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Incidental Vocabulary Learning in a Quiz Game (Part I: Without Pre-Learning Activity) Walter KLINGER We learn the greater part of our vocabulary as native language learners incidentally or implicitly, compared to a much smaller number of words learned, intentionally or explicitly, from studying word lists, and looking up words in the dictionary. Incidental learning takes place in more casual contexts such as everyday conversation, watching TV and movies, and reading, where one guesses the meaning of a word from the context. In EFL/ESL classes, activities such as games are often employed to encourage speaking, usually in a rather carefree atmosphere without the stresses of more academically oriented study, such as written translation exercises, and memorization of rules and lists. The purpose of this study was to find out what kinds of words might be likely to be learned incidentally while playing a quiz game. While the results of academic work can be readily tested, and indeed students expect to be tested, games are not usually regarded as activities that are followed up by tests. In the present experiment, I told first year students in my university EFL classes to pay attention to new vocabulary before starting to play a quiz game, and that in the next class the following week I would be asking them about which new words they remembered. The results of the test show that very few of some 220 vocabulary items, that were probably unknown before playing the game, were remembered. This result was not unexpected, as I told the students that the test would not count towards the final grade. The students were thus without that particular motivation. Of course, I am quite certain that if I had said that the test would count towards a grade, they would have studied the vocabulary harder and learned many more words. Other factors were involved in the low recall result. With 45 quiz cards, inevitably some cards were not played during the allotted 80 minutes of game time; so, some words were not seen at all. At least one group of players chose to play 2 Walter KLINGER mainly cards that involved names of countries; so, they didn’t see most of the new words. The sheer number of words that were probably unknown, also surely inhibited learning; a smaller number would probably have been more noticed, and remembered. Any new, or unknown words appeared only once; or, occasionally, twice on the quiz cards, so the students had just a brief exposure to them. The week after the game was played, I handed out sheets of paper with a list of keywords from the category titles. I asked the students to write down any words that they remembered that they didn’t know before playing the game. I allowed the students to work in groups and consult each other; in part, to create a non-stressful atmosphere, and also because I wasn’t trying to find out individual results. I walked around the classroom and talked with the groups. When I saw students writing words that I thought they surely knew, I asked them if those were really words they didn’t know before the game; some students then erased or crossed out those words. Students said the game had refreshed their memory of the spelling of some words, or refreshed their memory of words they had learned before but had half-forgotten, like oxygen. Some words are pronounced similarly in English and Japanese; but, some students said they had never seen the English spelling for words like kangaroo and cheetah. Some new words were words that students said they vaguely knew, like Gone With the Wind. Other “new” words were not unknown; but, were people or items that students didn’t know belonged in that category; like, Elton John in Top Selling Artists. Many girls, especially, were somewhat familiar with the names of the planets since they appear as names of characters in the popular anime series, “Sailor Moon;” but, they told me they didn’t know that they were English names of planets; or, that they hadn’t seen the words written in English. Some responses came close to learning the word, as wave his tail at least visually approximates wag his tail, and ninjabumeran seems a reasonable interpretation of ninja stars as ninja boomerang. I would guess that the Beatles song She Loves You was often remembered (even half-remembered as She Loves Me and She Loves New York), because it is a simple and vivid combination of words. The same principle applies for Every Little Thing, a Beatles song title that I think was genuinely new to everyone, including me. I’m not sure from what word gorvious and sarvel were learned; perhaps glorious and marvellous, though they do sound like legitimate English words. One group struggled unsuccessfully to remember ninja star from the category A Incidental Vocabulary Learning in a Quiz Game, Part I 3 Weapons You Throw --the word was on the tip of their tongues; but, it didn’t quite come to mind. This last comment in particular points to the actual intent of the test: to find out what kinds of words were likely to be learned incidentally from playing the game. Would words that induced vivid visual or auditory imagery be remembered? Or, perhaps it would be words in certain categories. In the case of ninja star, the Japanese word shuriken (literally, hand- hidden-sword) was no doubt well known to these students, as were the words ninja and star. All these words carry a good deal of visual imagery and familiarity. While they were playing the quiz game, I noticed that many groups were very interested and excited at learning this new English word—even though it is derived from Japanese. Many groups of students in the following week did list ninja star as a word they had learned. Students also leaned new words in the categories of animals, planets, chemical elements, and song titles. Pluto, dragonfly, hornet, silicon, nitrogen, and potassium appear to be genuinely newly learned words for many students. These results suggest that strong visual imagery, previously known words in new combinations, and words and concepts that are interesting to learn because of personal preferences, all contribute to making words memorable. No new words seemed to have been learned in the categories of Words ending in -zy, Slang Words for Vomit, or Slang Words for Money, which I thought might have some personal appeal to some people. While a small number of new words seemed to have been learned in the game--at least for a week, the spelling of the words was usually not learned. The letters “l” and “r” were especially often confused, a typical problem for Japanese learners of English; for example, siricon for silicon, prikan for pelican, sperial for Superior. “R”s were also often either dropped or added, as in Virnus for Venus, Nepturn for Neptune, and honet for hornet. Compounding the difficulties is that English words often have particularly devious spelling in relation to pronunciation, and many need to be learned by rote, along with many rules. It is thus easy to sympathize with an EFL student who writes oqqupation. Japanese students whose native language typically has a consonant-vowel-consonant- vowel pronunciation pattern also have difficulties with English consonants in pairs, producing errors like hydorogen for hydrogen, doragon for dragon, and dorufin for dolphin. The opposite phenomenon also occurs, an inadvertent dropping of vowels. Knowing that Japanese words always end with a vowel, except for words ending with n, and English words 4 Walter KLINGER seldom end with a vowel, and often are spelled with combinations of consonants, Japanese speakers often omit English vowels. I have frequently heard Toronto as Toront, Orlando as Orland, and San Francisco as San Francisc --and in this study, Pluto is spelled prute and Proot, wallabee becomes wlabee, and cheetah, chter. To remember the spelling of words, learners need to look closely at them, and have repeated exposure to many words to start to understand how the English spelling system works. The “Look, Cover, Write, Check” or, even better, the “Look, say, cover, write and check” methods are commonly used for teaching spelling to native English speaking (NES) primary school children. Considering these difficulties, I told the students not to worry about the spelling during this test, so that they would not hesitate to write a word they might have learned in fear or embarrassment of misspelling it. In foreign language learning, incidental learning is quite highly regarded. Maruyama (1995) polled 22 high school teachers in Japan, asking, “Do you agree with the hypothesis that vocabulary is best acquired (incidentally and effortlessly) through reading?” 95.5% of the respondents said yes, with the remaining saying that the most important factor in vocabulary growth is television. Strangely, considering that the visual information would surely help learners understand the meaning of much of the vocabulary and grammar, as many as 27% of those teachers thought reading comic books would not help enlarge one’s vocabulary, while 31.8% had no opinion and 41.0% thought that it would help. I assume this result reflects a cultural bias against comic books and manga as something only children and illiterate or frivolous adults should read, and a professional bias against learning as “fun,” if comics are thought of as lightweight entertainment compared to high-minded, non-illustrated literature. Then again, there could be some validity in the notion that too much of a relaxed atmosphere works against remembering. Gnoinska (1998) found that words printed on blue or red cards were remembered the best, while those written on green, which was most students’ favorite color, had the worst results. Gnoinska suggests “Its relaxing qualities could have had a distracting influence on students.” Similarly, the students seemed to enjoy playing my game, in a relaxed atmosphere, but as the results indicate, little vocabulary learning seemed to have taken place. In a previous article (Klinger 2000), I reported the similarly poor outcome of Incidental Vocabulary Learning in a Quiz Game, Part I 5 incidental learning in a card game using pictures accompanying sentences; but, also discussed the strong influences of visual material on memory. Despite the apparent low return on the time spent on activities which seem more fun and frivolous than serious, there are many benefits from using speaking activities, which I discussed in Klinger (1999), such as increasing confidence and motivation, and, by the manipulation of words and grammar, helping learners make sense of what has been studied academically in textbooks. In Klinger (1996), I discussed the merits of using many and varied techniques that focus sometimes on form, such as learning the rules of language, and sometimes on meaning, such as in communicative activities, and using techniques that appeal to the whole brain, especially creative activities in interactive social situations that arouse interest and attention. This study took place in 2002; in 2003, I did a second study, with new classes of freshmen, who I asked to go on the internet, to a site with a list I had prepared of what I thought might be unknown vocabulary, and to check any new words. Thus, the 2003 students thus had a little more exposure to the new words. I will report on the result of incidental learning from that study, comparing them to this 2002 study, and also discuss what words were unknown to different groups of students majoring in Engineering, Environmental Science, Human Cultures, and Nursing, in Part II in next year’s journal. The quiz game, which I developed referring to several sources of lists and categories (Ash 2000, Ash 2000b, Endless Games 1998, McWhirter 1999, and various internet sources), is included in this report. Also included are typed reproductions of the handwritten test papers submitted from two classes of Engineering majors. Ash, Russell. (2000). Factastic Book of 1001 Lists. DK Publishing. Ash, Russell. (2000b). Top 10 of Everything. DK Publishing. Endless Games. (1998). The Family Feud. (board game) Gnoinska, Anna. (1998). Teaching Vocabulary in Colour. English Teaching Forum, 36 (3). http://exchanges.state.gov/forum/vols/vol36/no3/p12.htm Klinger, Walter. (2000). Effects Of Pictures On Memory & Learning. Academic Reports of The University Center for Intercultural Education, The University of Shiga Prefecture, 5, 67-86. http://www2.ice.usp.ac.jp/wklinger/QA/articles/kiyou2000/kiyou2000.html Klinger, Walter. (1999). Unrehearsed Speaking Activities for Language Learning. Academic Reports of The University Center for Intercultural Education, The University of Shiga Prefecture, 4, 79-98. http://www2.ice.usp.ac.jp/wklinger/QA/articles/kiyou99/k99speak.html Klinger, Walter. (1996). Turning Language Studied Into Language Learned: Considering How The Brain Processes Information. Academic Reports of The University Center for Intercultural Education, The University of Shiga Prefecture, 1, 65-78. http://www2.ice.usp.ac.jp/wklinger/QA/articles/kiyou96/k96turn.htm Maruyama, Fukuji. (1995). Expanding Vocabulary Through Reading. English Teaching Forum, 33 (4). http://exchanges.state.gov/forum/vols/vol33/no4/p36.htm McWhirter, Norris. (1999). Norris McWhirter’s Book of Millennium Records. London: Virgin. 6 Walter KLINGER Thanks also to Karen and Joe, Pat and Mike, Judy and Dave, for trying out the game with me and providing good answers to the categories. The game included in this report is somewhat revised from the one the 2002 students played. Did you finish your homework? was removed from Parents might say this to their children before they go to sleep, after I was advised that bedtime would be much too late to ask that question. It turned out to be a memorable phrase for some students, nonetheless. School of Engineering Class #1 24 papers (+ 4 blank papers): oxygen oxigen ninja star security guard hand granade Virnus kangaroo nitrogen bee silicon cheeter dragon fly hydorogen wolf mars jupiter falcon (crossed out: cheater skank teata cat, crazy, cool, Every little thing good-by) she is woman. dragonfly Jupiter N2 Pluto honet every little things Every little thing wolf Si dragon fly spiar oxygen spear Mercury oxigen nitrogen hydrogen bow oxigen ninja star moon marcury Mars Uranus hydorogen carbon silicon nitrogen hidrogen catapila honet jupiter clazy eagle dragon fly microscope kangaroo marth prute cobra wolf bark wave his tail No parking marth Saturn Jupiter cheater skank Beatles check brow cheater kaspi Have you finished bee crazy bowwerow homework? bit kaspi security guard spear oxident Ninja star dinamite gun thord spear Si jupiter carbon oxidents Hydrogen fireman ninja star hand granade no smoking moon marcury Nepturn corbon marze policeman Proot Mars crazy mars eagle Dragon fly cow scank saraliman dragon fly ~scope size dragon fly kangaroo kangaroo crazy ox earth No parking Every little thing shiba kogei ignore crazy Every little thing sun bee thermometer she is woman lazy crazy check she is girl condor human check ｽﾍﾟﾘｵﾙ湖 ｴﾘｰ湖 horse kangaroo Beatles to say “Good- fine lazy 1$ Did you finish Mraia Carry bye”. good-by kiss your homework? School of Engineering Class #2 48 papers (blank papers: 0): I love you. security policeman oxygen Jupitar Every Little Thing ninja star ninja stars Every Little Thing Elton John Misigan ery dingo coala doragon fly She Loves You She love you Ontalio Maria Carry Incidental Vocabulary Learning in a Quiz Game, Part I 7 boomelan Ninja stars ningya star Ninja stars hand grenade nepturn low Iron Oxygen Saturn oxin Mars oxygen hydrogen hydrogen oxygen cheeter condol Sutan dragon fly bills Mars dragon fly carbon pigeon don’t parking doragon fly superior Every Little thing she loves you dragonfly crazy mink wlabee She loves me She loves you cozy Iron Mars boom meran axe garman ninja star gardman Oxygen gard man silicon Jupiter Uranus iron mercury silicon vinus security gard Jupiter Neptune vinus gazel dragon fly urnes prikan gazel pijon carbon hydrogen fox bee wolf rat manumal tail wave bits falcon bee neon dragonfly see you tomorrow. bad boy mink walabee Elie sperial hyena fuzzy bee I love you fuzzy fantastic fantastic patient tasmaniandevil Every little thing patient taxi she loves you ninja star dart ninjya stars security guard siricon oxigene grenade Neon siricon chirter spier spiar oxin speed Neptune Marculy silicon Neptune Doragon Fly security gard mars Marqury I love you pision eager eagle goat cozy iron doragon fly doragon fly V sign wolf coara wolf wallabe sweet dream. bee bills patient cry 100$ patient broadcast Elly Billy Joel tasmanian-devil mask BEATLES barcode 1,000 yen she loves you walabee Every Little thing Every little Thing I love you. patient price Forest Gump screem taxi She loves you She loves you Erie she loves you My girl the West side story greatest hits sarvel oxygen AX weapon oxygen hydrogen low 弓 Hydrogen helium NINJA star oqqupation Hydrogen oxygen vinus chemistry Argon Satan dart spier Gardman Satan Mars Jupitar Mars oxygon Mars Vinus boomrun Hydrogen cheatar kanga cheater condol dragon flyt Condor noe security gard Helium Neion Don’t walk kangoro quiet dorufin kangarue satellite forest watcher silicon calcium barometer satellite price temperture Don’t stop Iron cheater Mars Neptune satellite size come on! cash special Be quiet bat bee fly pesion Albartnoss Barcord size Misigan Superior gorvious barometer traffic signal hyena hound good-bye Every little thing cry greet crazy dezy map gun fuzzy cool come on she loves you. “Have you Barcord size crazy blood fantastic catch the taxi My fair lady finished the good-bye dark scream Elie Sperior Misigan Huron homework?” come on Elton Jon I will get up at catche the taxi Elvis seven. misigan huron Every little thing Speriork Micigon Elton John she loves you Elvis Presly Every little sing she loves you 8 Walter KLINGER ninja star spiar ninja star grenade Mars Neptune ninjabumeran dart spier ninja star spioer AX siricon Neptune chiter farcon lanser ax boomerun boomrun boomeran cheter albatoros condor Oxygen security gard security urdman security guard eagle gout doragon fly Hydrogen forest watcher forest watcher Forest watcher wolf cow fox warabe Mars chter carbon carbon carbon coara I love you. dragonfly hydrogen Hydrogen hydrogen barometer Do you finish bee ignore iron cheater Iron cheater Neon iron speedmeter homework? satellite clazy bee fly kangroo cheetar one dollor Elly Speriol umbranse tasmanian devil crzy blood bee fly patient bite Micigan Eri Misigan crazy scream sqream byson waruby くしやみする Ontario Speriol Oscar taxi blood screaming I love you siricon security gardman secruty gard grenade siricon spare silicon allow ninja star dragonfly cozy mars Jupiter Jupiter sparrow neputure eagle Mars cheter element carbon good sweet dream pigen condol taco mater earaby kangare pelican dragon fly condol Billy Joel Every little thing Eary speed meter coyote bill cow family she loves you she loves New York Every little thing ordio country of origin baison beaber she loves you fiber content Lists (Guinness) Card Game: How to Play: * Form 2 teams. (One person on one team is ok.) * You have a deck of Lists Cards. Each team takes half of the cards. * Get a piece of paper to keep score. * Team A looks at a card and reads the question to Team B. * Team B get a point for each correct answer. * Team B takes a card and asks Team A the question. * Continue until all the cards have been played. * The team that scores the most points is the winner! Incidental Vocabulary Learning in a Quiz Game, Part I 9 You can do this You can open this. E.g., This is hard to eat open a door at the beach with chopsticks 箸 or a window. ＊ breakfast cereal ＊ barbeque ＊ book ＊ box ＊ bottle ＊ corn flakes ＊ build a sand castle 砂の城＊ collect ＊ can ＊ curtain ＊ corn shells 貝殻を拾う ＊ car trunk / hood ボンネット ＊ chawan mushi ＊ dive ＊ fish ＊ jet ski ＊ ＊ curry rice ＊ drawer 引き出し parasail ＊ play catch ＊ custard / pudding キャッチボールをする ＊ gift / present ＊ jar ＊ egg ＊ green peas ＊ play frisbee フリスビー ＊ letter 手紙 / mail 郵便物 ＊ jelly / gelatin ＊ play volleyball ＊ read ＊ ＊ purse ハンドバッグ ＊ ice cream scuba dive ＊ surf ＊ refrigerator 冷蔵庫 ＊ “Pocky” chocolate sticks ＊ suntan 日焼け ＊ swim ＊ soup ＊ toast ＊ “blindfolded 目隠しされた watermelon breaking ＊ wallet 財布 (splitting) game” すいかわり ＊ your mouth ＊your mind ＊ your ＊ tofu heart ＊ zipper ＊ tomato ＊ yoghurt food that is round in shape, like A reason to pizza A noise you can hear in a 幽霊のでる have a party. (not ball shape) ＊ biscuit ＊ cake haunted house. ＊ cookie ＊ crab カニ ＊ boo ＊ anniversary ＊ cracker ＊donut ＊ creak キーキーいう音 ＊ birthday ＊ fried egg ＊ doors closing ＊ baby shower 出産前の母親に ベビー用品を贈るパーティ ＊ hamburger ＊ footsteps 足音 ＊ celebrate an ＊ mochi ＊ groan うなり achievement 成就 ＊ omelet ＊ pie ＊ howl ほえる ＊ end of school ＊ pancake / hotcake / flapjack ＊ laugh ＊ engagement 婚約 ＊ pita bread ＊ moan うめき声 ＊ graduation 卒業 ＊ potato chips ＊ rattle ガタガタ ＊ holiday (Christmas, ＊ senbei ＊ scratch 引っ掻く New Year, Valentine, etc.) ＊ sliced sushi / sliced hardboiled ＊ scream / shriek 金切り声 ＊ job promotion 促進 egg / (other sliced food) ＊ tart ＊ shout / yell 大声を上げる ＊ retirement 退職 ＊ shutters 雨戸 banging ＊ wedding 結婚式 ＊ wind whistling ピューと鳴る ＊ winning a contest 10 Walter KLINGER This place might have a you wave your hand 手を振る special area for something in an ambulance 救急車 when you do this children ＊ bandages ほうたい ＊ saying hello ＊ amusement park 遊園地 ＊ blood ＊ curtains ＊ saying goodbye ＊ bookstore ＊ defibrillator 心臓細動除去器 ＊ saying “enough” ＊ dental clinic ＊ saying “no” ＊ gauze ガーゼ ＊ department store ＊ dancing (hula, awa odori, etc.) ＊ shoe store ＊ IV 静脈注射の bottle ＊ getting someone’s attention ＊ clothing store ＊ monitor ＊ catching (hail, flag ) ＊ (other store) ＊ oxygen 酸素 呼び止める ＊ drive-in theater a taxi (a cab) ドライブイン映画劇場 ＊ paramedic 医療補助員 ＊ directing traffic ＊ hospital ＊ patient 患者 / medicine 交通整理をする ＊ library ＊ sheets / blankets ＊ shooing away ＊ park 公園 シーッと追い払う ＊ stethoscope 聴診器 ＊ swimming pool an insect or a person ＊ zoo ＊ stretcher/gurney 担架 A word ending with A sign 標識 that people information the letters “zy,” often ignore 無視する . on the tag of new e.g.,”lazy” なまける. clothes, e,g,, on a ＊ Do Not Enter ＊ Don’t Walk buzzy 酔っぱらっている shirt or pants. cozy 居心地のよい ＊ Keep Off the Grass ＊ bar code バーコード 芝生に入るな crazy 気のくるった ＊ No Eating in the Store ditzy 狂った ＊ brand name ＊ No Parking dizzy 目まいがして ＊ country of origin 製造 doozy 凄い物 ＊ fiber content 繊維含有率 ＊ No Smoking fizzy シューシュー泡立つ ＊ No Trespassing 立入禁止 ＊ maker (manufacturer) frenzy 狂乱 ＊ Quiet ＊ price fuzzy ぼやけた ＊ Slow / Reduce Speed gauzy 薄く透き通る ＊ size ＊ Speed Limit glazy 目がどんよりした ＊ washing instructions 洗濯の注意 ＊ Stop hazy もやのかかった ＊ Turn Off After Use jazzy 活気のある ＊ Yield ゆずれ, 譲れ ritzy 豪勢な sleazy だらしのない tizzy 混乱状態 woozy 頭がぼんやりして Incidental Vocabulary Learning in a Quiz Game, Part I 11 a mammal 哺乳類 starting an animal in the weasel a 有袋類 with marsupial family the letter “c”. (Mustelidae イタチ科). ＊ camel ラクダ ＊ bandicoot / bilby バンディクート ＊ ＊ badger アナグマ ＊ capuchin オマキザル ＊ ermine シロテン、オコジョ ＊ ferret シロイ cuscus クスクス ＊ ＊ capybara カピバラ タチ ＊ caracal カラカル kangaroo ＊ koala コアラ ＊ fisher フィッシャー ＊ caribou カリブー ＊ marten テン ＊ opossum/possum オポッサム ＊ ＊ cat ＊ chamois シャモア ＊ mink ミンク ＊ cheetah Sminthopsis スミンソプシス ＊ otter カワウソ、らっこ ＊ chimpanzee チンパンジー ＊ polecat ケナガイタチ ＊ Tasmanian Devil フクロアナグマ ＊ chinchilla チンチラ ＊ sable クロテン ＊ chipmunk シマリス ＊ Tasmanian Wolf フクロオオカミ ＊ skunk スカンク ＊ civet ジャコウネコ ＊ stoat シロテン ＊ wallaby ワラビー ＊ ＊ coatimundi, coati ハナグマ ＊ cougar ＊ wolverine クズリ ＊ cow wombat ウォンバット ＊ coyote コヨーテ An occupation 職業 A sign a weapon 武器 you that might be at the beach: throw very lonely “No… * bolo / bola 鉄の玉のついた投げ なわ（獣の足に投げつけてからませる） ＊ astronaut 宇宙飛行士 ＊ astronomer 天文学者 * boomerang ブーメラン what ?” * dart 投げ矢 ＊ forest ranger 山林監視人 * hammer ＊ No Alcohol ＊ judge 審査員 * hand grenade 手りゅう弾 * harpoon 銛 ＊ No B-B-Q ＊ late-shift 遅番 store clerk * knife ＊ No Fireworks 花火 ＊ lighthouse keeper 灯台守＊ mortician 葬 儀屋 * lasso 投げ縄 ＊ No Fishing ＊ night watchman 夜警員 * Molotov cocktail / fire bomb 火炎瓶 ＊ No Food ＊ security guard 警備員 * net ＊ No Glass Bottles * ninja stars 手裏剣 ＊ No Nudity 裸禁止 ＊ truck driver * rock / stone ＊ No Open Fires * spear / lance / javelin 槍 ＊ No Pets * tomahawk 石斧 ＊ No Swimming 12 Walter KLINGER the countries with the highest A ruler 定規 measures percentage of people length 長さ. Name In what countries working as farmers other measuring are the largest instruments. ＊ Bhutan 93.9% ＊altimeter 高度計 (altitude) sports stadiums? ＊anemometer 風速計 (wind) ＊ Nepal 93.3% ＊barometer 気圧計 (air pressure) ＊calendar (days & months) ＊ Czech Republic (Strahov. Prague. Capacity 収容 ＊ Burkina 92.4% 力: 240,000) ＊clock (hours, minutes, seconds) ＊ Brazil (Maracana. Rio de Janeiro. ＊compass 磁石(directions) ＊ Rwanda 91.2% 205,000) ＊hygrometer 湿度計 (specific gravity) ＊ North Korea (Rungnado. Pyongyang. 150,000) ＊ Burundi 90.7% ＊odometer 積算計 ＊ Iran (National. Azadi. 128,000) ＊pedometer 歩数計 ＊ Niger 89.2% ＊ Portugal (Luz. Lisbon. 120,000) ＊protractor 分度器 (angles) ＊ Indonesia (Senayan. Jakarta. 120,000) ＊ Mali 89.2% ＊scales 秤 (weight) ＊seismometer 震度計 (earthquakes) ＊ India (Yuba Bharati. Calcutta. 120,000) ＊speedometer 速度計 ＊ Ethiopia 85.3% (vehicle speed) ＊thermometer 温度計 (temperature) ＊voltmeter 電圧計 (electricity) The Beatles have a Beatles song What slang word sold 164 million 俗語 means to vomit starting with albums in the USA. き出す 吐 What are the other ＊ the letter “E” top selling artists? ＊ barf blow beets/ blow chunks ＊ heave ＊ Eight Days A Week ＊ LED ZEPPELIN 105 million ＊ hurl ＊ Eleanor Rigby ＊ GARTH BROOKS 105m ＊ puke ＊ ELVIS PRESLEY 103m ＊ ralph ＊ retch ＊ rolph ＊ Every Little Thing ＊ EAGLES 86 m ＊ spew ＊ BILLY JOEL 77 m ＊ throw up ＊ Everybody’s Got Something To Hide Except For Me And My Monkey ＊ PINK FLOYD 73 m ＊ toss/blow/lose your ＊ BARBRA STREISAND 70 m cookies ＊ Everybody’s Trying ＊ ELTON JOHN 67 m ＊ toss/blow/lose your To Be My Baby ＊ AEROSMITH 63 m breakfast/lunch ＊ upchuck ＊ woof ＊ ROLLING STONES 63 m Incidental Vocabulary Learning in a Quiz Game, Part I 13 Cattle 畜牛& oxen 雄牛 Countries that use nuclear (cows & bulls) belong to the In the USA, there are 805 power 原子力 family Bovidae ウシ科. televisions per 1,000 population. Name other members. the most for electricity generation Name the other top TV-owning ＊ antelope レイヨウ (bushbuck, countries. rhebok, springbok, nyala, eland, oryx (as of 2002) オリックス, wildebeest/gnu ヌー, nilgai, kudu, bongo, topi, duiker, chiru, ＊ Lithuania 80.1% chamois シャモア) ＊ France 78.0% ＊ Monaco. 750 per 1,000 people. ＊ Belgium 57.3% ＊ banteng バンテン ＊ Slovakia 54.7% ＊ Malta. 749. ＊ buffalo, bison 水牛、バッファ ＊ Bulgaria 47.3% ＊ Canada. 714. ロー ＊ Ukraine 45.7% ＊ El Salvador. 689. ＊ gazelle ガゼル ＊ Sweden 45.7% ＊ goat ヤギ ＊ Slovenia 40.7% ＊ Japan. 684. ＊ ibex アイベックス ＊ Armenia 40.5% ＊ Oman. 657. ＊ Switzerland 39.5% ＊ impala インパラ ＊ France. 589. ＊ Korea 38.6% ＊ muskox ジャコウウシ ＊ Hungary 36.1% ＊ Denmark. 574. ＊ serow カモシカ ＊ Japan 34.5% ＊ Germany 29.9% ＊ sheep ヒツジ ＊ yak ヤク ＊ zebu コブウシ a dog does this something What country to tell you his beautiful starts with the you can see feelings. in the sky letter “F”? ＊ barks ほえる ＊ bites かむ * birds * butterflies ＊ cowers 縮こまる * clouds * kite 凧 ＊ Fiji ＊ Finland ＊ growls うなる * moon * Northern Lights / aurora 北極光、オーロラ ＊ France ＊ jumps up on you * rainbow ＊ licks your hand / face * shooting star, meteor 流れ星 ＊ ＊ pants 息を弾ませる stars ＊ puts his paw 足 on you * sunrise 日の出 ＊ wags his tail 尾をふる * sunset 日暮れ ＊ whimpers クンクン鳴く ＊ whines めそめそ愚痴を言う 14 Walter KLINGER countries the fastest countries with animals with the the highest in the sea highest recorded ＊ Sailfish バショウカジキ 110km/h さ て る 記 れ い recorded ＊ Swordfish メカジキ 100km/h 記 れ い さ て る ＊ Marlin マカジキ 80km/h rainfall temperatures ＊ Tuna (Bluefin /Yellowfin) 70-74 km/h ＊ India (Cherrapuni) 10,797mm ＊ Mali (Arouane) 54.4C ＊ Albacore ビンナガマグロ ＊ Columbia (Andagoya) 7,137mm ＊ Iran (Abadan) 52.8C ＊ Bonito カツオ 65-70 km/h ＊ Samoa (Pago Pago) 4,928mm ＊ Australia (Cloncurry) 52.8C ＊ Wahoo (Acanthocybium solandri) ＊ Burma (Moulmein) 4,826mm 65-70 km/h カマスサワラ ＊ Sudan (Wadi Halfa) 52.8C ＊ Indonesia (Tabing) 4,445mm ＊ Egypt (Aswan) 51.1C ＊ Liberia (Monrovia) 4,420mm ＊ Algeria (Fort Flatters) 51.1C mammals the fastest birds the fastest land ほ乳動物 with the animals longest tails ＊ Peregrine Falcon ハヤブサ diving=298 km/h ＊ Golden Eagle ＊ cheetah 105km/h ＊ elephant (Asian 150cm, イヌワシ 240 km/h ＊ Spine-tailed Swift ＊ antelope (Pronghorn) African 130cm) レイヨウ 89 km/h アマツバメ 171 km/h ＊ leopard ヒョウ 140cm ＊ Racing Pigeon ＊ gazelle ガゼル (Mongolian, Thomson’s) 76- レース鳩 177 km/h 80km/h ＊ buffalo バッファロー ＊ Frigate bird 軍艦鳥 153 km/h ＊ springbok スプリングボック 80km/h (African) 110cm ＊ Spur-winged Goose ＊ lion 80 km/h ＊ giraffe キリン 110cm ツメバガン 142 km/h ＊ wildebeest / gnu ＊ Red-breasted Merganser ヌー 80 km/h ＊ kangaroo (Red) 110cm ミイ ウ ア サ 129 km/h ＊ langur ハヌマンラングール 110cm Incidental Vocabulary Learning in a Quiz Game, Part I 15 the birds the with the largest the fastest LONGEST wingspan 翼幅 insects ＊ stork コウノトリ(Marabou) 4m SNAKES ＊ albatross アホウドリ 3.7m ＊ swan ハクチョウ (Trumpeter, Mute, Whooper) ＊ python ニシキヘビ (Reticulated) ＊ dragonfly トンボ 32 km/h 3.1-3.4m 10.7m ＊ hornet スズメバチ 21 km/h ＊ pelican ペリカン (Grey) 3.1m ＊ anaconda アナコンダ 8.5m ＊ bee ミツバチ 18 km/h ＊ condor コンドル ＊ cobra コブラ (King) 5.8m ＊ horsefly (California) 3.1m ＊ boa constrictor 王ヘビ, ウマバエ、アブ 14 km/h ＊ vulture ハゲタカ (Black) 3.1m ボアコンストリクター 4.9m ＊ bustard ノガン (Great, Kori) 2.7m ＊ bushmaster ブッシュマスター 3.7m the most common the basic the planets elements 惑星 elements 元素 元素 of rocks ＊ Mercury 水星 in the universe 宇宙 ＊ Venus 金星 ＊ oxygen 酸素 46.5% ＊ Earth ＊ silicon ケイ素 28.9% ＊ hydrogen 水素 74% ＊ Mars 火星 ＊ aluminum アルミニウム 8.3% ＊ helium ヘリウム 24% ＊ Jupiter 木星 ＊ iron 鉄 4.8% ＊ oxygen 酸素 1% ＊ Saturn 土星 ＊ calcium カルシウム 4.1% ＊ carbon 炭素 0.5% ＊ Uranus 天王星 ＊ potassium カリウム 2.4% ＊ neon ネオン 0.14% ＊ Neptune 海王星 ＊ sodium ナトリウム 2.3% ＊ iron 鉄 0.12% ＊ Pluto 冥(めい)王星 ＊ magnesium マグネシウム 1.9% ＊ nitrogen ちっ素 0.10% 16 Walter KLINGER a four-legged Parents might say Things in a this to their children animal that lives medicine chest 救急箱 at bedtime. * antacid 制酸薬 * anti-histamine 抗ヒスタミン剤 * aspirin /pain killer 鎮痛剤 in the water. ＊ Good night. * bandages ＊ I love you. * cold remedy 風邪治療薬 ＊ alligator アメリカワニ ＊ Sweet dreams. * diarrhea 下痢 medicine ＊ beaver ビーバー ＊ Pleasant dreams. ＊ Sleep tight. * disinfectant 消毒薬 ＊ crocodile ワニ * first aid cream ＊ Sleep well. ＊ frog / toad ヒキガエル * laxative 下剤 ＊ Did you set your ＊ hippopotamus カバ alarm clock? * liniment 塗布薬 ＊ otter カワウソ、らっこ ＊ Did you brush your teeth? * scissors はさみ * thermometer 温度計 ＊ platypus カモノハシ ＊ I’ll wake you up (at 7:00/ * vitamins ＊ turtle 亀 in the morning/ etc). ＊ Go to sleep! ＊ Stay in bed! Where are things in When you this is used to collect alphabetical weather information go order ABC 順 ? ＊ address book swimming, this ＊ anemometer 風速計 ＊ balloon ＊ atlas 地図帳 index 索引 might ＊ barometer 気圧計 ＊ book index ＊ ＊ radar rain gauge *雨量計 ＊ cookbook index ＊ dictionary wash off 洗い落 ＊ satellite 衛星 ＊ encyclopedia 百科事典 とす ＊ thermometer 温度計 ＊ library ＊ anti-perspirant 制汗剤 ＊ weather vane 風向計 ＊ office directory ＊ bandage/bandaid 包帯 ＊ wind sock 円錐状吹き流し ＊ stock market 株式市場 list ＊ deodorant デオドラント, 脱臭剤 ＊ student list ＊ dirt / sand ＊ telephone book ＊ makeup /cosmetics 化粧品＊ perfume 香水 ＊ suntan lotion / sun-tan oil / sunblock 日焼け(止め)ローション ＊ insect repellent 虫よけ ＊ removable tattoo 入れ墨 Incidental Vocabulary Learning in a Quiz Game, Part I 17 something you When you do this, you cover part A word that means about the same can hear that of your face with your hand. * blow your nose 鼻をかむ as “wonderful” or “excellent” or is * brush your teeth * burp げっぷをする * cough せきをする “great” far away * pick ほじる your nose ＊ amazing おどろくべき * pick ほじる your teeth ＊ awesome 畏敬させる ＊ airplane * pluck your eyebrows ま ゆ を 抜 く ＊ brilliant ＊ bird * put in contact lenses ＊ extraordinary 非凡な ＊ explosion * put on / take off makeup ＊ fabulous すばらしい * shade your eyes from the sun ＊ fantastic 空想的な ＊ foghorn 濃霧号笛 * shave ひげそり ＊ marvellous ＊ frog * smell a bad smell ＊ outstanding 抜群の ＊ gun / gunshot * sneeze くしゃみをする ＊ stupendous とてつもない ＊ motorcycle gang 暴走族 * take an eye test 視力検査を受ける ＊ superb 豪華な * think * throw a kiss 投げ ＊ siren サイレン キスをする ＊ superlative ＊ sonic boom 衝撃波音 * wash / wipe your face ＊ [slang 俗語] ace / cool / * whisper ひそひそ話す dynamite / far out / groovy/ ＊ thunder 雷 * yawn あ び す く を る out of sight / super / sweet ＊ train ＊ waterfall Name a When you say goodbye to someone, the Great you might do this. country ＊ bow おじぎをする ＊ cry Lakes ＊ high five ハイファイブをして喜び合う beginning ＊ hug だきしめる 五大湖 ＊ kiss ＊ shake hands 米国のカナダ国境にある五つの湖水) *【暗記法】頭文字を取って HOMES with the ＊ slap on back 背中を叩く ＊ Huron ＊ smile ＊ Ontario letter “V” ＊ wave 振る ＊ Michigan ＊ Erie ＊ Vanuatu バヌアツ ＊ Superior ＊ Vatican バチカン市国 ＊ Venezuela ベネズエラ ＊ Vietnam ベトナム 18 Walter KLINGER When you want to What’s slang 俗語 for this is on a car take “money” ? dashboard and it their picture, children ＊ beans ＊ bills ＊ bread ＊bucks has numbers on it. ＊ cabbage ＊coin might do ＊ ＊ dinero ＊ dough green ＊ greenback ＊ clock ＊ gear indicator ＊ jack ＊ lettuce ＊ moolah 指針 (some cars) this. ＊ ＊ simoleons buck (=$1 bill 札) ＊ heater-air conditioner ＊ fin (=$5 bill) ＊ odometer 走行距離計 ＊ cry ＊ ten-spot (=$10 bill) ＊ radio / CD player ＊ giggle クスクス笑う ＊ G-note (=$100 bill) ＊ hide their face 顔をそむ ＊ C-note (=$1,000 bill) ＊ speedometer 速度計 ＊ look away ＊ plastic (=credit card) ＊ tachometer ＊ make faces 面白い顔をする コ ー ー 回転速度計, タ メ タ ＊ make the peace sign / “V” sign ＊ move around / fidget Wind, そわそわする rain, & clouds “Horse” begins ＊ run away / hide usually come with a ＊ smile ＊summer storm. What stick out their tongue teenagers with the letter “h”. 舌を出す what other else might animals might come ? *downburst 下降気流 *frogs complain begin with “h” ? *hail 雹の粒 *humidity 湿気 ＊ hamster ハムスター *hurricane / typhoon *lightning 電光 about this. ＊ hare 野ウサギ *mildew かび *mist 霞 ＊ hedgehog ハリネズミ * acne, pimples にきび *ozone オゾン / ＊ hippopotamus カバ * chores 家庭の雑用 negative ions 陰イオン * curfew 門限 ＊ hog ブタ *rainbow 虹 ＊ hound 猟犬 * everything *thunder 雷鳴 ＊ human 人間 * money/allowance *tornado 竜巻 小遣い、あてがい扶持 ＊ hyena ハイエナ *water spout 水の上の竜巻 * parents / adults ＊ hyrax イワダヌキ * privacy プライバシー * rules * school * teachers * homework * siblings 兄弟姉妹たち Incidental Vocabulary Learning in a Quiz Game, Part I 19 Mozart wrote 202 Michael Jackson’s in what countries “Thriller” sold 47 million are the world’s copies worldwide. hours of music. Name Name the other other prolific 多作の largest top selling albums. classical composers 作曲 universities? ＊ Greatest Hits Eagles. 40m ＊ The Bodyguard 家 . ＊ France (Univ of Paris 310,000 students) Soundtrack. 36m. ＊ India (Univ of Calcutta 300,000 ＊ Sgt. Pepper The Beatles. 32m & Univ of Bombay 260,000 students) ＊ Come On Over ＊ Haydn ハイドン 340 hours ＊ Mexico (Univ of Mexico City 260,000 & Univ Shania Twain. 32m ＊ Handel ヘンデル 303 hours of Guadalajara 214,000) ＊ Dark Side of the Moon ＊ Bach バッハ 175 hours ＊ Argentina (Univ of Buenos Aires 206,000) Pink Floyd. 30 million. ＊ Schubert ＊ Italy (U of Rome 180,000 students) ＊ Led Zeppelin IV Led Zeppelin 30m シューベルト 134 hours ＊ Beethoven ＊ Saturday Night Fever Soundtrack. 30 million. ベートーベン 120 hours ＊.Music Box Mariah Carey. ＊ Purcell パーセル 116 hours 23 million. ＊ Verdi ベルディ 87 hours If you lived in Afghanistan, you The USA produces 550 kg What animals might only live to age 42. What of waste per person per year. belong to the other countries have What are the other biggest Dog low life expectancy garbage-producing 平均余命? (Canidae) countries? Family? ＊ Sierra Leone 41 years ＊ Guinea-Bissau 42 ＊ Australia 695 kg/person ＊ Guinea 43 ＊ New Zealand 662 ＊ coyote コヨーテ ＊ Gambia 43 ＊ France 662 ＊ Canada 612 ＊ dingo ディンゴ ＊ Mali 44 ＊ Norway 480 ＊ fox キツネ ＊ Ethiopia 44 ＊ Netherlands 430 ＊ Denmark 430 ＊ jackal ジャッカル ＊ Angola 45 ＊ Finland 430 ＊ raccoon dog たぬき ＊ Niger 45 ＊ wolf オオカミ ＊ Somalia 45 20 Walter KLINGER Americans go to see a movie about 4 times the cities with Titanic won 11 Oscar film awards a year per person. the largest in 1997. What other movies many Oscars オ カ 賞 ? スー won Name the other top indoor movie-going ＊ Ben-Hur ベン・ハー 1959. 11. ＊ West Side Story 1961. 10. theaters ＊ Gigi 恋の手ほどき 1958. 9. countries. ＊ The Last Emperor 1987. 9. ＊ The English Patient 1996 ＊ Lebanon. ＊ Beijing, China. National People’s 35 visits per person per year. Congress Building Theatre. 1959. 10,000. ＊ Gone with the Wind 風と共に去りぬ 1939. 8 Oscars. ＊ China. 12. ＊ Perth, Australia. Perth ＊ From Here to Eternity ＊ Republic of Georgia. Entertainment Centre. Opened 1976. 8,003 seats. 地上より永遠に 1953. 8. グルジア共和国 6. ＊ India. 5. ＊ Havana, Cuba. Chaplin ＊ On the Waterfront 波止場 1954. 8. (Blanquetta). Opened 1949. 6,500 . ＊ My Fair Lady 1964. 8. ＊ Iceland. 5. ＊ New York, USA. ＊ Australia. 4. Radio City Music Hall. Opened 1932. 6,200+ seats. ＊ New Zealand. 4. ＊ Monaco. 4. a Beatles song Greenland is the world’s largest with the word London - New York island, with 2,175,597 is one of the busiest air routes 航空路 square kilometers. “she” in the world, with 2.6 million passengers per year flying between the cities. What What are the other are the other busiest in the title largest islands? international air routes (as of 1999)? ＊ Ain’t She Sweet ＊Hong Kong - Taipei 4.1m ＊ New Guinea 820,033 sq.km. ＊ I Want You (She’s So Heavy) ＊London - Paris 3.5m ＊ Borneo 743,107 ＊ She Came In Through ＊London - Dublin 2.5m ＊ Madagascar 587,042 The Bathroom Window ＊Singapore - Kuala Lumpur ＊ Baffin Island (*in northern Canada) ＊ She Said She Said 2.3m 476,068 ＊ She Loves You ＊Tokyo - Honolulu 2.3m ＊ Sumatra 473,605 ＊ She’s A Woman ＊Tokyo - Seoul 2.2m ＊ Honshu 230,316 ＊ She’s Leaving Home ＊London - Amsterdam 2.2m ＊ Great Britain 229,883 ＊Hong Kong - Bangkok 1.9m Incidental Vocabulary Learning in a Quiz Game, Part I 21
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