GCSE Geography coursework ‘Is Recreation and Tourism destroying Ham Hill?’ Aim: To investigate whether or not tourism and recreation are having a positive or negative effect upon Ham Hill. Introduction Hypothesis: Using your existing knowledge you will need to write a hypothesis for the main question. Do you think the impact of tourism and recreation will be positive (good), negative (bad) or a mixture of both? Give examples from what you have learnt so far. What do you think will be the positive and negative effects of this tourism and recreation on Ham Hill? To show whether your hypothesis is right or wrong you will aim to answer a number of key questions, these are your aims: What are the attractions of Ham Hill? Who visits Ham Hill? What is the economic impact? What is the environmental impact on footpaths? What is the environmental impact of transport? How is the area managed? Your conclusion summarises the findings of these aims Your evaluation shows that you have criticised the methods you have used to collect evidence and that you have thought about ways to make the geography more reliable. The following Chapters will be all about you finding out whether your Hypothesis is right or wrong. It doesn’t matter if your hypothesis is wrong, in fact if it is wrong it can even help your study! What you need to do is to prove your hypothesis right or wrong by using the following Chapters; each will relate to the hypothesis in some way. What you need to do is to explain how it links and show how it helps prove or disprove your hypothesis. The following web sites may help: http://uk.ask.com/reference/dictionary/wordnetuk/134032/recreation http://www.calvin.edu/academic/engl/holberg/leisure/cd/sde.htm http://www.scsv.nevada.edu/~baloglus/18DestinationMarketing/tsld004.htm http://uk.ask.com/reference/dictionary/wordnetuk/180243/tourism http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/geography/tourism/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_parks_of_England_and_Wales http://www.geointeractive.co.uk/contribution/ppfiles/environmental%20imp act%20of%20tourism.ppt http://www.naturenet.net/status/npark.html You will need to visit Ham Hill to collect data that you can use in the following chapters Chapter 1 What are the attractions of Ham Hill? Photos, Ham Hill Herald and Questionnaire data Chapter 2 Who visits Ham Hill? Questionnaire data Chapter 3 What is the economic impact? Chloropleth map and Some questionnaire data Chapter 4 What is the environmental impact on footpaths? Footpath transect and Environmental quality survey Chapter 5 What is the environmental impact of transport? People count, Car count and Some questionnaire data Capter 6 How is the area managed? Photographs, information from warden and the Ham Hill Herald Chapter 1 What are the attractions of Ham Hill? In this chapter you need to outline the reasons why people visit Ham Hill. You need to show where Ham Hill is and what about it makes it an attraction for people. A map may be helpful here. You need to draw a map of Ham Hill to show where its main attractions lie. You could annotate your map with photographs of Ham Hill’s attractions. You could gather information from the Ham Hill Herald. Use this to help answer your hypothesis, does this mean that Ham Hill is a honey pot site? Once you have completed your diagram you will need to explain how this either proves or disproves your hypothesis. If lots of people visit Ham Hill from different places does this mean Ham Hill is a ‘Honey Pot’ site? Does this mean Ham Hill will be affected by the benefits and problems tourism brings? Chapter 2 Who visits Ham Hill? In this chapter you can use questionnaire data gathered from Ham Hill as well as any other statistics you can find. You may be able to get information by writing to Somerset County Council or may be able to get information from the warden’s office. This could be a question you want to ask them? You all should show: Where have visitors come from? Using questionnaire data you need to draw a sphere of influence diagram to show where tourists come from. Once you have completed your diagram you will need to explain how this either proves or disproves your hypothesis. If lots of people visit Ham Hill from different places does this mean Ham Hill is a ‘Honey Pot’ site? Does this mean Ham Hill will be affected by the benefits and problems tourism brings? What are the ages of visitors? You need to show this on a graph. Once you have done this think about how it helps you answer your hypothesis. If everyone is elderly what type of impact is that likely to have compared to if they are all young? You could also use any evidence that the warden has given you, or that you have collected from Somerset County Council. Chapter 3 What is the economic impact of tourism? Use the pupil data table to create a chloropleth map to show the distribution of people employed in hotels and catering in South Somerset. This data has come from the 2001 census and is shown at ward level. You will need a map of outline wards to create this map on. To do this you need to find the lowest and highest number in your table. The lowest is 3.00 and the highest is 6.76. You need to show the distribution by using different colours on your map depending upon the percentage of workers in each area. An example of how to do this would be to have 4 colours (could be anywhere between 3 and 6). 3.00 – 3.99 coloured dark blue 4.00 – 4.99 coloured light blue 5.00 – 5.99 coloured light green 6.00 – 6.99 coloured dark green You then colour each ward using the above key. Once you have given your map a title and a key you can insert the map into your chapter making sure that you link the map to the text. You need to write about your map remembering to use Point, Evidence, Explanation. For example: This map shows….. The area with the highest employment in hotels is… The area with the lowest percentage of people employed in hotels is… with …% of people employed. This relates to my hypothesis by helping to show that the effect of Ham Hill on the economy is… Everyone will complete the above. Some of you may wish to try and achieve greater skills and knowledge marks by creating your own chloropleth maps. When you do this you may not find all the data for all the wards, however you should still have enough data to create your map. You can use another of the same ward outline map. To get the data to complete your own map: 1. Go to: http://www.neighbourhood.statistics.gov.uk/dissemination/ 2. Click on create custom table, chart or map 3. Select one of several ready-made areas such as local authorities and electoral wards 4. 1998 Administrative hierarchy 5. South West, South Somerset, All wards within South Somerset, then click on next. 6. Click on 2001 Census key statistics 7. You can then choose the data you want, you could select Industry of employment males or females and compare your map to the one you have created for both sexes. Alternatively you could look at Economically active, part time employment, which is associated with the tourist industry. Remember to select percentage employed in rather than the total number of people. You must make sure that you write about every other map that you create using Point, Evidence, Explanation. You must say how it helps prove or disprove your hypothesis. Chapter 4 What is the environmental impact of tourism? An environmental assessment (EQS) of different parts of Ham Hill can be carried out. How does the environment change as you get further away from the main tourist areas? A record Litter could be taken near 5 the picnic site, the S ite 1 stone circle and the Wildlife present 0 Erosion S ite 2 S ite 3 monument. Produce a radar graph to Man Made S tructure show the environmental quality of the 3 places. You will need to describe and explain this. You will also need to show how it helps answer your hypothesis. Some of you may choose to look at more sites on Ham Hill and compare these to the 3 we have all recorded. Footpath erosion can be measured. Using a tape measure how deep is the footpath erosion, how wide is the footpath erosion and how How do people affect the extensive is this erosion. On a environment? map of Ham Hill the footpath Footpath erosion at location A erosion can be plotted. It 30 Depth of erosion 25 20 would also be interesting to see 15 Series1 10 5 0 where the footpaths have been 0 30 60 90 120 150 Width of path paved because of footpath erosion. Footpath erosion at location B 12 Depth of erosion 10 8 6 Series1 4 You can produce graphs to show 2 0 0 30 60 90 120 150 how footpath erosion increases Width of path with distance from the main car park. On a map of Ham Hill you could put graphs showing the footpath erosion in different points. You will need to describe what you have found out and explain whether this is helping to show that tourism is having negative environmental effects on Ham Hill or not. Chapter 5 The environmental impact of tourism – transport This chapter needs to investigate the impact that tourists transport to Ham Hill has on the area. In order to do this a traffic count can be collated. How many cars pass on the road past the Ham Hill visitor centre? What percentage of cars stop in the main tourist car park? For this you will need to carry out a traffic count at the main road next to the car park. Once you have your total number of cars that pass or go into the car park for a 10 minute period you can work out the proportion of traffic that is related to tourism. You should also think about how reliable this method of working out the impact of traffic is? Are there any ways this could be done better? If you can analyse this in your evaluation section you will be able to achieve higher skills marks. Questionnaire data from the visitors could be used to find out the means of transport that people use to get to Ham Hill. A graph could be inserted here to show the different ways in which people get to the site. You could do this as a pictogram. You can also show how many people there are walking in different areas using your people count data. How many people are there in different areas and what do you think the impact of this will be? If you have done more than one people count you could put your graphs on a map. Chapter 6 How is tourism on Ham Hill managed? Use your interview with the warden to show how the area is being managed. You can use photographs and extracts from the Ham Hill Herald to highlight how the area is being managed. From what you have found out do you think tourism and recreation is having a negative effect on Ham Hill? You will need to think of questions to ask the wardens about this when you visit Ham Hill. Conclusion This is the most important chapter. You will have to bring all together the conclusions that you have made, revisit the hypothesis and make sure that you answer it completely. You must refer to the evidence that you have collected to get full marks…it is called a substantiated conclusion. So make a point, put in the evidence and then explain it. It is a strategy called P.E.E. You can show if the end result coincided with your opinion, the opinion of the questionnaire group or the local council. Don’t be afraid that you are repeated some of the work again, you are now using it in a different context, before you were investigating now you are summarising and making a decision based on whether you think tourism is benefiting Ham Hill as a whole or not? Evaluation You must then add an evaluation as it will get you into a higher mark level. This will be where you will show how we could have improved the whole piece of coursework…different day ….different time of day….gone more times Bibliography Here you must quote any books or magazines, articles or web sites that you have used to create this piece of work. The authors first then the date of publication, then the title of the book and then the name of the publisher and books must be laid out in the order below…this is just an example. Edwards, J and Webber, P (2001) Essential GCSE Geography Nelson Thornes Appendix At the back of your coursework put all the loose data collection sheets you have created. This proves you have collected the data rather than getting it from someone else. You should not put copies of the questionnaire in the front of your coursework because it is not easy for the reader to interpret the data that you have here. Top tips This section will help you maximise your coursework marks. It gives some advice on what you could do to guarantee a top mark in your c/w. You will have to do much of this in your own time: You must include the following to get the best possible marks 1. Cover needs a title and your name and the school name. 2. You will need to have a contents page and all the pages will need numbering. 3. That all your graphs and diagrams have a title and are fully labelled and then they are used in your write up. Make sure you say what the graph shows and then if it helps or not with the analysis or the hypothesis. For each graph you create you need to write about it. You need to answer: Point – why is the graph important – what does it show. What does the graph show – describe it give figures. Give evidence Explain how it helps you to find out the answer to your aim. 4. Conclusion does it answer the question have you put in real evidence to prove your point have you referred to the graph, data that proves the point. 5. Include a bibliography and layout properly. 6. The appendix should have all the raw data sheets, summary tables and the completed questionnaire and photocopies of any others that you think are valuable. 7. Photographs whether digital or not need to be included in the text but also lay out correctly with the annotations around the image. Below is a questionnaire that you could ask local people about Ham Hill. You will need to do this in your own time and could do it up on Ham Hill. You could use this to design your own questionnaire. Local people’s questionnaire For local people Do you live within 10 miles of Ham Hill? If yes continue to fill in the questionnaire, if no do not fill in. 1. Do you think tourism is having a positive or negative effect upon Ham Hill? a. Yes b. No c. Maybe 2. Do you think the noise created by tourists is: a. A problem? b. Not a problem? 3. D you think the noise created by traffic is: a. A problem? b. Not a problem? 4. Do you think traffic is related to tourists? a. Yes b. No c. Don’t know 5. Do you think tourism helps the economy of Ham Hill? a. Yes b. No c. Don’t know 6. Do you think the behaviour of tourists can have an impact upon local people? a. Yes b. No c. Maybe 7. How would you respond to the statement ‘Tourism is Destroying Ham Hill?’ a. Agree b. Partly agree c. Disagree This is a survey conducted by Mr Williams on Ham Hill on bank holiday Monday 7th May 2007. 100 people were asked in the survey. It was carried out in the main car park adjacent to the pub. If you choose to use this survey in your results you must show this as being secondary data. It should be used to supplement and support your own questionnaire results and should not be used instead of it. Age of people asked: Under 16 = 25 17-29 = 25 30-49 = 25 50+ = 25 Male 56 Female 44 Deliberately chose 25 from each age range to try and get a random sample A people count was carried out for the first 100 people at 1200 to find out age range of people visiting Ham Hill: Under 16 = 12 17-29 = 9 30-49 = 44 50+ = 35 Where people have travelled from: Within 3 miles 20 3.1-10 miles 34 10-50 miles 36 nationally 50 miles + 6 abroad 2 Main reason for visiting ham hill Walking 19 Views 52 Mountain biking 5 pub 22 other 3 How did you get here Car 69 walk 19 coach/bus 5 cycle 5 motorbike 2 How far will they walk / cycle away from the main car parks Less than 20 meters 13 20 meters to 1 KM (As far as the monument) 60 Over 1KM 27 How much money will you spend within 1 mile of Ham Hill None 72 1p to £5 4 £5-20 3 £20-100 18 £100-250 2 £250-500 pounds 1 over £500 0 Do you stick to the footpaths? Yes 81 No 19 Are you aware of the Ham Hill herald? Yes 27 No 73 If so will you or would you use the routes provided if you wanted to walk Yes 13 No 14 Do you think there is an adequate provision of litter bins Yes 87 No 13 Have you seen the wardens Yes 21 No 79 If so were they out and about 20 in office 1 Notes from the Ham Hill warden The country park was set up in 1975. The land used to belong to the Dutchy of Cornwall (Prince Charles) but was given to the council to look after in 1975. Rangers took over the running of the park in 1976 when it consisted of 75 acres. Money from the heritage lottery fund was used to buy more land extending the park to 400 acres so that the whole of the iron age hill fort became part of the country park. 300,000 visitors a year arrived in 1976, they congregated in the ‘honey pot site’ adjacent to the rangers office. Today 500,000 visitors visit Ham Hill each year. Part of the idea of expanding the park was so that visitors became less concentrated around the rangers office and erosion became less of a problem. Calcarious grassland is rare in somerset and this needs protecting. Due to erosion there are restrictions in the park, for example, mountain biking is constrained to certain areas. This is also to limit the possibility of legal liability if a walker is hit by a mountain bike. The rangers also try to reduce erosion by producing the Ham Hill Herald which includes guided walks to encourage people to walk away from the areas of severe erosion. An education ranger has been employed to inform people about the park and stop people destroying it. There is certain legislation in place to protect the park. It is a heavily designated site. It is a Geological SSSI. It lost its botanical SSSI status in 1982 when sheep stopped grazing on the land and th plants became lost due to bramble taking over. It is a local nature reserve (LNR) and a scheduled ancient monument (Hill fort 200BC). The council also has by laws prohibiting the use of motorbikes and 4x4s. The quarries are the only place Ham stone comes from. This has been used for the houses of Parliament. Even Clint Eastwood has used Ham stone on part of his house and in his restaurants!