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Microsoft® Office 2003 Training

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Microsoft Office 2003 Training
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XML: What's it all about?

Course contents
• Overview: XML in Office 2003

• Lesson 1: Why use XML?
• Lesson 2: XML data files

• Lesson 3: XML schemas (Continued on next slide.)

XML: What's it all about?

Course contents, cont’d.
• Lesson 4: XML transforms

• Lesson 5: XML in Microsoft Office Professional Edition 2003
Each lesson includes a list of suggested tasks and a set of test questions.

XML: What's it all about?

Overview: XML in Office 2003
What is XML, exactly, and how does it work? Here you’ll learn the basics: what XML is, what it does, some of the benefits of using it, and how some Office 2003 programs help you use it.

XML: What's it all about?

Course goals
• Help plan an XML system. • Use and follow basic XML terminology and concepts such as tags, schemas, and transforms. • See how XML works in some Office programs.

XML: What's it all about?

Lesson 1
Why use XML?

Why use XML?
Today's businesses thrive on data. That data can come from any number of sources, and in any number of formats, such as: • Databases
• Web pages
XML enables you to use data from more sources and in more ways.

• Spreadsheet files
• E-mail

XML: What's it all about?

Use more data in more ways
Suppose you run the human resources department of a mediumsized company. Your staff sees lots of résumés, usually in the form of documents or e-mail messages. It would be great if you could automatically copy the names, addresses, and lists of job skills from those résumés.

Multiple data sources, multiple uses for the data from each source

XML: What's it all about?

Use more data in more ways
It would be even better if you could use your computers to match those skills with open positions. And it would be best of all if the same process prepared a report on your department's performance for your manager.
Multiple data sources, multiple uses for the data from each source

XML: What's it all about?

Use more data in more ways
You can do those things (and more) with XML. For example, you can:

• Extract data from various original sources.
• Store that data in one place so you know just where to find it.
Multiple data sources, multiple uses for the data from each source

• Use the data again whenever and wherever you need it.

XML: What's it all about?

Automate your business processes
You can automate any number of business processes. Say that a customer sends you a purchase order that looks like any other, but the information is in XML. Your computer system can automatically transform that purchase order into a worksheet for your shipping department to use, and automatically import the order data into your accounting database.
XML: What's it all about?

XML data entered in one department works in different programs in other departments.

Automate your business processes
XML stands for Extensible Markup Language, and it's called "Extensible" for a good reason:

XML data entered in one department works in different programs in other departments.

You can extend it by adapting it to fit almost any need, in business, publishing, government, science, academic research — anywhere that information moves from one use to another.

XML: What's it all about?

Exchange data among more systems
You may hear XML described as "platform independent," which means that any program built to use XML can read and process any XML data, regardless of computer operating systems and computer hardware.
XML makes it possible to exchange data among systems that previously were incompatible.

That makes it possible for you to use desktop programs, such as Microsoft Office Word 2003 or Excel 2003, directly on data generated by a mainframe computer.
XML: What's it all about?

Where does an XML system come from?
An XML-based system can enable you to use more types of data, in more programs, and on more computers. It can automate the work of data entry, and it can help you create documents faster.
Your Information Technology (IT) department or another expert can help you get there.

So where do you get a system like that? You have to plan it and build it.

XML: What's it all about?

Where does an XML system come from?
You can't just buy and install an XML system. You need to work with your Information Technology (IT) department, or with someone who has expertise in designing and creating the various components of an XML system. That can be a serious effort. But the people who use an XML system don't necessarily have to learn new software, or learn XML.
XML: What's it all about?

Your Information Technology (IT) department or another expert can help you get there.

Basic components of an XML system
A typical XML system consists of three types of files: • XML data is your data, plus XML tags that describe the meaning and structure of your data. • XML schemas define rules for what can and cannot reside in your data files.

The components of a basic XML system

• XML transforms enable the use of data in a variety of programs or files.
XML: What's it all about?

Suggestions for practice
1. Make a list of the advantages of using XML.
2. List the systems in your business that XML could be used for.

XML: What's it all about?

Test 1, question 1
The basic building blocks of XML systems are: (Pick one answer.) 1. DLLs, COM objects, and XML transforms. 2. XML data files, XML schemas, and XML transforms. 3. Relational databases, XML schemas, and spreadsheets.

XML: What's it all about?

Test 1, question 1: Answer
XML data files, XML schemas, and XML transforms.

XML: What's it all about?

Test 1, question 2
XML is mainly a tool for business numbers. (Pick one answer.) 1. True. 2. False.

XML: What's it all about?

Test 1, question 2: Answer
False. You can use XML for accounting, but you can also use it to add data to your Web pages, or to help publish documents. And that's just the beginning.

XML: What's it all about?

Lesson 2
XML data files

XML data files
The key component in an XML system is the data. XML data files contain your data and a set of codes called tags that describe what the data means.
You can create any tags you need for your data. That's one reason why XML is so adaptable and so useful that they named it extensible.

Data: the key component in any XML system

XML: What's it all about?

XML tags describe what XML data means
Suppose you run a veterinary clinic and you want to use XML to store data for your various animal clients. Your XML data files will contain the data for each animal.
Sample XML data file for a cat named Izzy

Each piece of that data is surrounded by a tag, and each tag describes what the piece of data means.

XML: What's it all about?

XML tags
The tags are the combinations of angle brackets and text. <CAT>

<NAME>
<AGE>

Tags actually consists of two parts, an opening tag and a closing tag.

<BREED> … </BREED>

The forward slash (/) is what makes a tag a closing tag. The opening and closing tags surround any data.

<BREED>Siamese</BREED>

XML: What's it all about?

XML tags describe what XML data means
In XML, the tags are designed to clearly describe every piece of data. If someone asks what all those tags mean, you can say that they mean whatever you need them to mean. That's a part of what makes XML "extensible."

Sample XML data file for a cat named Izzy

In this case, you know what "yes," "no," and "Izz138bod" all mean.

XML: What's it all about?

XML tags describe what XML data means
Because the tags describe the structure and meaning of the data, any computer program or system that supports XML can understand that data and put it to use.
Sample XML data file for a cat named Izzy

For instance, you could load the cat's name and the owner's name from the data into a vaccination report and a payment request simultaneously.

XML: What's it all about?

Anatomy of an XML data file
In addition to data and tags, XML data files contain declarations, root elements, and attributes.

The names may sound mysterious, but after some brief definitions, you'll see that these are all simple and logical.
More parts of an XML data file

XML: What's it all about?

Anatomy of an XML data file
1. XML declarations

XML declarations are statements in the data file that identify it and other files it works with. 2. Root element
More parts of an XML data file

This means one tag that contains all the other tags, and all the data in each particular record.

XML: What's it all about?

Anatomy of an XML data file
3. Attributes

Store information about the tags and the data in them. The types of information in attributes are defined by the XML for each kind of tag. 4. Tags and data
More parts of an XML data file

These are, of course, the principal components of the file.

XML: What's it all about?

All XML must stick to the rules
You may hear the phrase "wellformed XML" and wonder what that means. It's simple: XML is well-formed when it follows a small set of strict rules, which are listed in tables later in this lesson.
More parts of an XML data file

XML: What's it all about?

All XML must stick to the rules
For example, XML is case sensitive. It cares about capital letters. For XML data to be well-formed, the tags must all use an identical mix of capital letters and small letters.
So for example, <CAT> ... </CAT> is well-formed, but <CAT> ... </Cat> is not.

More parts of an XML data file

XML: What's it all about?

All XML must stick to the rules
You don't have to know all the rules. Here's what you do have to know: • You can share XML data among users and systems only when that data is well-formed.
More parts of an XML data file

• If data is not well-formed, your XML system stops working (which means that your business stops working).

XML: What's it all about?

XML rules and examples
Rule One tag must contain all other tags. In other words, your data file must have a root element (discussed earlier in the presentation). If you provide an opening tag, you must provide a closing tag (with the exception of empty tags, which are explained on the next slide). All opening and closing tags must match. Example <cat> <name>Izzy</name> </cat> <cat> ... </cat>

Correct <cat> ... </cat> Incorrect <cat> ... </Cat>

XML: What's it all about?

XML rules and examples, cont’d.
Rule Some tags, called empty tags, do not require closing tags because they include the closing forward slash as part of the tag. The example shows tags for inserting a horizontal rule and a line break. Example Horizontal rule <hr/> Line break <br/>

You must enclose all attribute Correct values in single or double quotation patient_id="389467" marks. Incorrect patient_id=389467

XML: What's it all about?

XML rules and examples, cont’d.
Rule All tags must be nested correctly. The sequence of closing tags must mirror the sequence of opening tags. Example Correct <cat> <name>Izzy</name> </cat> Incorrect <cat> <name>Izzy</cat> </name> &copy; © &lt; < &gt; >

All entities must be declared. Now don't panic. An entity is a virtual storage area. It can contain images, text, or characters such as the copyright symbol. Here are the entities for the copyright symbol and each angle bracket.

XML: What's it all about?

Suggestions for practice
1. Define XML declarations, attributes, and tags.
2. List at least two rules of well-formed XML. Online practice (requires Word 2003)

XML: What's it all about?

Test 2, question 1
Which of these helps make XML extensible? (Pick one answer.) 1. The ability to exchange data between databases.

2. The ability to validate data.
3. The ability to create tags as needed to describe a piece of data.

XML: What's it all about?

Test 2, question 1: Answer
The ability to create tags as needed to describe a piece of data. If you need more tags to define your data, you're free to add them.

XML: What's it all about?

Test 2, question 2
XML is well-formed when it ______. (Pick one answer.)

1. Contains valid data.
2. Conforms to a specific set of rules. 3. Is easy to read.

XML: What's it all about?

Test 2, question 2: Answer
Conforms to a specific set of rules. The rules ensure that your data is tagged in ways that make it usable by programs built for XML.

XML: What's it all about?

Lesson 3
XML schemas

XML schemas
A second basic component in an XML system is a schema. A schema may sound mysterious, but it's just a set of rules that say what can, and what can't, be in the various parts of an XML data file.
You use a schema to validate your data. For example, a schema can help make sure that people don't enter text in a box where they should put phone numbers.
XML: What's it all about?

A schema: the second basic component in any XML system

A rule by any other name?
Don't let the term intimidate you. Schema is just another word for structure or organization. In XML, a schema contains the rules for what can and can't be in the various parts of an XML data file.
Schemas contain rules that help ensure valid data.

XML: What's it all about?

A rule by any other name?
Don’t confuse the rules in a schema and the rules for well-formed XML: • A schema is XML, and as such it must conform to the rules for wellformed XML. • By contrast, the rules in a schema dictate what can and can't reside in a given data structure. For example, a schema may say that a certain tag can contain only dates and another can contain only prices.

Schemas contain rules that help ensure valid data.

XML: What's it all about?

A rule by any other name?
A schema can be contained in a data file, or it can be a separate file linked to the data file. Either way, whenever you use a data file in concert with a schema, that data file is said to conform to that schema.

Schemas contain rules that help ensure valid data.

XML: What's it all about?

Anatomy of a schema
Schemas can become extremely complex, and your IT department will probably create them for you, after talking to you about what types of data you need and how the XML system should work. Knowing what schemas look like will help you talk to IT about them.

The parts of a schema file

XML: What's it all about?

Anatomy of a schema
The illustration shows a schema setting rules for the <CAT> ... </CAT> tag set from the last lesson.

1. Declarations
2. Optional sequence declarations (controls the order of the tags in the data file) 3. Data type

The parts of a schema file

XML: What's it all about?

Anatomy of a schema
This schema contains a set of declarations. The declarations control the type of data that each tag can contain. In this case, the sequence declaration also controls the order of the tags that reside inside the <CAT> root element.

The parts of a schema file

XML: What's it all about?

Anatomy of a schema
So how does all this affect you? If you are a veterinarian, and you need to have your files contain additional information about your animal clients, such as their color or markings, you would have the person in charge of your XML add tags for that data.
The parts of a schema file

XML: What's it all about?

Anatomy of a schema
Adding those tags will also require changes to the schema for the file. If you do not change the schema, the new tags will be considered illegal, and the system will stop working. Simple schema changes may be very quick, but any schema change is important because it creates a new rule for your data.

The parts of a schema file

XML: What's it all about?

Suggestions for practice
1. Look at the art on the 7th slide of this lesson (the one with the numbered list that explains the callouts about the XML schema) and discuss the parts: what they are and what goes into each part. 2. Take a simple file, such as a letter, and make a schema for it: The date might be all numbers, for instance, and the salutation would always come after the data and before the letter text.

XML: What's it all about?

Test 3, question 1
A schema enforces rules for well-formed XML. (Pick one answer.) 1. True.

2. False.

XML: What's it all about?

Test 3, question 1: Answer
False. The rules in a schema define what can and cannot reside in a given data file. The rules for well-formed XML ensure that you can exchange your data with other users and XML systems.

XML: What's it all about?

Test 3, question 2
A schema contains ______. (Pick one answer.) 1. Styles. 2. Nodes.

3. Declarations.

XML: What's it all about?

Test 3, question 2: Answer
Declarations. The declarations in a schema control which tags and data can and cannot reside in a data file.

XML: What's it all about?

Lesson 4
XML transforms

XML transforms
The third main component of a typical XML system is a transform. A transform allows you to use the same data in many different ways.
The XML data that you have filed and structured so carefully can now be put to use in reports, databases, Web pages, and a growing number of other applications.

A transform: the third basic component of any XML system

XML: What's it all about?

Transforms convert your XML data
Besides structuring and validating data, XML provides powerful ways to repurpose or reorganize data. The mechanism for doing that is called an Extensible Style Sheet Language Transformation (XSLT), or more simply, a transform.
Transforms can automate data exchange.

XML: What's it all about?

Transforms convert your XML data
For example, say your sales department stores its data in Excel workbooks, and your accounting department needs that information imported into a database. A transform can write data from preselected cells in the worksheet into the correct fields in the database.

Transforms can automate data exchange.

XML: What's it all about?

A few ways to use transforms
Depending on the steps that are built into them, transforms act as data processors.

For instance, you can sort or filter data as you write it from your XML data store to a document or spreadsheet program.
A few more ways to use transforms

XML: What's it all about?

A few ways to use transforms
Transforms can also control your visual displays — the appearance of your data.

A few more ways to use transforms

For instance, you can use a transform to print sales data so that it looks like it came from a spreadsheet program, even if it didn't, or vice-versa.

XML: What's it all about?

A few ways to use transforms
In addition to creating Web pages, you can also use transforms to deploy multiple versions of a Web site. You can store all your data in one place and create a set of transforms that make your data look good in any number of Web browsers.
A few more ways to use transforms

When visitors come to your site, you detect their browser type and route them to the appropriate version of your content.
XML: What's it all about?

Anatomy of a transform
Like schemas, transforms are XML files, and they must conform to the rules for well-formed XML. Transforms can also be extremely complex, and writing them is a job for professionals.
Again, however, it will help you get the results you want if you know enough about transforms to help in planning them.

The parts of a sample transform

XML: What's it all about?

Anatomy of a transform
The illustration shows part of a transform that writes data from the <CAT> file, into a table on a Web page.
1. One set of tags builds a table on a Web page.
The parts of a sample transform

2. One declaration brings XML data into the table.
3. Each table cell shows a specific piece of data.
XML: What's it all about?

Anatomy of a transform
This example shows just one way to write a transform. A transform used to convert data into a document or a diagram would contain tags specific to the program and the display context.

The parts of a sample transform

XML: What's it all about?

Suggestions for practice
1. List ways in which one set of data that you work with could be used in various ways by means of transforms.
2. For such data, think of how the data items would map into use for another purpose: customer names into the address field, inventory items into a catalog printing table, and so on.

XML: What's it all about?

Test 4, question 1
You use transforms to: (Pick one answer.) 1. Validate data.

2. Enforce the rules for well-formed XML.
3. Sort, filter, and perform other types of processing on data.

XML: What's it all about?

Test 4, question 1: Answer
Sort, filter, and perform other types of processing on data.

Keep in mind that you can also use transforms to control the display of data.

XML: What's it all about?

Test 4, question 2
You use transforms to convert data into XML. (Pick one answer.)

1. True.
2. False.

XML: What's it all about?

Test 4, question 2: Answer
False. Converting data into XML is a different process, and that's the next lesson.

XML: What's it all about?

Lesson 5
XML in Microsoft Office Professional Edition 2003

XML in Office 2003
When you see how much XML can do, and will be doing, you understand why several Office 2003 programs have XML built right in. Built-in XML makes this powerful language much easier to use.

Put XML to work in Office 2003.

XML: What's it all about?

More support than ever
Several of the programs in Office Professional Edition 2003 support XML. Each program furnishes XML tools that coincide with the nature of the program itself. In Word 2003 you can save files as XML. You can also attach schemas and transforms to your Word 2003 documents.

Office 2003 programs support XML in ways that make sense for them.

XML: What's it all about?

More support than ever
Microsoft Office Excel 2003, on the other hand, uses the concept of a map for working with XML. You create a map by linking the cells in a worksheet to elements in a schema. You can't save a workbook as XML unless you first create a map.
Office 2003 programs support XML in ways that make sense for them.

XML: What's it all about?

Suggestions for practice
1. Imagine how you could use XML in Microsoft Office Visio® 2003.
2. How could you use XML in Word? Online practice (requires Excel 2003)

XML: What's it all about?

Test 5, question 1
You open XML files as XML lists in Excel by using the: (Pick one answer.) 1. Import XML dialog box.

2. XML Source task pane.
3. List command on the Data menu.

XML: What's it all about?

Test 5, question 1: Answer
XML Import dialog box.

You also use this dialog box to import your XML data into mapped cells.

XML: What's it all about?

Test 5, question 2
Which of these do you need to create an XML map in an Excel worksheet? (Pick one answer.) 1. An extensible stylesheet transform file (XSLT). 2. An XML schema.

3. A relational database.

XML: What's it all about?

Test 5, question 2: Answer
An XML schema.

Remember that if you have only an XML data file, Excel infers a schema from the structure of the tags in that file.

XML: What's it all about?

Quick Reference Card
For a summary of the tasks covered in this course, view the Quick Reference Card.

XML: What's it all about?


				
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