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RTQ: 08-38                                                     UPDATED: Oct. 20, 2008

SUBJECT: NASA TO FLY MINI-SAR AND LUNAR MAPPER ON CHANDRAYAAN-1

BACKGROUND: NASA will have two instruments to map the lunar surface on India's
maiden moon voyage. The Moon Mineralogy Mapper, or M3, will assess mineral resources
of the moon, and the Miniature Synthetic Aperture Radar, or Mini-SAR, will look for ice
deposits in the moon's polar regions. The Indian Space Research Organization's (ISRO)
robotic Chandrayaan-1 is scheduled to launch Oct. 22 from Sriharikota, India.

STATEMENT FROM NASA ADMINISTRATOR MICHAEL GRIFFIN
The opportunity to fly NASA instruments on Chandrayaan-1 undoubtedly will lead to
important scientific discoveries. This exciting collaboration represents an important next step
in what we hope to be a long and mutually beneficial relationship in future civil space
exploration with India.

MINI-SAR KEY POINTS:
    The Mini-SAR and the M3 instruments were selected by the Indian Space Research
      Organization to be part of the Chandrayaan-1 mission.
    The Mini-SAR is the first payload in a technology development and demonstration of
      miniature radio-frequency systems.
    The Mini-SAR will perform radar characterization and mapping of the lunar polar
      regions.
   • The Mini-SAR will demonstrate its synthetic aperture radar capability.
   • The Mini-SAR will allow viewing of all permanently shadowed areas on the moon,
      regardless of whether sunlight is available or the angle is not satisfactory.
   • The Mini-SAR was designed to map the lunar surface and detect water ice in the
      permanently shadowed regions of the lunar poles up to a depth of a few meters.
   • The science objectives of the Chandrayaan-1 Mini-SAR instrument are as follows:
      o Characterize the morphology of surface features, especially in permanently
         shadowed areas.
      o Discover areas near the lunar north and south poles that have the unique
         anomalous radar reflectivity signatures that differentiate volumetric water-ice
         deposits from lunar regolith.
      o Localize (potential) water-ice deposits (including small areas that would be large
         enough to be of strategic interest) by mapping their radar reflectivity and
         reflectivity anomalies.
      o Generate topographic maps (as opportunity allows).
      o Generate bistatic reflectivity maps (as opportunity allows).
      o Transmit-only and receive-only experiments with an Earth station (as opportunity
         allows).


M3 KEY POINTS:
   The Moon Mineralogy Mapper is a state-of-the-art imaging spectrometer that will
     provide the first map of the entire lunar surface at high spatial and spectral resolution,
     revealing the minerals of which the lunar surface is made.


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       Scientists will use this information to answer questions about the moon's origin and
        geological development and the evolution of terrestrial planets in the early solar
        system.
       The high resolution M3 spectra, in conjunction with data from other Chandrayaan-1
        instruments, could provide critically important information regarding the geologic
        history and evolution of the moon, a cornerstone in understanding the evolution of
        the terrestrial planets, Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars.
       Future astronauts may use it to locate resources, possibly including water, which can
        support exploration of the moon and beyond.
       We anticipate we can begin scientific observations approximately a month after
        launch
       The budget for M3 is $39 million. These costs include design and construction of the
        instrument and financial support for its science team for a period of three years.

Mini-SAR RTQs

What is the Mini-SAR instrument?

The Mini-SAR is a small, synthetic aperture imaging radar that will map the scattering
properties inside the moon's permanently shadowed craters to search for possible ice
deposits. Two versions of the instrument are scheduled to fly within the next year; one on
India's Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft, and the other on NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter.

How critical is the Mini-SAR to NASA's long-term goals? If there is a contingency, are
there plans to fly another Mini-SAR?

The Mini-SAR will demonstrate miniature radar capabilities while providing radar mapping
data of the lunar surface. An advanced Mini-SAR payload will launch on NASA's Lunar
Reconnaissance Orbiter mission.

When and where was the Mini-SAR built? Who built it?

The Mini-SAR payload was built by multiple companies including: the Applied Physics Lab,
Raytheon, BAE Systems, L3 Communications, and Assurance Technology Corporation. The
project management of the payload was led by the Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC) in
China Lake, Calif.

The payload development started in early in 2005. The Applied Physics Lab in Laurel, Md.,
led the final payload integration and testing before delivery to ISRO. The science team
consists of scientists from the Lunar and Planetary Institute, the Applied Physics Laboratory,
and a number of other academic and government labs participation. The Mini-SAR was
delivered to India in March 2008.

What are the Mini-SAR's dimensions? How much does it weigh?

The rectangular antenna is 1.37 x 0.93 x 0.03 meters (approximately 54 x 37 x 1 inches);
the supporting electronics module is 0.22 x 0.14 x 0.105 meters (approximately 9 x 5.5 x 4


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inches). The total package, including the antenna and supporting electronics, weighs about
7 kilograms (approximately 15 pounds).

How much power does the instrument require?

Peak power consumption is 100 watts, though average power consumption is less than 50
watts.

Is Mini-SAR based on any other instruments that have flown before or are currently in
space?

Mini-SAR is new technology, significantly lighter and smaller than any synthetic aperture
radar flown in space. By comparison, for example, the entire NASA Magellan spacecraft
(sent to study Venus in the 1990s) was built to support the synthetic aperture radar
instrument. Mini-SAR also offers the ability for operators to change the instrument's
parameters in flight to account for changes in altitude or other observing conditions.

Does it have military use? Does it have a military heritage?

The concept could be applied to military use, but the Mini-SAR instrument was specifically
designed and built for lunar exploration.

If the instrument fails, how will the spacecraft get the data Mini-SAR is designed to
deliver? Is there a back-up instrument?

Mini-SAR is the only instrument of its type flying on either Chandrayaan-1 or the Lunar
Reconnaissance Orbiter; however, each instrument provides back up for the other, as both
are capable of finding ice.

How long did it take to build and test the Mini-SAR instrument?

About three years; the instrument went through its initial requirements review in January
2005 and was delivered to the spacecraft (in India) for integration in March 2008.

Can it conclusively find water and or ice on the moon?

The radar will identify deposits that, based on their reflectivity and location, could be ice. (By
looking at the nature of the returned radar signal, we can determine whether it reflected off a
dry surface, or encountered potential ice mixed with dry lunar soil.) From Mini-SAR data,
scientists can create a map of likely ice deposits. The only way to absolutely characterize a
site -- and determine if the reflective deposits are indeed water ice -- would be measure it on
the ground.

Is Mini-SAR data accessible to the public? When will it be made available to the
public?




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All data will be released to NASA's publicly accessible Planetary Data System,
approximately a year after acquisition. But the team would announce major scientific
findings, as appropriate, through the two year mission.

What ground stations support Mini-SAR?

The NASA Deep Space Network antenna station at Goldstone, Calif., is available to provide
coverage, as are several other stations, such as the Universal Space Network station in
Hawaii. The APL ground station will relay ISRO-generated commands to the craft and return
data from the spacecraft to ISRO whenever Chandrayaan-1 is in view over APL.

M3 RTQs

What is Moon Mineralogy Mapper?

Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3, or "m-cube") is a state-of-the-art imaging spectrometer that
will provide the first map of the entire lunar surface at high spatial and spectral resolution,
revealing the minerals of which the moon is made. The high resolution M3 spectra, in
conjunction with data from other Chandrayaan-1 instruments, could provide critically
important information regarding the geologic history and evolution of the moon, a
cornerstone in understanding the evolution of the terrestrial planets, Mercury, Venus, Earth
and Mars.

How much did the M3 instrument cost?

The budget for M3 is $39 million. These costs include design and construction of the
instrument and financial support for its science team for a period of three years.

How does the M3 map the moon?

The M3 is based on the principle of reflectance spectroscopy, a measure of the different
wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation (sunlight) that ref lect off a particular surface -- in
this case, the moon. To characterize, or identify, the composition of the lunar rocks and
minerals, the M3 instrument will detect electromagnetic radiation in the visible light and the
near-infrared wavelengths.

Is M3 designed to find Helium-3 on the moon?

M3 is not designed to find helium-3 by itself. However, it is within the capabilities of the
instrument to find the titanium-based mineral ilmenite, which may include trace amounts of
helium-3. Should we find ilmenite, we will pass that on to future mission planners who may
opt to perform more detailed analyses on the titanium-rich soil and rock samples.

How long will it take before M3 starts to work?

Approximately a month after launch we anticipate we can begin scientific observations.




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Why is it important to map the lunar landscape?

The moon's geological record preserves the formative years of planetary history, a period
largely lost on Earth. Knowledge of the distribution and configuration of the mineralogy of
the lunar crust will enable sophisticated and far-reaching scientific exploration of the moon
in the future. M3 and Chandrayaan-1 data will be harvested continually in the decades
ahead to identify and characterize landing and exploration sites and to locate resources
necessary to help support future explorers of the moon and Mars.

How long has M3 been in the works?

The M3 was proposed in 2004 and selected as a NASA Discovery Mission of Opportunity in
February of 2005. Instrument Principal Investigator, Dr. Carle Pieters of Brown University
and Instrument Scientist, Dr. Rob Green of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory have been
working together since then to design, build, and test the instrument with an expert team of
engineers and scientists from across the United States and India.

How long will M3 operate?

Chandrayaan-1's nominal mission duration is two years.

GENERAL RTQs

What is Chandrayaan-1?

Chandrayaan-1 is India's first mission to the moon. The main objective is the investigation of
the distribution of various minerals and chemical elements and high-resolution three-
dimensional mapping of the entire lunar surface.

Are there future plans for the next Chandrayaan to carry NASA payloads?

It's very possible. Earlier this year, NASA Administrator Michael Griffin and Indian Space
Research Organization Chairman G. Madhavan Nair signed a framework agreement
establishing the terms for future cooperation between the two agencies in the exploration
and use of outer space for peaceful purposes.

The framework agreement provides the basis for cooperation between NASA and ISRO in
the exploration and use of outer space for peaceful purposes in areas of common interest
and on the basis of equality and mutual benefit.

Has NASA flown other payloads with ISRO?

No.

How did NASA end up with two experiments on this mission?




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The two U.S. instruments, Mini Synthetic Aperture Radar (Mini-SAR) and Moon Mineralogy
Mapper (M3), were selected on the basis of merit out of 16 firm proposals from all over the
world received in response to ISRO's announcement of opportunity. The main objective of
Mini-SAR is to detect water in the permanently shadowed areas of lunar polar regions. The
objective of M3 is the characterization and mapping of minerals on the lunar surface.

On May 9, 2006, NASA Administrator Mike Griffin and his counterpart, Indian Space
Research Organization Chairman G. Madhavan Nair, signed two Memoranda of
Understanding for M3 and Mini-SAR in Bangalore, India, for cooperation on India's
Chandrayaan-1 mission.

What other cooperation does NASA have with India?

The U.S. and India have cooperated on some space activities in the past related primarily to
sharing data from Earth remote sensing missions, and we expect these activities to continue
and possibly be broadened. We look forward to continued cooperation with the Indian
Space Research Organization on mutually beneficial scientific and exploration projects.

What does the United States think of India's space program?

We do not comment on the capabilities of our international partners in civil space
exploration, leaving it to them as those most able to answer questions about their programs.

That said, however, India's accomplishments in space speak for themselves. India has
demonstrated its abilities in a range of fields, including
     launch vehicles,
     Earth remote sensing, communications and scientific satellites,
     and development of applications and services to utilize space-based information to
       improve life on Earth
India has demonstrated its capabilities in space, and the U.S. welcomes the opportunity for
NASA to engage in future civil space cooperative activities with ISRO.

What is the possibility of India joining the International Space Station program?

Adding any additional partners to the International Space Station program would require a
formal decision by the U.S. government and consultation and agreement among the
governments of all the International Space Station partners. We currently have no plans or
discussions of this kind.

What is the possibility of India working with NASA on its moon-Mars exploration
program?

As directed by the U.S. president, NASA is pursuing opportunities for international
participation U.S. Space Exploration policy.




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NASA is engaged with many nations and space agencies in this global exploration strategy
effort including India. NASA would very much welcome closer ties with India in future civil
space cooperative activities.

What other spacecraft has India flown?

You need to contact the India Space Research Organization with this question.

What current satellites does ISRO have in orbit?

You need to contact the India Space Research Organization with this question.

Has ISRO consulted with NASA on their spacecraft and launch vehicle?

Mini-SAR was developed by the Applied Physics Laboratory at Johns Hopkins University
and funded by NASA, and M3 was jointly built by Brown University and NASA's Jet
Propulsion Laboratory. The M3 and Mini-SAR teams worked very closely with ISRO to
ensure successful integration of these payloads in to the Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft.

What role did NASA have in evaluating the flight hardware prior to launch?

The function of the Mini-SAR and M3 teams is to ensure successful integration of the
NASA's instruments into the Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft.

Why is the launch in India?

The Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle from India's launch facility, Satish Dhawan Space Centre
(SDSC) at Sriharikota and the Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft are managed and operated by
ISRO. The M3 and Mini-SAR are guest instruments flying on the Chandrayaan-1 mission

India has never been beyond near-Earth space before – are we sure they have the
experience and technical expertise to deliver a U.S. payload all the way to the moon?

India does have a lot of experience with Earth-orbiting satellites – communications satellites,
for example – so this is a logical progression of its space operations. The moon is close
enough that a mission of this type is realistic, yet challenging, and an opportunity to learn
new things.

Did APL have to share technology and expertise with the Indian Space Research
Organization?

At the outset of this project, APL put into place a Technical Assistance Agreement approved
by the State Department pursuant to the U.S. International Traffic in Arms Regulations
(ITAR). That agreement allowed APL and ISRO to discuss and exchange certain
information regarding interface and integration of the instrument onto the Chandrayaan-1
spacecraft.




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What job do the JPL navigators perform on Chandrayaan-1?
JPL's navigation team has a long history of interacting with those of other space-fairing
countries. At present, they are working with Japan's JAXA space agency on the Hayabusa
asteroid sample return mission and the European Space Agency on the Rossetta comet
mission. For Chandrayaan-1, JPL's navigators will work with ISRO's navigators in a
consulting capacity.

Point   Paper PAOs:
       Michael Braukus, HQ OER, 202-358-1979 (michael.j.braukus@nasa.gov)
       John Yembrick, HQ, 202-358-0602 (john.yembrick-1@nasa.gov)
       Dwayne Brown, HQ SMD, 202-358-1726 (dwayne.c.brown@nasa.gov)
       DC Agle, JPL, 818-393-9011 (agle@jpl.nasa.gov)
       Michael Buckley, APL, 202-228-7536 (michael.buckley@jhuapl.edu)

Concurrence:
   Kent Bress, Garvey McIntosh, OER
   Michele Gates, SOMD
   M3 Project Manager Mary White, JPL
   Mission Scientist and Outreach Lead Cass Runyon, JPL
   APL




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