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Java Technology Powers E-Manufacturing White Paper

VIEWS: 119 PAGES: 18

									W H I T E



C O N T E N T S

The Promise of Collaborative e-Manufacturing Java™ Technology Will Power the Collaborative Factory Environment Real-World Java Technology Implementations Java Technology Based-Solutions For Industry Verticals


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Sun Microsystems, Inc.


Factory Production Management & Decision Support
• Plant Information Mgmt. • Manufacturing Execution • Document Management • Quality Management • Asset Management • Mfg. Process Control • Planning & Scheduling • Quality Management

Java™ Technologies

Java™ Technologies

Plant Floor Control
• DCS • HMI/SCADA • Single Loop Control • Batch Control • Process Control • PC-Based Control • PLCs • CNCs • General Motion Control

Factory Devices & Instrumentation
• Actuation: drives, motors, servos, actuators, switches, positioners • Analytical: composition, viscosity, pH, density, color, moisture • Measurement: temperature, pressure, flow, mass, speed, position

Web - Enabled Factory

Business Process Resources Costing Compliance Marketing Sales Support Suppliers Design Collaborative Functions Customers Business Functions


Dedicated Unit Controls

Supervisory System

Production Functions
Linking Device Process Control Linking Device

Inside a Manufacturing Enterprise


Java™ Technology Powers e-Manufacturing

The Promise of Collaborative e-Manufacturing
Web-based technologies are changing the manufacturing processes that are currently in place and ushering in a new era of collaboration between the factory floor and enterprise supply chains. The Internet has already trans-formed the business world, with the Web-centric customer mandating the flow of business. However, now that the front-end ordering capability of e-commerce is in place for the customer, the back-end execution processes of the manufacturers must also be able to handle business at the speed of the Internet. Production facilities must be able to provide the e-fulfillment that completes the cycle of Web-based businesses. Established brick and mortar companies are putting millions of dollars into e-commerce Web sites that allow customers to configure and order products online. Will existing manufacturing infrastructure and processes be able to deliver on these e-business promises? Now that the front-end ordering capability of e-commerce is in place for the customer, the backend execution processes of the manufacturers must also be able to handle business at the speed of the Internet.

Redefining Production Systems and Factory Architectures To Be Web-Centric
E-manufacturing involves a scope well beyond electronic data exchange, and execution of the production processes. Transforming traditional, proprietary control devices such as PLCs and CNCs to more open enterprise-enabled control and real-time information platforms is crucial to e-manufacturing. For example, embedded Web servers provide connectivity at the most granular layers of plant floor control, and move real-time data from the device level to the controls level, and up to the enterprise tier. The essence of e-manufacturing is the ability to execute product design, production processes, collaborate with supplier, delivery, and customer cycles in real-time via the Internet. E-manufacturing extends beyond traditional factory floor operations in several areas critical to a company becoming Web-centric. Several essential attributes are added to plant floor systems functionality by becoming Internet-enabled: • Global accessibility. • Remote access to all business and manufacturing sites. • Capacity and resource planning integration between the factory floor and supply chains. • All Manufacturing tiers (device, control, enterprise) have a common backplane of communication. • Visibility: real-time factory operations information proliferated across the Intranet and Internet.

Sun Microsystems, Inc.


• Speed: time to market, service response, and product lifecycles are significantly accelerated. • Flexibility: production systems are able to react and adapt to just-in-time manufacturing, shorter product life cycles, and new technology.

The Internet Economy Levies New Requirements On Manufacturing
E-manufacturing is all about satisfying the need for communications to and from the factory floor. Responsiveness is the key to this Internet driven process. Production process response needs to begin the instant a company decides to accept an order from the Internet. When a company makes the decision to conduct Web-centric business, the cycle times between the order and the fulfillment of the order become immediately and enormously shorter. Implementing a manufacturing process that has the responsiveness, capacity, and flexibility to support e-business should ideally be accomplished before an InternetInternet

based order system is ever created. Undertaking the journey

Suppliers Suppliers


to bring manufacturing processes up to the speed of e-commerce involves much more than overlaying some Internet technologies on the current

Ethernet ERP
Factory Floor


Java Can Enable Agile Manufacturing by Unifying the Entire Enterprise

production execution systems. In the past, factory computing architectures were confined to the domains found on the plant floor. E-business strategies mandate that the factory must be connected to operations across and beyond the enterprise. The plant floor has to become a collaborative partner in the entire e-business architecture; otherwise, the e- fulfillment process will never be realized. Web-centric technologies like Java™ technology, XML, and XML schema frameworks provide the bond that connects the front end of e-commerce to the back end of emanufacturing. Java technology has the power to integrate manufacturing operations with the business enterprise, while equally capable of controlling the factory floor.

E-business Front-Ends Require Web-Centric Production Systems
New generations of Internet-compatible equipment is becoming available that include everything from PLCs with embedded Web servers to browser-based HMIs connected to remote machine tool suppliers. All of this will provide a flow of information from


Java™ Technology Powers e-Manufacturing

the factory floor to every component of the enterprise’s e-business strategy. Since Java technology was originally designed to power highly distributed systems like the Internet, it is only natural that the Java platform possesses the inherent capability to connect all the tiers of e-business from order to fulfillment. At its core, a factory floor Web-centric implementation involves the capacity to move standardized, structured data directly from field devices and control systems to higher applications levels in the enterprise. This enables the production systems to interact with supply chain systems. Java technologies capable of providing such an infrastructure include the J2EE™ architecture with all of its components, including Java Servlets and Applets, JavaBeans™, and Enterprise JavaBeans™ (EJB™) transactions. The Java platform has emerged as the preferred programming medium for Webbased technologies, enabling a very thin client/Web server environment that is powering e-commerce today. This is not difficult to understand when one considers that Java programming language was designed from the outset to operate in a highly distributed environment based on Internet technologies. How an e-manufacturing solution is implemented with Java technology depends on the requirements of the manufacturing processes and their integration with enterprise business systems. Converting an existing control infrastructure to one based on Java technology would only require the wrapping of Java code around legacy systems, thus encapsulating them and enabling platform independence. At its core a factory floor Webcentric implementation involves the capacity to move object-based data directly from field devices and control systems to the enterprise tier and beyond via the enterprise Intranet.

Java™ Technology Will Power the Collaborative Factory Environment
Plant floor production systems need to be responsive in their ability to pass real-time data to the supply chain. Conversely, plant floor operators must have the mechanisms and systems in place to react rapidly and precisely to supply chain requests. Webenabled technologies in the form of architectures and systems built to run on factory Intranets and connected to Internet customers and suppliers will allow data transfer, synchronization, and collaboration for all tiers of plant operations.

Integrating the Shop Floor and the Supply Chain
Internet enabling technologies like the Java application environment coupled with robust Web-centric applications based on existing factory floor execution methodology will be the tools for implementing e-manufacturing requirements. Intelligent agents and portals developed with Java technology are capable of integrating with a hetero-

Sun Microsystems, Inc.


geneous mix of operating systems and plant floor automation applications. Sun’s iPlanet™, for example, will provide a very effective environment and architecture for linking the factory floor to supply chains. The link between supply chain management and the factory floor is becoming the focus in the manufacturing enterprise. To this end, the e-manufacturing solution providers are developing Web-based products that integrate with industrial automation and process control applications. It will be incumbent upon factory operations to be responsive in passing data up the enterprise and to Web-enabled supply chain applications. Internet technologies inherently provide a more efficient integration framework than much of the currently implemented client/server architectures, and enable a data sharing capability that is much easier to implement.

Integration of Production Systems To the Enterprise Tier
Collecting data from the plant floor can require a variety of communication functions and protocols based on a wide collection of sensors, devices, gauges, and measurement instruments, both in discrete and process automation. This data has been traditionally interpreted and presented by a middle layer consisting of HMI, SCADA, and OPC Servers. Collection, consolidation, and dissemination of this data from the device level through the controls level, and up to the enterprise level utilizing existing production control equipment can often be a challenging task.
Remote Maintenance Portal Buy-Side Marketplace Self-Side Marketplace TM WM E-Fulfillment Distribution Portal eCRM

SCP/APS E-Procurement PDM CPM


Procurement Portal


Planning and Engineering Portal


Collaboration Across the Manufacturing Enterprise As embedded smart devices are developed and introduced onto the factory floor, all sorts of data will be accessible, ranging from smart motors, actuators, drives, servos, pumps, flow meters, even to smart bearings. Embedded Java applications combined with XML will provide the connection between these devices and the enterprise tier. XML schemas are being developed that capture and encapsulate processes ranging


Java™ Technology Powers e-Manufacturing

from CNC controlled machine tools to batch process recipes. Data will be moved up to enterprise applications that execute asset management, machine condition monitoring, production capacity reporting for supply chain requirements, shop operations performance analysis, order tracking, quality assurance, and all of the existing Enterprise Production Management (EPM) process information that is required to drive a manufacturing facility. Java Computing Benefits for Manufacturing • Enables improved collaboration between suppliers and shop floor operations • Enables remote viewing and control capabilities • Provides Interaction with legacy systems and use off-the-shelf hardware • Makes factory control information more accessible to enterprise applications • Offers flexibility and extensibility in configuring systems • Promotes reduced TCO for equipment and administration costs

Java Technology-Enabled Collaboration Provides Connectivity and Visibility
One of the key components of e-manufacturing is the ability of the systems that run the production processes to pass and share information in a very collaborative environment. In other words, the data that powers the devices and machines on the factory floor must be made available, and disseminated throughout the manufacturing enterprise in order for e-manufacturing to function. E-manufac-

turing, when actually implemented, becomes collaborative or “c-manufacturing”. Factories, by their very nature, comprise an environment consisting of many heterogeneous systems, machines, and devices. This presents an inherent challenge, not only in integrating systems, but also in simply obtaining data from all of these disparate systems, and then moving it to the various tiers of the enterprise. An open, universal environment is required to deploy software applications; especially since most manufacturing operations employ multiple platforms. This makes the Java platform very appealing due to its natural flexibility and ability to connect heterogeneous systems. Manufacturers will continue to use legacy systems, and Java technology will permit and enable access to these systems by encapsulating legacy data using object wrappers and distributing it across factory Intranets. One Java technology that offers a framework for collaboration and enterprise application integration (EAI) is the Java 2 Platform Enterprise Edition (J2EE™) architecture. The J2EE platform provides a comprehensive framework architecture that employs the entire suite of Java technologies for designing, executing, and integrating the enterprise from e-commerce to collaborative e-manufacturing. The elements of the J2EE platform will enable a manufacturer to deploy specialized applications that specific business units require, along with the ability to quickly plug these new applications into existing systems. Many of a company’s existing applications will still serve a useful purpose even in new e-manufacturing environments. The J2EE architecture was

Sun Microsystems, Inc.


designed with an approach to wrap Java object code around existing systems rather than rewriting and replacing the legacy code. The J2EE architecture has two Suppliers BEA Systems HP Bluestone Cyberonics Foxboro IBM Inprise eMation Lotus Oracle Persistence Progress Schneider Automation Secant Siemens Software AG Sybase Wall Data Web Methods Yaskawa Product WebLogic Application Server Total e-Server Java-control soft real-time PLC and Websphere Inprise Application Server Web@aGlance/DRM Notes/Domino e-Business Suite for Mfg. PowerTier for EJB Aptivity, Webspeed FactoryCast Extreme Enterprise Server for EJB PLCs Bolero Enterprise Application Server Cyberprise Server Integration Platform Human Machine Interface (HMI) Partial List of Java Supporters subsets: Java 2 Platform Micro Edition (J2ME™) is designed to operate on hand-held devices such as cell phones and palm-top type computers and other wireless devices. Java 2 Platform Standard Edition (J2SE™) is built to run on desktop platforms and is best known as the standard application that provides the dynamic content on browser-based Web pages. The complete J2EE architecture is designed to run on high-end workstations and servers and is capable of supporting enterprisewide applications. J2EE incorporates the Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) and XML, as well as database connectivity, security, and transaction processing standards that enable developers to create and deploy enterprise level applications. A principal goal of all Java technology is to provide an environment where software development is made easier and more productive. To this end, developers can use the J2EE architecture and Enterprise JavaBeans technology to create component-based applications that are able to capture the business and manufacturing processes. The J2EE architecture provides a container in which developers can deposit component-base applications and then let the containers implement the processes associated with the execution of the applications. One end user, Ford Motor Company, is using the J2EE platform as the basis for a network of applications and services that manage the process of creating and revising vehicle maintenance manuals and other documents that are distributed to their dealers globally. Java technology was selected as the fundamental building block for this project not only because of the ease of development, but also because Ford wanted


Java™ Technology Powers e-Manufacturing

to build a Web-based application. This Internet-enabled Java technology-based solution keeps support costs minimal for a global operation, as well as run on existing platforms throughout all of Ford’s organizations.

Real-Time Java Technology Offers Potential For Integrating Factory Systems.
Java technology has significant potential value in the real-time area–both as an efficient and productive programming tool, and especially as a portable applications platform on the many real-time operating systems and target processors in today’s embedded device market. A group of real-time and experts on Java technology sponsored by the National Institute of Standards Technology (NIST), began work in mid 1998 to develop a real-time specification for Java technology. Today, the fruit of this effort is a complete real-time Java (RTJ) technology specification that has addressed all of the core requirements laid out at conception. Requirements for deterministic automatic memory management, predictable execution, backward compatibility, no syntactic extensions, and maintaining the “Write Once, Run Anywhere™” element of the Java programming language are provided. Factory floor control solutions often require the ability of the system to transfer and process data at certain degrees of timeliness and predictability. Real-time systems generally include tasks that are scheduled, where the tasks are placed in a sequence for execution based on the requirements of the process. The application must meet certain eligibility parameters such as priorities or deadlines in order to satisfy the timeliness requirements of the process. Just-in-time compilers were introduced into second generation Java Virtual Machines (JVM™)* to provide a substantial increase in performance. While processing speed is certainly a factor in a real-time environment, timeliness and predictability are needed for deterministic behavior. The RTJ specification allows developers and device manufacturers the ability to meet deterministic, time-critical constraints necessary for Java technology-based applications. Java applications developed to run platform independent present a very compelling case for embedded systems. Coupling the JVM with the real-time operating system (RTOS) that best fits the specific functional service re- requirements of the system or device targeted results in a very straight forward, compact, and efficient development process. The platform independence of Java technology lends itself to development of embedded devices that must now operate in highly distributed, Web-centric environments.
* The terms “Java™ Virtual Machine” and “JVM™” mean a virtual machine for the Java platform.

Sun Microsystems, Inc.


Cyberonics, a systems integration engineering company, offers a Java technologybased control system for real-time operations. The company offers a Java technologycontrolled soft real-time (22-30 ms) Process Logic Controller running Sun’s JVM straight off the Web on UNIX®, Microsoft Windows and Linux OS. Wind River Systems has developed Personal Jworks, an implementation of Sun’s PersonalJava™ Application Environment on their VxWorks embedded RTOS. Personal Jworks combine platform independence and Internet readiness of PersonalJava Technology with the real-time determinism of VxWorks. Personal Jworks enables Java applets and applications to executed as efficiently as C or C++ code. Any Java bytecode may be loaded from the network or from local file systems.

Real-World Java Technology Implementations
Adopting and implementing Java technologies within an industrial automation control environment is proving to be a natural fit. Information systems technology is moving down from the realm of business systems and converging with control systems on the plant floor. In the same way that enterprise business systems are designed into a system architecture of self-describing objects with properties, methods, and interfaces, factory floor operations can be defined using the same methodology. Factory automation objects can be encapsulated, that is, all of the functionality of the manufacturing process that a particular object component captures is selfcontained inside the object. When a single object is instantiated it has a life of its own, complete with state, an ability to interface with other objects or components, and even inherit the attributes and methods of other objects. The use of JavaBeans component architecture in this environment is a sound approach for employing object-based component techniques. Today, the Java programming language represents one of the best implementations of these object-oriented design principles. Enterprise JavaBeans technology, for example, will provide a very logical and efficient way to construct a set of manufacturing components that capture an entire plant floor operation.

The Value Proposition For Java-Based Controls
A distinct advantage of Java technology in manufacturing sectors is its unique ability to provide a common Web-centric development platform. The scalability of Java-based controls can range from embedded devices through high-end servers. Web browsers will be included on HMIs as a part of the standard interface on the plant floor resulting in Internet-connected control architectures. Combining Java-based plant floor controls with Web servers that will span from the factory floor to enterprise tiers will enable an entirely new level of connectivity and


Java™ Technology Powers e-Manufacturing

collaboration between factory systems and enterprise business systems. Java technology-based HMI is one of the principal reasons for the adoption of Internet protocols like HTML and XML that drive the graphical user interfaces (GUI) for factory controllers. By employing Java technologybased technology, control suppliers and OEMs are able to configure and integrate automation systems as components of a Web-centric factory computing architecture. Web browsers will be included on HMIs as a part of the standard interface on the plant floor resulting in Internet-connected control architectures.

Java Technology As the Universal Interface–From Sensors To People
One area that holds significant promise in distributed networks is the Java™ technology-based architecture for the self-registration of services and devices—Jini™ network technology. In a Java technology-based network, Jini technology provides an explicit protocol that allows applications and devices to register and join a network. With Jini technology, installation and removal of applications and devices is straightforward and simple. Smart devices and services operating in a Jini technology-enabled environment can communicate directly without the use of an intermediate computer or PLC. A controller unit may function as a system on a chip or use a Java technology-based CPU. The controller then communicates to a Jini technology-enabled network to register itself in order to provide status and other control information. In a highly distributed factory floor control system the ability to start and stop services or devices with a minimum of configuration will represent a distinct advantage for the control engineer. The Jini technology-enabled application could prove to be a significant way to simplify installation of devices and control networks.

eGasStation Connects Petroleum Retailers to the Pump
Connecting the neighborhood gas station directly into the petroleum product supply chain is now possible using Java technology. Remote monitoring and control of gas pumps, point of sale systems, and ancillary devices, from the service station to the supplier across the Internet is becoming a reality. eGasStation is currently operational at two pilot locations in Europe and North America. Unveiled at the ISA Expo 2000, this technology enables the integration of gasoline pumps and point-of-sales devices into a Web-based information technology infrastructure. Petroleum product supply-chain personnel can remotely view and monitor in real-time the delivery and sale of gasoline at any pump or device. The technology employed in the eGasStation project will permit petroleum retailers to know in real-time what products are selling by specific location. Being exposed to

Sun Microsystems, Inc.


information that is immediate and timely will allow supply-chain personnel to optimize refinery, delivery, and distribution operations. However, the potential benefits of this level of connectivity promises to be far-reaching, and will extend well beyond supply-chain operations. Another example of this is Java technology solutions for the automotive industry. Invehicle navigation, entertainment and diagnostic systems are becoming more visible in automobiles worldwide. The driver will be able to stay well connected because these cars will be equipped with continuous YASKAWA OEM HMI development Available with PCNC Internal development of JAVA CNC libraries OKUMA End user application tools Plantwide initiative Partnered with NetAccess broadband signals that will offer realtime information on traffic, weather, entertainment, and other services. Well connected cars will be able to collaborate with the eGasStation by making data downloads and uploads during re-fueling stops. Since cars

CNC Suppliers and Machine Tool Builders Are Leveraging JAVA Capabilities

frequent gas stations much more often than service facilities, eGasStation will be the ideal connection point to collect diagnostic and service status information on the car.

Java Technology-Based Solutions For Industry Verticals
Industrial automation suppliers, OEMs, and end users are adopting and implementing Java technology-based products and solutions into a diverse range of industry verticals.

Machine Tool Suppliers and OEMs Leverage Java Technology
Yaskawa, a machine tool controller supplier, has elected to develop an e-manufacturing CNC HMI environment based on Java technology with their PC NC CNC platform. Running on an NT operating system, Yaskawa’s Java technology HMI software enables the platform to utilize Web-based technology that binds together the machine, the operator, and the enterprise tiers. Using Java technology for the base system for the CNC provides platform independence, and gives this system a high degree of flexibility. Okuma, another CNC supplier is evolving from the machine tool business to an emanufacturing solution provider and business enterprise enabler. Their MacMan ecollaboration suite was developed to provide an enterprise-wide collaboration solution for machining centers across the factory floor, and is based on Java technology. Okuma supplies machining solutions for automotive and heavy machinery production lines by combining robotics from Fanuc and specialized machinery. Okuma’s Java technology-based MacMan Intranet server solution acts as a Webenabled coordinator that connects CAD/CAM applications, data management of the


Java™ Technology Powers e-Manufacturing

manufacturing environment, and remote machine monitoring and diagnostics. This type of Web-centric architecture represents a clear next step for the collaboration of manufacturing processes, engineering design definition, and the machining center. Java technology was the natural choice for Okuma to develop this type of Web-based machine tool collaboration framework.

Java Technology Connects the Factory Floor To the Internet
Emation is an industrial automation provider that leverages Internet technologies to connect a wide range of manufacturing verticals to Web-based systems. Their Javabased Web@aGlance software, which is part of their Device Relationship Management (DRM) solution, is installed solely on the web server. With connectivity to all major SCADA, DCS, and Data Historian software, Web@aGlance serves as the data integrator, or portal, for all of the plant’s operational data. It enables the user to deploy web applications that provide a graphical view of both real-time and historical data. Users can create custom graphical displays and trend charts that deliver information specific to the process being executed. Web@aGlance functions well in a Web-centric environment due to specific Java platform functionality. When the user navigates to a live web page with their browser, a Java applet and description file are downloaded from the web server. The Java applet reads the description file and creates corresponding animated graphics that renders displays and reports the contents of the process. Schneider Automation is embracing Java technology by using it as a core component of their Transparent Factory automation framework. With the development of their Web Embedded Server, Schneider is bringing Java technology-based Internet-based technologies to industrial automation. The Java platform is also the foundation for FactoryCast, a software development kit (SDK) intended for application engineers who want to write Java applets or applications that communicate with Schneider Automation’s Quantum or Premium controllers via Ethernet TCP/IP. The FactoryCast SDK includes a communications library of class files written in the Java programming language and a graphic editor Application Program Interface (API) that describes the API that is provided for developers to create graphic objects (Java Beans Components) for use in the FactoryCast Graphic Editor. Also included are FactoryCast Widgets, a set of Java applets and applications that use the set of predefined, graphic objects (Widgets) included with the FactoryCast Graphic Editor. Java technology-based applications like FactoryCast will enable Schneider Automation to implement the components of their Transparent Factory across the plant floor.

Sun Microsystems, Inc.


Java Technology-Based Controls Offer the Flexibility of Platform Independence
Automation controls provider Softing GmbH, a German-based independent supplier of control and communication technology for industrial applications has incorporated Java technology into their open control PC-based automation controls product-4CONTROL. 4CONTROL is a PC-based automation system offering control, visualization and programming at the same time. It offers the use of the five IEC 61131-3 programming languages or Java technology as a development platform for controls logic. Using Java technology affords a completely platform-independent controls solution for realtime, soft-PLC that has Internet-based connectivity. Commotion Technology, recently acquired by PRI Automation, Inc., head-quartered in Billerica, Massachusetts, develops PC-based industrial automation software. Their primary product, ControlFoundry, is a workcell control application that integrates all aspects of workcell control: coordinated multi-axis motion control, vision inspection and guidance, analog and digital I/O, Web-based status and control, and 3-D simulation. ContolFoundry is written entirely in the Java programming language. This control application uses the power of Java technology to provide a powerful and flexible simulation and on-line diagnostic environment. The Java platform’s built-in support for networking and multiple platform compatibility enables on-line simulation capability. The tight integration between Java technology and standard Internet browsers allows controls simulation models to distributed and executed over the Internet using standard software on any operating systems and hardware platform. On-line 3-D simulation and real-time trajectory generation require repeated transform-multiply operations. Commotion’s studies have demonstrated that Java technology is capable of performing complicated mathematical operations with more than sufficient speed. These studies have shown that the Java programming language is actually faster than C in the transform-multiply applications, and further performance improvements are possible with the introduction of high-speed dynamic compilation applications. Auspice, working in partnership with EDS to integrate a Java technology-based remote monitoring and control across the enterprise, is developing their TLX solution for the Solaris™ Operating Environment. TLX utilizes the Java programming language to allow users to control large and complex process control systems with minimal human intervention. EDS is using TLX to extend the Java enterprise computing initiative to the manufacturing plant floor.


Java™ Technology Powers e-Manufacturing

Industrial automation controls applications will continue to grow as automation suppliers build their products with Java technology in order to leverage the move to Intranet/Internet-based e-manufacturing solutions. Already the predominant technology in the thin-client, browser-based environment, using Java technology to power factory controls will insure integration and connectivity across the plant floor and beyond.

Sun Microsystems, Inc.


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