opponents of telecommuting.
Identify the influences on and outcomes of work-life balance.
Describe how cultural variables can affect the study of work attitudes and emotions.

                                     Chapter Outline


The Experience of Emotion at Work

Job Satisfaction: Some History

 The Early Period of Job Satisfaction Research

 An Evolution

 Antecedents and Consequences of Job Satisfaction

The Measurement of Job Satisfaction

 Overall versus Facet Satisfaction

 Satisfaction Questionnaires

Is Everybody Happy? Does It Matter If They Are?

The Concept of “Resigned” Work Satisfaction

Satisfaction versus Mood versus Emotion

 Dispositions and Affectivity

 The Time Course of Emotional Experience

 Genetics and Job Satisfaction

 The Concept of Core Evaluations

The Concept of Commitment

 Forms of Commitment

 Individual Difference Variables and Commitment

 A New Focus: Organizational Identification

Withdrawal Behaviors


Job Loss


Work–Family Balance

Work-Related Attitudes and Emotions from the Cross-Cultural Perspective

A Possible Connection between Motivation and Emotion
                             Glossary Terms for Chapter 9

This list of key terms and important concepts from Chapter 9 can be used in conjunction
with reviewing the material in the textbook. After reviewing Chapter 9 in the textbook,
define each of the following key terms and important concepts fully. Check your
answers with the textbook, and review terms with which you have difficulty. Good luck!

Module 1
job satisfaction
Hawthorne Effect
Value theory
opponent process theory
overall satisfaction
facet satisfaction
Job Descriptive Index (JDI)
Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ)
intrinsic satisfaction
extrinsic satisfaction

Module 2
resigned work satisfaction
constructive work dissatisfaction
affect circumplex
process emotion
prospective emotion
retrospective emotion
negative affectivity (NA)
positive affectivity (PA)
core evaluations
emotional labor
affective commitment
continuance commitment
normative commitment
occupational commitment
job imbeddedness
Hobo syndrome
withdrawal behaviors
work withdrawal
job withdrawal
progression hypothesis

Module 3
work/family balance
                            Practice Questions for Chapter 9

Multiple Choice Items: Please choose the correct answer to the following questions.
Answers are shown at the end of the chapter in this Study Guide.

1. John, in a meeting with his boss, was elated to hear that the president of the company
was impressed with his contribution. However, when he left the meeting and was sitting
in his office, John began to experience feelings of anger. What theory would most
support John’s circumstances?
a. Nine-factor theory
b. Facet satisfaction theory
c. Dissatisfaction theory
d. Opponent process theory

2. All of the following are true of the Job Descriptive Index except:
a. It includes a separate overall satisfaction measure.
b. It doesn’t provide much information about issues like independence.
c. The actual questionnaire is fairly short.
d. It assesses satisfaction with five distinct areas of work.

3. _______________ is related to the work that individuals do, while ________________
concerns whether employees are satisfied with aspects such as pay or benefits.
a. Extrinsic satisfaction; intrinsic satisfaction
b. Intrinsic satisfaction; extrinsic satisfaction
c. Facet satisfaction; extrinsic satisfaction
d. Extrinsic satisfaction; facet satisfaction

4. Sharon, a manager at Solar Corp., has noticed that one of her employees has become
listless on the job, often putting minimal effort into simple projects. Sharon has spoken
to the employee, but the employee has displayed a general unwillingness to change. The
employee is most likely experiencing
a. resigned work satisfaction.
b. constructive work dissatisfaction.
c. boredom with his/her tasks.
d. a reduced interest in success.

5. ___________ are generalized feeling states that are not intense enough to interrupt
ongoing work, whereas ____________ are normally associated with specific events or
a. Emotions; Moods
b. Moods; Emotions
c. Feelings; Moods
d. Moods; Feelings
6. Which of the following statements is incorrect concerning affectivity?
a. Positive people tend to be more satisfied with their jobs than negative people.
b. Affectivity as measured in adolescence predicts later job satisfaction.
c. Neuroticism is often referred to as positive affectivity.
d. Job satisfaction and affectivity have reciprocal influences on each other.

7. All of the following are elements of core evaluations except:
a. Locus of control
b. Self-efficacy
c. Stimuli observation
d. Absence of neuroticism

8. Organizational commitment includes all of the following elements except:
a. A desire to contribute positively to the work-life of others.
b. Acceptance and belief in an organization’s values.
c. A strong desire to remain in the organization.
d. A willingness to exert effort on behalf of the organization.

9. All of the following are reasons why the effects of unemployment are complex except:
a. There are fewer decisions to make since there is little to decide about.
b. The loss of work reduces income and daily variety.
c. There is a suspension of the typical goal setting that guides day to day activity.
d. New skills are developed while current skills begin to atrophy.

10. Multiple roles for both men and women enhance feelings of well-being through all of
the following mechanisms except:
a. Success in one role can buffer the effects of failure in another role.
b. Multiple roles increase the opportunity for social support.
c. Multiple roles allow an individual to focus more on work success.
d. Multiple roles increase an individual’s cognitive complexity.

                                   Chapter 9 Exercises

Exercise 9.1. Holland and Hogan (1998) suggest that telecommuting can be damaging to
the individual, emotionally and in terms of one’s career. Do you think this warning
applies to sales representatives? Why or why not?
Exercise 9.2. Describe how the issue of work/life balance is likely to change for a male
worker as he moves from his 20s to his 30s and from his 30s to his 40s? Next, describe
how the issue of work/life balance is likely to change for a female worker as she moves
from her 20s to her 30s and from her 30s to her 40s. If you suggest there are gender
differences, please provide support for your arguments.

                Answer Key for Multiple Choice Questions for Chapter 9
 1. d
 2. c
 3. b
 4. a
 5. b
 6. c
 7. c
 8. a
 9. d
10. c

                                  Learning Objectives

Module I
Understand early approaches to stress developed by Selye and Cannon.
Describe common physical and psychological stressors at work.
Identify the behavioral, psychological, and physiological consequences of stress.

Module II
Explain the Demand/Control and Person-Environment Fit models of stress.
Explain how individual difference characteristics may provide resistance to stress.
Identify the subcomponents of the Type A Behavior Pattern and describe which
subcomponents can be used to predict health and performance outcomes, respectively.

Module III
Describe the 3 major approaches used in organizations to reduce and manage stress.
Give an example of a stress management training program and its intended outcomes.
Explain how social support can buffer the effects of stress on subsequent strains.
Describe the relationship between stress and workplace violence.

Module IV
Describe the individual and organizational characteristics that appear to be associated
with workplace violence.
Describe the frustration-aggression hypothesis of workplace violence.
Describe the justice hypothesis of workplace violence.
Understand the phenomenon of bullying and its relation to workplace violence.

                                    Chapter Outline


Studying Workplace Stress

What is a Stressor?

Common Stressors at Work

 Physical/Task Stressors

 Psychological Stressors

Consequences of Stress
 Behavioral Consequences of Stress

 Psychological Consequences of Stress

 Physiological Consequences of Stress

Work Schedules

 Shift Work

 Flexible and Compressed Workweek Schedules


Demand-Control Model

Person-Environment Fit Model

Individual Differences in Resistance to Stress

 The Type A Behavior Pattern


Primary Prevention Strategies

 Work and Job Design

 Cognitive Restructuring

Secondary Prevention Strategies

 Stress Management Training

 Relaxation and Biofeedback Techniques

 Social Support

Tertiary Prevention Strategies

Summary of Stress Intervention Strategies

Future Work Trends and Challenges to Stress and Stress Management

Stress and Workplace Violence

Levels of Violence

The Experiential Sequence of Violence

The “Typical” Violent Worker

Theories of Workplace Violence

 Frustration-Aggression Hypothesis

 The “Justice” Hypothesis

A Special Type of Violence: Bullying

What Can We Conclude About Workplace Violence?

                            Glossary Terms for Chapter 10

This list of key terms and important concepts from Chapter 10 can be used in conjunction
with reviewing the material in the textbook. After reviewing Chapter 10 in the textbook,
define each of the following key terms and important concepts fully. Check your
answers with the textbook, and review terms with which you have difficulty. Good luck!

Module 1
fight-or-flight reaction
General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS)
alarm reaction stage
stress hormone
resistance stage
exhaustion stage
problem-focused coping
emotion-focused coping
interpersonal conflict
role stressors
role ambiguity
role conflict
role overload
work-family conflict
emotional labor
surface acting
deep acting
emotional exhaustion
low personal accomplishment

Module 2
Demand-Control Model
person-job fit
person-organization fit
locus of control (LOC)
Type A behavior pattern (TABP)
coronary-prone personality
achievement strivings (AS)
impatience/irritability (II)
time urgency

Module 3
Occupational Health Psychology
primary prevention strategy
cognitive restructuring
cardiac psychology
hurry sickness
secondary prevention strategy
stress management training
stress inoculation
progressive muscle relaxation
social support
buffer or moderator hypothesis
tertiary prevention strategy
Employee Assistance Program (EAP)

Module 4
frustration-aggression hypothesis
justice hypothesis of workplace violence

                             Practice Questions for Chapter 10

Multiple Choice Items: Please choose the correct answer to the following questions.
Answers are shown at the end of the chapter in this Study Guide.

1. __________ provides challenges that motivate individuals to work hard and meet their
goals, while ___________ results from stressful situations that persist over time and
produces negative health outcomes.
a. Eustress; stress
b. Stress; eustress
c. Distress; eustress
d. Eustress; distress

2. All of the following are true of the General Adaptation Syndrome except:
a. The sequence of stages varies depending on the trauma.
b. In the alarm stage, the body releases stress hormones.
c. While coping with the source of stress, resistance to other stressors decreases.
d. Burnout, illness, and death may result unless stress is reduced.

3. Problem-focused coping:
a. involves avoiding and minimizing the problem.
b. has to do with reducing the emotional response to the problem.
c. involves creating a new and larger problem as a distraction.
d. is directed at managing the problem that is causing the stress.

4. Josh works at Lunar Company and has just been assigned to a very important project
that will require a great deal of time and dedication. He has also just been elected
president of the parent association at his daughter’s school. Josh doesn’t know how he
will be able to handle them both. What might this be an example of?
a. Role conflict
b. Role ambiguity
c. Job overload
d. Job ambiguity

5. The Job Content Questionnaire includes all of the following subscales except:
a. Skill utilization and job decision latitude
b. Role overload and role conflict
c. Stressors and job motivators
d. Depression and job dissatisfaction

6. A moderator is
a. a variable that affects the direction or strength of the association between two other
b. an objective element in the stressor-strain relationship that starts the stress reaction in
c. a method by which an individual can consciously halt the stressor-strain reaction.
d. an element that recognizes the relationship between two variables and serves to
magnify the strength of the variables.

7. All of the following are characteristics of a person described as having a hardy
personality except:
a. The feel a sense of commitment to their goals.
b. They feel they are in control of their lives.
c. They are critical of their environment.
d. They see unexpected change as a challenge.

8. Levine et al. (1989) measured the pace of life in a number of cities across the United
States. All of the following were indicators used in the study except:
a. Driving speed
b. Talking speed
c. Walking speed
d. Bank teller speed

9. Which strategy is concerned with modifying or eliminating stressors in the work
a. Primary prevention strategy
b. Secondary prevention strategy
c. Tertiary prevention strategy
d. None of the above

10. Stress inoculation consists of all of the following except:
a. Education
b. Reflection
c. Rehearsal
d. Application

11. According to research, which of the following individuals would be least likely to
engage in workplace violence?
a. A male who has a history of violence.
b. An individual with high self-esteem who received negative feedback recently.
c. A person who has a history of conflicts with co-workers.
d. A female who recently received increased job responsibilities.

12. Which approach to workplace violence suggests that frustration leads to a stress
reaction and that the individual expends energy to relieve this stress?
a. Reactionary approach
b. Justice hypothesis
c. Frustration-aggression hypothesis
d. Behavioral approach

13. All of the following characterize bullying except:
a. It occurs over a long time.
b. It occurs repeatedly.
c. A victim is subjected to social exclusion.
d. Two equally strong parties are in conflict.

                                  Chapter 10 Exercises

Exercise 10.1. Think of your last part-time or full-time job. Identify 3 stressors that you
encountered in the job and note which general type of stressor each is (e.g., Physical/Task
Stressor, Psychological Stressor). For each stressor, explain why you perceived it to be

Exercise 10.2. Control is a major theme in the stress literature. Choose 2 jobs with
which you are familiar and describe whether they are likely to be perceived by job
incumbents as having a high degree of control (autonomy) or a low degree of control.

Exercise 10.3. Describe why it is important for I-O psychologists to use Type A
behavior pattern subcomponents instead of the global Type A behavior pattern in
predicting health and work outcomes.
Exercise 10.4. Imagine that workers in the company you work for report that they are
very stressed in their jobs and that executives in the company are convinced that it is best
to use only secondary and tertiary stress management strategies. Provide an argument for
why you think such an approach is a mistake.

               Answer Key for Multiple Choice Questions for Chapter 10
 1. d
 2. a
 3. d
 4. a
 5. c
 6. a
 7. c
 8. a
 9. a
10. b
11. d
12. c
13. d

                                  Learning Objectives

Module I
Distinguish between the concepts of justice, fairness, and trust.
Describe the concepts of distributive, procedural, and interactional justice.
Understand the impact of perceptions of injustice on attitudes, emotions, and behaviors.

Module II
Understand the conditions under which employees will feel justly treated in the
performance evaluation process.
Explain the concept of voice and how it is related to perceptions of fairness.
Understand the common applicant reactions to selection procedures.
Describe the different forms that Affirmative Action Programs can take.
Describe how Affirmative Action Programs are related to justice perceptions.

Module III
Explain the concept of diversity and discuss the different forms it can take.
Explain the advantages and disadvantages of diversity in work groups.
Describe the characteristics of organizations that are most likely to manage diversity

                                    Chapter Outline


The Concept of Justice

 Justice, Fairness, and Trust

Approaches to Organizational Justice

 Distributive Justice

 Procedural Justice

 Interactional Justice

 Deontic Justice

 Justice versus Injustice

Performance Evaluation

Applicant Perceptions of Selection Fairness

 A Special Case of Applicant Reactions: Stereotype Threat

 A Model of Applicant Decision Making

 The Rejected Applicant

The Special Case of Affirmative Action

 Culture and Affirmative Action Programs


What Does Diversity Mean?

The Dynamics of Diversity

 Diversity from the Work Group Perspective

 Managing Diversity from the Organizational Perspective

 Leadership and Diversity

                            Glossary Terms for Chapter 11

This list of key terms and important concepts from Chapter 11 can be used in conjunction
with reviewing the material in the textbook. After reviewing Chapter 11 in the textbook,
define each of the following key terms and important concepts fully. Check your
answers with the textbook, and review terms with which you have difficulty. Good luck!
Module 1
distributive justice
merit or equity norm
need norm
equality norm
procedural justice
interactional justice

Module 2
rational economic model
rational psychological model
organizational fit model
affirmative action

Module 3
relational demography
assimilation model
protection model
value model

                             Practice Questions for Chapter 11

Multiple Choice Items: Please choose the correct answer to the following questions.
Answers are shown at the end of the chapter in this Study Guide.

1. Procedural justice is concerned with:
a. The possibility of influencing a process or outcome.
b. The perceived fairness of the allocation of outcomes to members.
c. The process by which rewards are distributed.
d. The sensitivity with which employees are treated.

2. Two separate facets of interactional justice are:
a. Interpersonal and informational justice
b. Interpersonal and environmental justice
c. Environmental and social justice
d. Informational and comparative justice

3. Sarah has just had a performance review. She is frustrated with the unprofessional
manner in which her manager conducted the review, even though the review was very
positive and encouraging. Sarah is concerned about which type of justice?
a. Evaluative
b. Distributive
c. Procedural
d. Interactional

4. All of the following conditions would most likely lead to an experience of fairness
during performance reviews except:
a. The supervisor was familiar with the duties and responsibilities of the subordinate.
b. The supervisor relied on only those he/she most trusted to provide peer reviews.
c. The supervisor provided suggestions on how to improve performance.
d. The supervisor had an adequate opportunity to observe the subordinate at the

5. Why might the use of student participants in conducting research on applicant
perceptions of fairness be a concern?
a. There is a difference between pretending to be rejected and the reality of being
b. Students tend to be unruly and may skew the results.
c. Very few students have had the experience of a job to rely upon.
d. Students are better able to handle issues of fairness than employees.

6. Which of the following conclusions is false concerning research on applicant
a. Applicants express unfavorable opinions of work samples, citing them as stressful.
b. Candidates are more favorable to interviews that appear to be related to the job under
c. Applicants see recruiters as the personification of the organization doing the recruiting.
d. Candidates are more favorable toward cognitive ability tests that have concrete items.

7. Affirmative Action Programs (AAP):
a. help in assuring that employees are hired based only on merit.
b. equalize the selection opportunities of all applicants.
c. develop quotas to reduce underrepresentation.
d. provide specific mechanisms for reducing underrepresentation.

8. Which term is used to describe the method by which work groups and organizations
are composed and changed?
a. Morphing composition
b. Relational demography
c. Diversification
d. Composition transformation

9. All of the following are characteristics of organizations most likely to manage diversity
successfully except:
a. They foster diversity only in formal levels of the organization.
b. They take steps to reduce interpersonal conflict.
c. They exhibit diversity at every level.
d. They uncover and root out bias and discriminatory practices.
10. The _______________ assumes there are no advantages for a diverse workforce since
all employees share the same values and culture, while the ________________ often
leads to justice and fairness debates.
a. assimilation model; value model
b. value model; assimilation model
c. protection model; assimilation model
d. assimilation model; protection model

                                 Chapter 11 Exercises

Exercise 11.1. Gilliland and colleagues (2001) found that providing two reasons for
rejecting a candidate led to more favorable reactions than providing one, even when one
of the reasons simply described the job relatedness and fairness of the process. This is
puzzling because a rejection letter based on the single foundation of the job relatedness
and fairness of the process was not viewed favorably by the candidate. In the text, we
have suggested that two reasons may enhance the feelings of “respect” for the candidate.
Do you think there would be the same positive result if 1 of the 2 reasons was the
“standard” rejection letter (i.e. “thanks for applying, you did not get the job)? Why?

Exercise 11.2. The Supreme Court’s 2003 decision about affirmative action has
received a lot of media scrutiny. There seem to be 2 camps on this issue -- those who
think that affirmative action is good and those who think it is bad. Both camps seem to
be defined by justice considerations. First, describe the perspective of those who support
affirmative action in terms of justice. Next, take the other side and describe the
perspective and logic of those who are against affirmative action. Finally, describe which
view fits better with your own position.

               Answer Key for Multiple Choice Questions for Chapter 11
 1. c
 2. a
 3. c
 4. b
 5. a
 6. a
 7. d
 8. b
 9. a
10. d
                             CHAPTER 12: LEADERSHIP

                                   Learning Objectives

Module I
Distinguish between the concepts of leader emergence and leader effectiveness.
Understand the connections between managerial and leadership roles.

Module II
Understand traditional theories of leadership including the trait and power approaches.
Describe the results of the Ohio State and Michigan Studies of leadership behavior.
Explain the contingency and situational approaches to leadership.

Module III
Explain Leader-Member Exchange theory and the distinctions between in-group and out-
group members.
Distinguish between transactional, transformational, and charismatic leadership.

Module IV
Explain the challenges of leadership in the changing workplace.
Describe the results of research examining gender differences in leadership.
Describe recent developments in the role that personality plays in leadership.
Explain the role that culture plays in the effectiveness of various leadership strategies.

                                      Chapter Outline


Some Conceptual Distinctions

 Leader Emergence versus Leader Effectiveness

 Leader Emergence

The Problem of Defining Leadership Outcomes

Leader versus Manager or Supervisor

 The Blending of Managerial and Leadership Roles

Leader Development versus Leadership Development

The Motivation to Lead

The Great Man and Great Woman Theories

The Trait Approach

The “Power” Approach to Leadership

The Behavioral Approach

 The Ohio State University Studies

 The University of Michigan Studies

The Contingency Approach

 Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Theory

 House’s Path Goal Theory

 The Case of Social Undermining: What about the “Fickle” Leader?

The Consequences of Participation: The Vroom-Yetton Model


Leader-Member Exchange (LMX)

Transformational Leadership

The Charismatic Leader



Leadership in a Changing Workplace

Male and Female Leaders: Are They Different?

       TheDemographics of Leadership

       The Leadership Styles of Men and Women
Personality and Leadership

Cross-cultural Studies of Leadership

Leadership in a Diverse Environment

Guidelines for Effective Leadership

                             Glossary Terms for Chapter 12

This list of key terms and important concepts from Chapter 12 can be used in conjunction
with reviewing the material in the textbook. After reviewing Chapter 12 in the textbook,
define each of the following key terms and important concepts fully. Check your
answers with the textbook, and review terms with which you have difficulty. Good luck!

Module 1
leader emergence
leadership effectiveness
attempted leadership
successful leadership
effective leadership
leader development
leadership development
interpersonal competence
power motive
activity inhibition
affiliation need

Module 2
Great Man/Great Woman Theory
trait approach
power approach
behavioral approach
initiating structure
task-oriented behavior
relations-oriented behavior
participative behavior
contingency approach
job maturity
psychological maturity
path-goal theory
social undermining
social support

Module 3
Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) theory
in-group members
out-group members
"life-cycle" of a leader-follower relationship
transformational leadership
transactional leadership
laissez-faire leadership
full-range theory of leadership
Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ)
charismatic leader
charismatic leadership theory

Module 4
virtual team
Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness (GLOBE)
culture-specific characteristics

                             Practice Questions for Chapter 12

Multiple Choice Items: Please choose the correct answer to the following questions.
Answers are shown at the end of the chapter in this Study Guide.

1. If a researcher is studying the characteristics of individuals who become leaders, he or
she would particularly be interested in ______________.
a. leader treatment
b. leadership effectiveness
c. leader emergence
d. leadership ability

2. All of the following are personality characteristics that are associated with individuals
who emerge as leaders except:
a. Emotional stability
b. Agreeableness
c. Extraversion
d. Openness to experience

3. All of the following are descriptive of the more modern approach to trait theory except:
a. It defines personality traits behaviorally.
b. It considers traits in the context of organizational/situational variables.
c. It has not had the success of traditional trait theory.
d. It includes a general consensus on the meaning of personality traits.

4. Most leadership training programs concentrate on developing, maintaining, or
enhancing individual attributes. This is most accurately described as an example of:
a. behavior development
b. personality development
c. leadership development
d. leader development

5. The researchers at Ohio State University pursued an approach that dealt with two
dimensions: consideration and initiating structure. Which general leadership approach
did they utilize?
a. Maturity approach
b. Contingency approach
c. New trait theory
d. Behavioral approach

6. What is the general notion behind the contingency approach?
a. Any tactic should be backed up by an alternate course of action.
b. The success of any given tactic depends upon multiple factors or situations.
c. The ability of one factor to influence another factor is inherently ambiguous.
d. Multiple factors must be considered in developing a course of action.

7. ______________ leadership is best when the job is boring or the subordinate lacks
self-confidence, whereas ____________ leadership is most effective when the job is not
clearly defined.
a. Supportive; directive
b. Directive; supportive
c. Participative; directive
d. Directive; participative

8. Which of the following is characteristically true of out-group members?
a. They are more likely to stay in an organization.
b. They view exchanges with their leaders as simply contractual.
c. They see themselves as involved in valuable knowledge exchange.
d. Their leaders initiate discussions about personal matters with them.

9. Which of the following is a criticism of the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire?
a. It is based on only one theory, that of transactional leadership theory.
b. It is unclear how many transactional and transformational strategies there are.
c. It is overly long and often frustrates the test takers.
d. It tends to be imprecise in measuring what it says it is measuring.

10. According to a study described in the textbook, the mental health of female managers
was ________ if they adopted a(n) _________ style in a male dominated industry.
a. worse; autocratic
b. worse; interpersonal
c. better; interpersonal
d. better; nurturing

                                  Chapter 12 Exercises

Exercise 12.1. Identify which leadership theory is referenced in each of the following
quotes. Explain why you choose the particular leadership theory for each quote.

“A true leader is always led” -- C. G. Jung, Swiss Psychologist (1875-1961)

“The key to successful leadership today is influence, not authority” - Kenneth Blanchard,
business consultant and author

“A leader takes people where they want to go. A great leader takes people where they
don’t necessarily want to go but ought to be” -- Rosalynn Carter, former First Lady,
(1927- )

“A good leader is a person who takes a little more than his share of the blame and a little
less than his share of the credit” - John C. Maxwell, founder of INJOY Leadership Group

“To measure a man is to measure what he does with power” – Pittacus, Greek statesman
and military leader (650–570 B.C.)

“Power is not revealed by striking hard or often, but by striking true” -- Honore de
Balzac, French journalist and writer (1799-1850)
Exercise 12.2. Choose a recent U.S. President. Discuss the extent to which the President
used transformational or charismatic leadership in developing his agenda and vision in
terms of 2 issues that are important to you (e.g., economy, taxes, environment, national
security, international affairs).

               Answer Key for Multiple Choice Questions for Chapter 12
 1. c
 2. b
 3. c
 4. d
 5. d
 6. b
 7. a
 8. b
 9. b
10. b

                                   Learning Objectives

Module I
Identify several reasons for the increasing use of teams in organizations.
Describe the types of teams that are commonly used in the workplace.

Module II
Describe the input-process-output model of team effectiveness.
Identify the attributes of team members that can contribute to team performance.
Describe the team processes that are associated with team performance.

Module III
Describe the challenges and opportunities presented by the use of team appraisal and
Explain team-role theory and how it can be used to assess and develop teams.
Describe recent advances in team development and training.
Explain the role that culture plays in team processes and team effectiveness.

                                     Chapter Outline


Groups and Teams: Definitions

Types of Teams

 Quality Circles

 Project Teams

 Production Teams

 Virtual Teams

A Specialized Team: Airline Cockpit Crew


Input-Process-Output Model of Team Effectiveness

 Team Inputs
 Team Processes

 Team Outputs


Team Appraisal and Feedback


Team Roles

Team Development

Team Training

Cultural Issues in Teams

                            Glossary Terms for Chapter 13

This list of key terms and important concepts from Chapter 13 can be used in conjunction
with reviewing the material in the textbook. After reviewing Chapter 13 in the textbook,
define each of the following key terms and important concepts fully. Check your
answers with the textbook, and review terms with which you have difficulty. Good luck!

Module 1
quality circle
project team
production team
autonomous work group
virtual team
virtual-collaboration behaviors
virtual-socialization skills
virtual-communication skills

Module 2
input-process-output model of team effectiveness
team composition
shared mental model
demographic diversity
psychological diversity
coordination loss
social loafing
risky-shift phenomenon
group polarization

Module 3
team-role theory
team leader training
team coordination training
time horizon

                             Practice Questions for Chapter 13

Multiple Choice Items: Please choose the correct answer to the following questions.
Answers are shown at the end of the chapter in this Study Guide.

1. What does research indicate about the success of quality circles?
a. They are most successful in the short term.
b. They are most successful in the long term.
c. They are successful in both the short term and long term.
d. They are generally not successful.

2. All of the following are true of project teams except:
a. They are ongoing and have a long history that helps them develop cohesiveness.
b. Team members come from different departments or functions.
c. They are created to solve a particular problem or set of problems.
d. They are dependent upon client preferences.

3. A(n) _______________ has control over a variety of its functions including planning
shift operations.
a. project team
b. quality circle
c. autonomous work group
d. virtual team

4. _____________ include exchanging ideas without criticism, whereas _____________
include soliciting team members’ feedback on the process the team is using to
accomplish its goals.
a. Virtual-collaboration skills; virtual-communication skills
b. Virtual-communication skills; virtual-collaboration skills
c. Virtual-socialization skills; virtual-collaboration behaviors
d. Virtual-collaboration behaviors; virtual-socialization skills
5. All of the following are team inputs except:
a. Team task
b. Team composition
c. Norms
d. Organizational context

6. Shared mental models:
a. are a method for team members to employ similar thought processes.
b. are organized ways for team members to think about how the team will work.
c. allow for the study and measurement of individual thought processes.
d. bring together like-minded individuals to create a more cohesive team.

7. Team norms may develop through all of the following except:
a. Mandatory directives issued by the organization.
b. Explicit statements by team members.
c. The first behavior pattern that emerges in the team.
d. Carry-over behaviors from past situations.

8. The tendency called for groups to make decisions that are more extreme than those
made by individuals is called:
a. Extremity phenomenon
b. Extreme thinking
c. Group polarization
d. Group shift

9. The five stages of group development include the forming and norming stages. All of
the following are also stages except:
a. Performing
b. Storming
c. Conforming
d. Adjourning

10. All of the following are commonly-used team training strategies discussed in the text
a. Team leader training
b. Cross-training
c. Team coordination training
d. Team process training

                                  Chapter 13 Exercises

Exercise 13.1. Cascio (2000) noted the advantages that virtual teams can provide to
organizations. What are potential disadvantages of working in virtual teams that are not
ever able to meet?
Exercise 13.2. Milliken and Martins (1996) described diversity as a double-edged
sword. Explain what they mean.

Exercise 13.3. In recent years, National Football League (NFL) officials have been
targeted because of their poor performance in highly visible games. One suggestion for
improving performance has been to form permanent, full-time, year-round teams of
officials. The central issue is the possible enhanced performance of an intact, full-time
team of officials. Right now, in spite of the fact that it appears that officials are working
as a team, in truth, they are only a nominal team of individuals who have other jobs
during the week and are brought together to work on various Sundays throughout the
football season. Given the research evidence described in the textbook, do you think that
team performance for the officials would improve if permanent full-time, year-round
teams of officials were used instead of the current approach? Why?

                Answer Key for Multiple Choice Questions for Chapter 13
 1. a
 2. a
 3. c
 4. d
 5. c
 6. b
 7. a
 8. c
 9. c
10. d

                                 Learning Objectives

Module I
Describe the concepts of bureaucracy, division of labor, and span of control and why they
are important in classic theories of organizations.
Describe the Human Relations approach including McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y.
Explain how the contingency approach has been used in the study of organizations and in
predicting their proper structure.

Module II
Explain the concepts of climate and culture and describe how they can be integrated.
Explain the challenges confronted when viewing culture and climate from a multicultural
Describe the process of organization socialization and how it is related to P-O fit.

Module III
Distinguish between organizational change and organizational development.
Describe Lewin’s 3-stage process of organizational change.
Distinguish between episodic and continuous change.
Give several examples of large scale organizational change initiatives.

                                   Chapter Outline



Organizations and People

Organization as Integration

Theories of Organization

 Classic Organizational Theory

 Human Relations Theory

 Contingency Theories

 Systems Theory
 Two Recent Approaches

 Conclusions about Theories of Organizations


Climate and Culture

 A Brief History of Climate

 An Even Briefer History of Culture

 An Integration of Concepts

A New Avenue for Exploration: Climate and Culture Strength

Organizational Climate and Culture from the Multicultural Perspective

 When Cultures Clash

 An Application of Culture and Climate: Safety

  The Role of Leaders in Safety

  Safety Climate and Culture

Unions and Organizational Behavior

Socialization and the Concept of Person-Organization (P-O) Fit

 Organizational Socialization

Socialization from the International Perspective


Organizational Change

 Episodic Change

 Continuous Change

 Resistance to Change
Examples of Large-Scale Organizational Change Initiatives

 Management By Objectives (MBO)

 Matrix Organizations

 Total Quality Management (TQM)

 Six Sigma Systems

 Lean Production Manufacturing

Emerging Commonalities among Organizational Interventions

Organizational Development

Examples of OD Techniques

                            Glossary Terms for Chapter 14

This list of key terms and important concepts from Chapter 14 can be used in conjunction
with reviewing the material in the textbook. After reviewing Chapter 14 in the textbook,
define each of the following key terms and important concepts fully. Check your
answers with the textbook, and review terms with which you have difficulty. Good luck!

Module 1
division of labor
delegation of authority
span of control
organizational chart
classic organizational theory
Human Relations Theory
Theory X and Y
contingency theories of organization
small batch organization
large batch/mass production organization
continuous process organization
mechanistic organization
organic organization
socio-technical approach
resource theory
evolutionary/ecological approach

Module 2
autocratic climate
democratic climate
climate/culture strength
person-job (P-J) fit
person-organization (P-O) fit
Attraction-Selection-Attrition (ASA) model

Module 3
episodic change
continuous change
management by objectives (MBO)
matrix organization
Total Quality Management (TQM)
Six Sigma systems
lean production
just-in-time (JIT) production
Organizational Development (OD)

                           Practice Questions for Chapter 14

Multiple Choice Items: Please choose the correct answer to the following questions.
Answers are shown at the end of the chapter in this Study Guide.

1. Max Weber, in his development of early organizational theory, described an
organization according to all of the following dimensions except:
a. Span of control
b. Satisfaction of workers
c. Delegation of authority
d. Division of labor

2. According to Argyris (1943), the natural experience for individuals is growth. He
suggested that individuals develop in all of the following ways except:
a. From dependent to independent organisms.
b. From unawareness to awareness of surroundings.
c. From passive to active organisms.
d. From organisms with few abilities to organisms with many abilities.

3. An auto company produces cars according to a standard set of specifications. Workers
and machines are located along an assembly-line operation. What type of organization
best describes this type of company?
a. Specialty batch
b. Small batch
c. Continuous process
d. Large batch/mass production

4. Compared to mechanistic organizations, organic organizations tend to have:
a. larger spans of control.
b. smaller spans of control.
c. about the same span of control.
d. negligible spans of control.

5. The ecological/evolutionary approach concentrates on explaining why:
a. some industries are inherently profitable while others are not.
b. some employees succeed and others remain mediocre.
c. some organizations thrive and others atrophy.
d. some behavioral types are desirable for certain jobs.

6. I-O psychologists have suggested that multiple climates exist within any organization
and that these climates are defined:
a. less by structural components than by the goal of the group.
b. less by the goal of the group than by structural components.
c. equally by structural components and the goal of the group.
d. with only minimal consideration to the goal of the group and structural components.

7. ________ is about the context in which action occurs, while ________ is about the
meaning that is intended by and inferred from those actions.
a. Treatment; perception
b. Perception; treatment
c. Climate; culture
d. Culture; climate

8. Socialization refers to:
a. The creation of more opportunities by the organization for its employees to socialize
with each other.
b. The process by which new employees become aware of the values and procedures of
an organization.
c. The atmosphere of the organization in terms of the cohesiveness and camaraderie of its
d. The organization’s social consciousness and its relationship with the community and

9. The three suggested stages of socialization include all of the following except:
a. Encounter stage
b. Recruitment stage
c. Metamorphosis stage
d. Selection stage

10. According to the textbook, the appropriate model for continuous change is:
a. Unfreeze-Change-Refreeze
b. Freeze-Rebalance-Unfreeze
c. Freeze-Change-Refreeze
d. Unfreeze-Rebalance-Refreeze

                                  Chapter 14 Exercises

Exercise 14.1. Assume that you work for a health club as a manager. There have been
increasing complaints from members about the cleanliness of the facility. Apply either
TQM or Six Sigma and develop a plan for dealing with the problem.

Exercise 14.2. Recently, the federal government has proposed using a Six Sigma
approach for detecting terrorists who might attempt to infiltrate the United States. How
could a Six Sigma approach be used with airport security personnel who screen

Exercise 14.3. Ashkenasy and Jackson (2001) describe four different approaches to
handling discrepancies between organizational cultures. Which of these approaches is
likely to increase tension between the parties? Which of these approaches would you
expect to take the longest and cost the most? Which of these would most likely lead to a
quick and effective resolution of cultural clashes?

Exercise 14.4. Would initiatives such as lean manufacturing and TQM be more likely to
be classified as episodic or continuous change? Explain your choice.

               Answer Key for Multiple Choice Questions for Chapter 14
 1. b
 2. b
 3. d
 4. a
 5. c
 6. a
 7. c
 8. b
 9. d
10. b

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