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Physics HW 18 _Due on 020310_

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									Physics HW 18 (Due on 02/03/10)

Multiple Choice
Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

____    1. Protons, neutrons, and electrons combine to form _____.
           a. quarks
           b. nucleons
           c. isotopes
           d. atoms
           e. all of the above
____    2. At the center of every atom is a mass-filled region called the _____.
           a. ion
           b. nucleus
           c. nucleon
           d. neutron
           e. proton
____    3. There are slightly more than 100 known atoms that combine to form all living and nonliving matter that we
           know about. These atoms are called _____.
           a. isotopes
           b. nucleons
           c. molecules
           d. ions
           e. elements
____    4. Nearly all the elements heavier than hydrogen that occur today were created _____.
           a. in the deep interior of stars
           b. at the same time the universe was created
           c. in the center of Earth
           d. by collisions in deep space
           e. at the same time the solar system was created
____    5. Atoms are _____.
           a. smaller than the wavelength of visible light
           b. small, but you can see them with an optical microscope
           c. so small that we can only postulate their existence
           d. seen only through a microscope looking through another microscope
           e. so small that we can never see them, even with an electron microscope
____    6. Atoms combine together to form _____.
           a. elements
           b. nucleons
           c. ions
           d. molecules
           e. isotopes
____    7. To see a molecule you should use _____.
           a. an extremely detailed optical system
           b. an electron microscope
           c. short-wavelength light beams
           d. a conventional microscope looking into another microscope
           e. none of the above
____    8. How many different elements are in a water molecule?
            a. Three
            b. One
            c. Two
            d. Four
            e. none of the above
____   9.   There are about as many atoms of air in our lungs at any moment as there are breaths of air in _____.
            a. a large city
            b. a large auditorium
            c. the United States
            d. the whole world
            e. none of the above
____ 10.    Assuming all the atoms exhaled by Julius Caesar in his last dying breath are still in the atmosphere, then it is
            likely that we breathe one of those atoms _____.
            a. every month
            b. every 10 years
            c. with each single breath
            d. every day
____ 11.    Atoms heavier than hydrogen were made by _____.
            a. radiant energy conversion
            b. photosynthesis
            c. squeezing nuclei together inside stars
            d. radioactivity
            e. none of the above
____ 12.    If we doubled the magnifying power of the most powerful optical microscope in the world, we would _____.
            a. still not be able to see an atom
            b. be able to photograph individual atoms, even though we couldn't see them
            c. be able to see individual atoms
____ 13.    Which of the following atoms is the lightest?
            a. Lead
            b. Iron
            c. Hydrogen
            d. Uranium
            e. All have the same mass
____ 14.    Which of the following statements is true?
            a. There are millions of different kinds of atoms that form all substances.
            b. An atom is the smallest particle known to exist.
            c. There are slightly over 100 different kinds of atoms that combine to form all substances.
            d. Atoms are so small that there is no way we can photograph them.
            e. None of the above statements is true.
____ 15.    What makes an element distinct?
            a. The number of neutrons
            b. The number of electrons
            c. The number of protons
            d. The total mass of all the particles
            e. none of the above
____ 16.    What normally determines whether a substance is a liquid, solid, gas, or plasma?
            a. The atomic mass of the atoms involved
            b. The density of the substance
            c. The atomic number of the atoms involved
           d. The temperature of the substance
           e. none of the above
____ 17.   Brownian motion has to do with _____.
           a. atomic vibrations
           b. the first direct measurement of electron energy levels
           c. the size of atoms
           d. random motions of atoms and molecules
           e. rhythmic movements of Brownians
____ 18.   Compounds are made of molecules.
           a. Always false
           b. Always true
           c. Sometimes true
____ 19.   The reason nuclei don't pack together more closely is _____.
           a. because of large electromagnetic repulsion forces
           b. that it is not allowed according to an exclusion principle
           c. that there isn't enough room between atoms
           d. because of large nuclear repulsion forces
           e. because outer electrons form a hard, impenetrable shell
____ 20.   Which of the following is NOT a compound?
           a. Water
           b. Air
           c. Ammonia
           d. Salt
           e. All are compounds.
____ 21.   In an electrically neutral atom, the number of protons in the nucleus is balanced by an equal number of _____.
           a. neutrons
           b. electrons
           c. pions
           d. all of the above
           e. none of the above
____ 22.   Which is the smallest particle of those listed below?
           a. A proton
           b. A molecule
           c. An atom
           d. A nucleus
____ 23.   A molecule has _____.
           a. energy
           b. mass
           c. structure
           d. all of the above
           e. none of the above
____ 24.   Solid matter is mostly empty space. The reason solids don't fall through one another is because _____.
           a. of nuclear forces
           b. of gravitational forces
           c. atoms are constantly vibrating, even at absolute zero
           d. of electrical forces
           e. none of the above
____ 25.   The air in your classroom has _____.
           a. mass
           b. energy
           c. weight
           d. all of the above
           e. none of the above
____ 26.   When a nucleon is electrically neutral, it is called _____.
           a. a neutron
           b. an electron
           c. a proton
           d. an isotope
           e. an ion
____ 27.   Sometimes an atom has more or fewer electrons than it does protons. Such an atom is called _____.
           a. an ion
           b. a molecule
           c. a compound
           d. an isotope
           e. an element
____ 28.   The charge on an atom that has one less electron than protons is _____.
           a. neutral
           b. negative
           c. positive
____ 29.   What determines how atoms combine to form molecules?
           a. The arrangement of electrons
           b. The number of nucleons
           c. The number of protons
           d. all of the above
           e. none of the above
____ 30.   Elements that are side by side in the periodic table have one more or one less _____.
           a. nucleon
           b. electron shell
           c. proton
           d. isotope
           e. ion
____ 31.   Elements that are above or below each other in the periodic table have one more or one less _____.
           a. electron shell
           b. proton
           c. nucleon
           d. isotope
           e. ion
____ 32.   Most of the matter of the universe is in which phase?
           a. Solid
           b. Gas
           c. Liquid
           d. Plasma
           e. Superconducting
____ 33.   Plasmas _____.
           a. are like the matter in a star
           b. exist at high temperatures
           c. are a gas of free electrons and ions
           d. all of the above
           e. none of the above
____ 34.   Keep heating a gas and you'll have a _____.
           a. liquid
           b. plasma
           c. both A and B
           d. neither A nor B
____ 35.   How many electrons can the innermost shell of an atom have?
           a. 0
           b. 2
           c. 4
           d. 6
           e. 8
____ 36.   If two protons are removed from an oxygen nucleus, the result is _____.
           a. carbon
           b. neon
           c. nitrogen
           d. helium
           e. none of the above
____ 37.   If one neutron is added to a hydrogen nucleus, the result is _____.
           a. helium
           b. deuterium
           c. boron
           d. beryllium
           e. lithium
____ 38.   Crystals are _____.
           a. a specific kind of mineral
           b. an orderly arrangement of atoms in a substance
           c. a type of glass
           d. a random arrangement of atoms in a substance
           e. an orderly arrangement of minerals
____ 39.   Density is defined as _____.
           a. length divided by volume
           b. length divided by time
           c. mass divided by volume
           d. mass times acceleration
           e. none of the above
____ 40.   Which has more density, a bushel of apples or 10 bushels of apples?
           a. 1 bushel
           b. 10 bushels
           c. Both have the same density.
____ 41.   Which has more density, a loaf of bread just after it comes out of the oven or the same loaf that has been
           squeezed into a small volume?
           a. The squeezed loaf
           b. The fresh loaf
           c. They both have the same density.
____ 42.   The density of a steel rod is determined by the _____.
           a. mass of the rod
           b. length of the rod
           c. volume of the rod
           d. spacing between atoms in the rod
           e. all of the above
____ 43.   When a solid block of material is cut in half, its density is _____.
           a. doubled
           b. halved
           c. unchanged
____ 44.   Which has the greater density, a lake full of water or a cup full of lake water?
           a. The cup
           b. Both have the same density.
           c. The lake
____ 45.   Compared to the density of a kilogram of feathers, the density of a kilogram of lead is _____.
           a. less
           b. more
           c. the same
____ 46.   If the volume of an object were to double while its mass stayed the same, its density would _____.
           a. halve
           b. double
           c. stay the same
____ 47.   A block of iron is heated in a furnace, where it consequently expands. In the expanded condition, its density is
           a. more
           b. the same
           c. less
____ 48.   A 1612-kg metal block has a density of 4979 kg per cubic meter and an approximate volume of _____.
           a. 0.32 cubic meters
           b. 3.09 cubic meters
           c. 4.98 cubic meters
           d. 1.61 cubic meters
           e. none of the above
____ 49.   When used horizontally in construction, an I-beam is nearly as strong as a solid bar because _____.
           a. tension and compression are predominantly in the top and bottom parts
           b. of the effects of scaling
           c. it is perpendicular to gravity
           d. the I-beam weighs less
____ 50.   The existence of crystals in many solids was not discovered until _____ became a tool of research in the
           twentieth century.
           a. Hooke’s law
           b. scaling
           c. x-rays
           d. gamma rays
____ 51.   Steel is used in construction girders because it is an excellent _____ material.
           a. inelastic
           b. elastic
           c. neither A or B—elasticity does not matter in construction girders
____ 52.   Less force is required to poke through an eggshell from the _____.
           a. outside in
           b. Force is the same in both directions.
           c. inside out
____ 53.   Which geometrical shape has the least surface area for a given volume?
           a. pyramid
           b. cube
           c. cylinder
           d. sphere
           e. none of the above
____ 54.   If all dimensions of a house were to double, its floor area would go up by a factor of _____.
           a. 2
           b. 3
           c. 4
           d. 8
           e. 16
____ 55.   If an ant were scaled up to the size of an elephant, the ant would be _____.
           a. much stronger than the elephant
           b. weaker than the elephant, but able to run around
           c. of the same strength as the elephant
           d. too weak to even lift itself off the ground
____ 56.   The main reason an elephant has big ears is so it can _____.
           a. cool off by fanning itself
           b. live longer
           c. hear better
           d. cool off by radiating more heat
           e. none of the above
____ 57.   Which has more skin per body weight, an elephant or a mouse?
           a. The elephant
           b. The mouse
           c. Neither—they both have the same amount of skin per body weight.
____ 58.   The reason falling heavy objects hit the ground faster than falling light objects is that heavy objects _____.
           a. have more air resistance
           b. have a smaller ratio of surface area to weight
           c. accelerate faster than light objects
           d. all of the above
           e. none of the above
____ 59.   Which will cool a glass of water faster, ice cubes or the same mass of crushed ice?
           a. The cubes
           b. The crushed ice
           c. Neither—they will both cool the water at the same rate.
____ 60.   Compared to a 50-kg sunbather, a 100-kg sunbather requires _____.
           a. the same amount of suntan lotion
           b. less than twice as much suntan lotion
           c. more than twice as much suntan lotion
____ 61.   Bob is making taffy apples. If he buys 100 kg of small apples rather than 100 kg of large apples, he will need
           a. the same amount of taffy
           b. more taffy
           c. less taffy
____ 62.   An elephant eats less for its size than smaller animals because _____.
           a. its surface area is large compared to its volume
           b. its surface area is small compared to its volume
           c. its ears are bigger
           d. it is taller than other animals
           e. it weighs more than smaller animals
____ 63.   Which cooks faster in boiling oil?
           a. A sliced potato
           b. A whole potato
           c. Both cook at the same rate.
____ 64.   If an elephant grew to twice its height, the area of its ears would change by a factor of _____.
           a. 2
           b. 4
           c. 6
           d. 8
           e. none of the above
____ 65.   An elephant that grows to twice its normal height will increase its weight by a factor of about _____.
           a. 2
           b. 4
           c. 6
           d. 8
           e. none of the above
____ 66.   Suppose all sizes of potatoes are selling at the same price per kilogram. For a given amount of money, you
           will have a greater mass of potatoes after they are peeled, if you buy _____.
           a. small potatoes
           b. large potatoes
           c. medium potatoes
           d. a mixture of sizes
____ 67.   If in making cupcakes you bake them as directed for a cake, you will find the cupcakes _____.
           a. underbaked
           b. overbaked
           c. properly baked
____ 68.   In cold weather, your hands will be warmer if you wear _____.
           a. mittens
           b. gloves
           c. either A or B—there is no difference.
____ 69.   If each dimension of a steel bridge is scaled up 10 times, its strength will increase by _____.
           a. 100, but its weight by 1000
           b. 1000, and its weight by 100
           c. 10, and its weight by 10 also
           d. none of the above
____ 70.   What is the density of a rock that has a mass of 350 g and a volume of 250 cubic centimeters?
           a. 0.7 g/cubic cm
           b. 1.4 g/cubic cm
           c. 600 g/cubic cm
           d. 3,500 g/cubic cm
           e. 87,500 g/cubic cm
____ 71.   A metal anchor has a density of 3000 kg per cubic meter and a volume of 6 cubic meters. What is the anchor's
           a. 250 kg
           b. 500 kg
           c. 3000 kg
           d. 18,000 kg
           e. none of the above
____ 72.   Which has the greater density, 5 kg of silver or 10 kg of steel?
           a. The steel
           b. The silver
           c. They both have the same density
____ 73.   What is the weight density of a tub of water that weighs 2940 N and occupies a volume of 4 cubic meters?
           a. 184 N/cubic m
           b. 368 N/cubic m
           c. 735 N/cubic m
           d. 2,940 N/cubic m
           e. 11,760 N/cubic m
____ 74.   When a 4-N weight is hung from a spring, the spring stretches 0.03 m. How much does the spring stretch
           when an 8-N weight is hung from it?
           a. 0.02 m
           b. 0.03 m
           c. 0.12 m
           d. 0.06 m
           e. 0.24 m
____ 75.   A 4-kg load stretches an elastic belt 0.02 m. How much will a 6-kg load stretch the belt?
           a. 0.12 m
           b. 0.02 m
           c. 0.03 m
           d. 0.01 m
           e. 0.08 m

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