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					                Incidental Vocabulary Learning in a Quiz Game
                      (Part I: Without Pre-Learning Activity)


                                   Walter KLINGER



       We learn the greater part of our vocabulary as native language learners incidentally
or implicitly, compared to a much smaller number of words learned, intentionally or
explicitly, from studying word lists, and looking up words in the dictionary. Incidental
learning takes place in more casual contexts such as everyday conversation, watching TV
and movies, and reading, where one guesses the meaning of a word from the context. In
EFL/ESL classes, activities such as games are often employed to encourage speaking,
usually in a rather carefree atmosphere without the stresses of more academically oriented
study, such as written translation exercises, and memorization of rules and lists. The purpose
of this study was to find out what kinds of words might be likely to be learned incidentally
while playing a quiz game.
       While the results of academic work can be readily tested, and indeed students expect
to be tested, games are not usually regarded as activities that are followed up by tests. In the
present experiment, I told first year students in my university EFL classes to pay attention to
new vocabulary before starting to play a quiz game, and that in the next class the following
week I would be asking them about which new words they remembered.
       The results of the test show that very few of some 220 vocabulary items, that were
probably unknown before playing the game, were remembered. This result was not
unexpected, as I told the students that the test would not count towards the final grade. The
students were thus without that particular motivation. Of course, I am quite certain that if I
had said that the test would count towards a grade, they would have studied the vocabulary
harder and learned many more words. Other factors were involved in the low recall result.
With 45 quiz cards, inevitably some cards were not played during the allotted 80 minutes of
game time; so, some words were not seen at all. At least one group of players chose to play
2                                                 Walter KLINGER


mainly cards that involved names of countries; so, they didn’t see most of the new words.
The sheer number of words that were probably unknown, also surely inhibited learning; a
smaller number would probably have been more noticed, and remembered. Any new, or
unknown words appeared only once; or, occasionally, twice on the quiz cards, so the
students had just a brief exposure to them.
       The week after the game was played, I handed out sheets of paper with a list of
keywords from the category titles. I asked the students to write down any words that they
remembered that they didn’t know before playing the game. I allowed the students to work
in groups and consult each other; in part, to create a non-stressful atmosphere, and also
because I wasn’t trying to find out individual results. I walked around the classroom and
talked with the groups. When I saw students writing words that I thought they surely knew, I
asked them if those were really words they didn’t know before the game; some students then
erased or crossed out those words.
       Students said the game had refreshed their memory of the spelling of some words, or
refreshed their memory of words they had learned before but had half-forgotten, like oxygen.
Some words are pronounced similarly in English and Japanese; but, some students said they
had never seen the English spelling for words like kangaroo and cheetah. Some new words
were words that students said they vaguely knew, like Gone With the Wind. Other “new”
words were not unknown; but, were people or items that students didn’t know belonged in
that category; like, Elton John in Top Selling Artists. Many girls, especially, were somewhat
familiar with the names of the planets since they appear as names of characters in the
popular anime series, “Sailor Moon;” but, they told me they didn’t know that they were
English names of planets; or, that they hadn’t seen the words written in English.
       Some responses came close to learning the word, as wave his tail at least visually
approximates wag his tail, and ninjabumeran seems a reasonable interpretation of ninja stars
as ninja boomerang. I would guess that the Beatles song She Loves You was often
remembered (even half-remembered as She Loves Me and She Loves New York), because it
is a simple and vivid combination of words. The same principle applies for Every Little
Thing, a Beatles song title that I think was genuinely new to everyone, including me. I’m not
sure from what word gorvious and sarvel were learned; perhaps glorious and marvellous,
though they do sound like legitimate English words.
       One group struggled unsuccessfully to remember ninja star from the category A
Incidental Vocabulary Learning in a Quiz Game, Part I                                       3


Weapons You Throw --the word was on the tip of their tongues; but, it didn’t quite come to
mind. This last comment in particular points to the actual intent of the test: to find out what
kinds of words were likely to be learned incidentally from playing the game. Would words
that induced vivid visual or auditory imagery be remembered? Or, perhaps it would be words
in certain categories. In the case of ninja star, the Japanese word shuriken (literally, hand-
hidden-sword) was no doubt well known to these students, as were the words ninja and star.
All these words carry a good deal of visual imagery and familiarity. While they were playing
the quiz game, I noticed that many groups were very interested and excited at learning this
new English word—even though it is derived from Japanese. Many groups of students in the
following week did list ninja star as a word they had learned.
        Students also leaned new words in the categories of animals, planets, chemical
elements, and song titles. Pluto, dragonfly, hornet, silicon, nitrogen, and potassium appear to
be genuinely newly learned words for many students.
        These results suggest that strong visual imagery, previously known words in new
combinations, and words and concepts that are interesting to learn because of personal
preferences, all contribute to making words memorable. No new words seemed to have been
learned in the categories of Words ending in -zy, Slang Words for Vomit, or Slang Words
for Money, which I thought might have some personal appeal to some people.


While a small number of new words seemed to have been learned in the game--at least for a
week, the spelling of the words was usually not learned. The letters “l” and “r” were
especially often confused, a typical problem for Japanese learners of English; for example,
siricon for silicon, prikan for pelican, sperial for Superior. “R”s were also often either
dropped or added, as in Virnus for Venus, Nepturn for Neptune, and honet for hornet.
Compounding the difficulties is that English words often have particularly devious spelling
in relation to pronunciation, and many need to be learned by rote, along with many rules. It
is thus easy to sympathize with an EFL student who writes oqqupation.
        Japanese students whose native language typically has a consonant-vowel-consonant-
vowel pronunciation pattern also have difficulties with English consonants in pairs,
producing errors like hydorogen for hydrogen, doragon for dragon, and dorufin for dolphin.
The opposite phenomenon also occurs, an inadvertent dropping of vowels. Knowing that
Japanese words always end with a vowel, except for words ending with n, and English words
4                                                  Walter KLINGER


seldom end with a vowel, and often are spelled with combinations of consonants, Japanese
speakers often omit English vowels. I have frequently heard Toronto as Toront, Orlando as
Orland, and San Francisco as San Francisc --and in this study, Pluto is spelled prute and
Proot, wallabee becomes wlabee, and cheetah, chter.
        To remember the spelling of words, learners need to look closely at them, and have
repeated exposure to many words to start to understand how the English spelling system
works. The “Look, Cover, Write, Check” or, even better, the “Look, say, cover, write and
check” methods are commonly used for teaching spelling to native English speaking (NES)
primary school children. Considering these difficulties, I told the students not to worry about
the spelling during this test, so that they would not hesitate to write a word they might have
learned in fear or embarrassment of misspelling it.


In foreign language learning, incidental learning is quite highly regarded. Maruyama (1995)
polled 22 high school teachers in Japan, asking, “Do you agree with the hypothesis that
vocabulary is best acquired (incidentally and effortlessly) through reading?” 95.5% of the
respondents said yes, with the remaining saying that the most important factor in vocabulary
growth is television. Strangely, considering that the visual information would surely help
learners understand the meaning of much of the vocabulary and grammar, as many as 27%
of those teachers thought reading comic books would not help enlarge one’s vocabulary,
while 31.8% had no opinion and 41.0% thought that it would help. I assume this result
reflects a cultural bias against comic books and manga as something only children and
illiterate or frivolous adults should read, and a professional bias against learning as “fun,” if
comics are thought of as lightweight entertainment compared to high-minded, non-illustrated
literature.
        Then again, there could be some validity in the notion that too much of a relaxed
atmosphere works against remembering. Gnoinska (1998) found that words printed on blue
or red cards were remembered the best, while those written on green, which was most
students’ favorite color, had the worst results. Gnoinska suggests “Its relaxing qualities could
have had a distracting influence on students.” Similarly, the students seemed to enjoy
playing my game, in a relaxed atmosphere, but as the results indicate, little vocabulary
learning seemed to have taken place.
        In a previous article (Klinger 2000), I reported the similarly poor outcome of
Incidental Vocabulary Learning in a Quiz Game, Part I                                                     5


incidental learning in a card game using pictures accompanying sentences; but, also
discussed the strong influences of visual material on memory. Despite the apparent low
return on the time spent on activities which seem more fun and frivolous than serious, there
are many benefits from using speaking activities, which I discussed in Klinger (1999), such
as increasing confidence and motivation, and, by the manipulation of words and grammar,
helping learners make sense of what has been studied academically in textbooks. In Klinger
(1996), I discussed the merits of using many and varied techniques that focus sometimes on
form, such as learning the rules of language, and sometimes on meaning, such as in
communicative activities, and using techniques that appeal to the whole brain, especially
creative activities in interactive social situations that arouse interest and attention.
        This study took place in 2002; in 2003, I did a second study, with new classes of
freshmen, who I asked to go on the internet, to a site with a list I had prepared of what I
thought might be unknown vocabulary, and to check any new words. Thus, the 2003
students thus had a little more exposure to the new words. I will report on the result of
incidental learning from that study, comparing them to this 2002 study, and also discuss
what words were unknown to different groups of students majoring in Engineering,
Environmental Science, Human Cultures, and Nursing, in Part II in next year’s journal.
        The quiz game, which I developed referring to several sources of lists and categories
(Ash 2000, Ash 2000b, Endless Games 1998, McWhirter 1999, and various internet
sources), is included in this report. Also included are typed reproductions of the handwritten
test papers submitted from two classes of Engineering majors.


          Ash, Russell. (2000). Factastic Book of 1001 Lists. DK Publishing.
          Ash, Russell. (2000b). Top 10 of Everything. DK Publishing.
          Endless Games. (1998). The Family Feud. (board game)
          Gnoinska, Anna. (1998). Teaching Vocabulary in Colour. English Teaching Forum, 36 (3).
http://exchanges.state.gov/forum/vols/vol36/no3/p12.htm
          Klinger, Walter. (2000). Effects Of Pictures On Memory & Learning. Academic Reports of The
University Center for Intercultural Education, The University of Shiga Prefecture, 5, 67-86.
http://www2.ice.usp.ac.jp/wklinger/QA/articles/kiyou2000/kiyou2000.html
          Klinger, Walter. (1999). Unrehearsed Speaking Activities for Language Learning. Academic Reports
of The University Center for Intercultural Education, The University of Shiga Prefecture, 4, 79-98.
http://www2.ice.usp.ac.jp/wklinger/QA/articles/kiyou99/k99speak.html
          Klinger, Walter. (1996). Turning Language Studied Into Language Learned: Considering How The
Brain Processes Information. Academic Reports of The University Center for Intercultural Education, The
University of Shiga Prefecture, 1, 65-78. http://www2.ice.usp.ac.jp/wklinger/QA/articles/kiyou96/k96turn.htm
          Maruyama, Fukuji. (1995). Expanding Vocabulary Through Reading. English Teaching Forum, 33
(4). http://exchanges.state.gov/forum/vols/vol33/no4/p36.htm
          McWhirter, Norris. (1999). Norris McWhirter’s Book of Millennium Records. London: Virgin.
6                                                                    Walter KLINGER


         Thanks also to Karen and Joe, Pat and Mike, Judy and Dave, for trying out the game with me and
providing good answers to the categories.
         The game included in this report is somewhat revised from the one the 2002 students played. Did you
finish your homework? was removed from Parents might say this to their children before they go to sleep, after
I was advised that bedtime would be much too late to ask that question. It turned out to be a memorable phrase
for some students, nonetheless.


School of Engineering Class #1 24 papers (+ 4 blank papers):
oxygen               oxigen                 ninja star            security guard       hand granade           Virnus
kangaroo             nitrogen               bee                   silicon              cheeter                dragon fly
                     hydorogen              wolf                  mars jupiter         falcon
(crossed out:        cheater                skank                 teata
cat, crazy, cool,                                                 Every little thing
good-by)                                                          she is woman.


dragonfly            Jupiter                N2                    Pluto     honet      every little things    Every little thing
wolf                                        Si                    dragon fly


spiar oxygen         spear Mercury          oxigen nitrogen       hydrogen             bow oxigen             ninja star
moon marcury         Mars Uranus            hydorogen carbon      silicon              nitrogen hidrogen      catapila honet
jupiter clazy        eagle dragon fly       microscope            kangaroo             marth      prute       cobra wolf
bark wave his tail   No parking             marth Saturn                               Jupiter cheater        skank
Beatles              check brow             cheater kaspi         Have you finished    bee     crazy          bowwerow
                                                                  homework?            bit   kaspi


security guard       spear oxident          Ninja star            dinamite             gun thord              spear
Si     jupiter       carbon oxidents        Hydrogen              fireman              ninja star             hand granade
no smoking           moon       marcury     Nepturn               corbon marze         policeman              Proot Mars
crazy                mars           eagle   Dragon fly            cow scank            saraliman              dragon fly
~scope size          dragon fly             kangaroo              kangaroo crazy       ox earth               No parking
Every little thing   shiba kogei            ignore crazy          Every little thing   sun bee                thermometer
she is woman         lazy crazy             check                 she is girl          condor human           check
                     スペリオル湖 エリー湖                                                      horse kangaroo
                     Beatles                to     say   “Good-                        fine lazy 1$           Did     you   finish
                     Mraia Carry            bye”.                                      good-by         kiss   your homework?



School of Engineering Class #2 48 papers (blank papers: 0):
I love you.          security policeman     oxygen Jupitar        Every Little Thing   ninja star             ninja stars
Every Little Thing   Elton John             Misigan ery                                dingo coala            doragon fly
She Loves You        She love you                                                      Ontalio
                     Maria Carry
Incidental Vocabulary Learning in a Quiz Game, Part I                                                                          7


boomelan                Ninja stars          ningya star          Ninja stars           hand grenade         nepturn
low Iron                Oxygen Saturn        oxin Mars            oxygen hydrogen       hydrogen oxygen      cheeter condol
Sutan                   dragon fly           bills                Mars dragon fly       carbon pigeon        don’t parking
doragon fly             superior             Every Little thing   she loves you         dragonfly            crazy
mink wlabee             She loves me         She loves you                              cozy


Iron Mars               boom meran           axe     garman       ninja star            gardman Oxygen       gard man silicon
Jupiter Uranus          iron mercury         silicon vinus        security gard         Jupiter Neptune      vinus gazel
dragon fly              urnes prikan         gazel    pijon       carbon hydrogen       fox                  bee wolf rat
manumal                 tail wave bits       falcon bee           neon dragonfly        see you tomorrow.    bad boy
mink walabee            Elie sperial         hyena fuzzy          bee                   I love you           fuzzy fantastic
                                             fantastic patient    tasmaniandevil        Every little thing   patient
                                                                  taxi                  she loves you


ninja star dart         ninjya stars         security guard       siricon oxigene       grenade Neon         siricon chirter
spier                   spiar oxin           speed                Neptune Marculy       silicon Neptune      Doragon Fly
security gard           mars Marqury         I love you           pision eager          eagle goat           cozy
iron doragon fly        doragon fly          V sign               wolf coara            wolf wallabe         sweet dream.
bee                     bills patient        cry                  100$     patient      broadcast            Elly Billy Joel
tasmanian-devil         mask                 BEATLES              barcode               1,000 yen            she loves you
walabee                 Every Little thing   Every little Thing   I love you.           patient price        Forest Gump
screem taxi             She loves you        She loves you        Erie                  she loves you        My girl
                                                                  the West side story   greatest hits


sarvel       oxygen     AX                   weapon               oxygen                hydrogen             low 弓
Hydrogen helium         NINJA star           oqqupation           Hydrogen              oxygen vinus         chemistry
Argon          Satan    dart spier           Gardman              Satan Mars            Jupitar Mars         oxygon
Mars           Vinus    boomrun              Hydrogen             cheatar kanga         cheater condol       dragon flyt
Condor            noe   security gard        Helium Neion         Don’t walk            kangoro quiet        dorufin
kangarue satellite      forest watcher       silicon calcium      barometer             satellite price      temperture
Don’t stop              Iron cheater         Mars Neptune         satellite             size come on!        cash special
Be quiet                bat bee fly          pesion Albartnoss    Barcord size          Misigan Superior     gorvious
barometer               traffic signal       hyena hound          good-bye              Every little thing   cry greet
crazy dezy              map gun              fuzzy cool           come on               she loves you.       “Have you
Barcord      size       crazy blood          fantastic            catch the taxi        My fair lady         finished the
good-bye                dark scream          Elie Sperior         Misigan Huron                              homework?”
come on                                                           Elton Jon                                  I will get up at
catche the taxi                                                   Elvis                                      seven.
misigan huron                                                     Every little thing                         Speriork Micigon
Elton John                                                        she loves you
Elvis Presly
Every little sing
she loves you
  8                                                                Walter KLINGER




  ninja star          spiar                ninja star           grenade              Mars Neptune             ninjabumeran
  dart spier          ninja star           spioer AX            siricon Neptune      chiter farcon            lanser
  ax boomerun         boomrun              boomeran             cheter albatoros     condor                   Oxygen
  security gard       security urdman      security guard       eagle gout           doragon fly              Hydrogen
  forest watcher      forest watcher       Forest watcher       wolf cow             fox warabe               Mars chter
  carbon              carbon               carbon               coara                I love you.              dragonfly
  hydrogen            Hydrogen             hydrogen             barometer            Do    you       finish   bee ignore
  iron cheater        Iron cheater         Neon iron            speedmeter           homework?                satellite clazy
  bee fly             kangroo              cheetar              one dollor           Elly Speriol             umbranse
  tasmanian devil     crzy blood           bee fly              patient bite         Micigan                  Eri Misigan
  crazy scream        sqream               byson waruby         くしやみする               Ontario                  Speriol Oscar
  taxi                                     blood screaming      I love you


  siricon             security gardman     secruty gard         grenade siricon      spare silicon            allow ninja star
  dragonfly cozy      mars Jupiter         Jupiter sparrow      neputure eagle       Mars cheter              element carbon
  good sweet dream    pigen condol         taco mater           earaby kangare       pelican dragon fly       condol
  Billy Joel          Every little thing   Eary                 speed meter          coyote bill              cow family
  she loves you       she loves New York   Every little thing   ordio                country of origin        baison beaber
                                           she loves you                             fiber content




                     Lists (Guinness) Card Game:                                   How to Play:
                  * Form 2 teams. (One person on one team is ok.)
* You have a deck of Lists Cards. Each team takes half of the cards.
                          * Get a piece of paper to keep score.
      * Team A looks at a card and reads the question to Team B.
                    * Team B get a point for each correct answer.
            * Team B takes a card and asks Team A the question.
                   * Continue until all the cards have been played.
               * The team that scores the most points is the winner!
           Incidental Vocabulary Learning in a Quiz Game, Part I                                     9




 You can do this
                                                  You can open this. E.g.,             This is hard to eat
                                                            open a door
at the beach                                                                            with chopsticks 箸
                                                         or a window.
                                                                         * breakfast cereal
* barbeque                                * book * box * bottle          * corn flakes
* build a sand castle 砂の城* collect        * can * curtain                * corn
shells 貝殻を拾う                              * car trunk / hood ボンネット       * chawan mushi
* dive * fish           * jet ski *                                      * curry rice
                                          * drawer 引き出し
parasail   * play catch                                                  * custard / pudding
    キャッチボールをする
                                          * gift / present
                                          * jar                          * egg * green peas
* play frisbee フリスビー
                                          * letter 手紙 / mail 郵便物         * jelly / gelatin
* play volleyball       * read *
                                          * purse ハンドバッグ                 * ice cream
scuba dive       * surf
                                          * refrigerator 冷蔵庫             * “Pocky” chocolate sticks
* suntan 日焼け * swim
                                                                         * soup * toast
* “blindfolded 目隠しされた watermelon breaking * wallet 財布
(splitting) game” すいかわり                   * your mouth *your mind * your * tofu
                                          heart * zipper                 * tomato * yoghurt



                                                   food that is round in shape, like
     A reason to                                                   pizza
                                                                                       A noise you can hear in a
                                                                                                幽霊のでる
   have a party.
                                                             (not ball shape)
                                                *  biscuit * cake                          haunted house.
                                                *  cookie * crab カニ                    * boo
* anniversary
                                                *  cracker *donut                      * creak キーキーいう音
* birthday
                                                *  fried egg                           * doors closing
* baby shower 出産前の母親に
    ベビー用品を贈るパーティ                                *  hamburger                           * footsteps 足音
* celebrate an                                  *  mochi                               * groan うなり
    achievement 成就                              *  omelet * pie                        * howl ほえる
* end of school                                 *  pancake / hotcake / flapjack        * laugh
* engagement 婚約                                 *  pita bread                          * moan うめき声
* graduation 卒業                                 *  potato chips                        * rattle ガタガタ
* holiday (Christmas,                           *  senbei
                                                                                       * scratch 引っ掻く
    New Year, Valentine, etc.)                  *  sliced sushi / sliced hardboiled
                                                                                       * scream / shriek 金切り声
* job promotion 促進                                 egg / (other sliced food)
                                                * tart                                 * shout / yell 大声を上げる
* retirement 退職
                                                                                       * shutters 雨戸 banging
* wedding 結婚式
                                                                                       * wind whistling ピューと鳴る
* winning a contest
          10                                       Walter KLINGER



                                    This place might have a
    you wave your hand
                手を振る
                                        special   area for          something in an
                                                                     ambulance 救急車
     when you do this                       children
                                                                    * bandages ほうたい
* saying hello                      *   amusement park 遊園地          * blood * curtains
* saying goodbye                    *   bookstore
                                                                    * defibrillator 心臓細動除去器
* saying “enough”                   *   dental clinic
* saying “no”                                                       * gauze ガーゼ
                                    *   department store
* dancing (hula, awa odori, etc.)   *   shoe store                  * IV 静脈注射の bottle
* getting someone’s attention       *   clothing store              * monitor
* catching (hail, flag )            *   (other store)               * oxygen 酸素
     呼び止める                          *   drive-in theater
   a taxi (a cab)                       ドライブイン映画劇場
                                                                    * paramedic 医療補助員
* directing traffic                 *   hospital                    * patient 患者 / medicine
     交通整理をする                        *   library                     * sheets / blankets
* shooing away                      *   park 公園
     シーッと追い払う                                                       * stethoscope 聴診器
                                    *   swimming pool
    an insect or a person
                                    *   zoo                         * stretcher/gurney 担架




                                        A word ending with
       A sign 標識 that people                                        information
                                         the letters “zy,”
       often ignore 無視する        .
                                                                     on the     tag of new
                                          e.g.,”lazy” なまける.         clothes, e,g,, on a
* Do Not Enter
* Don’t Walk                                  buzzy 酔っぱらっている           shirt or pants.
                                              cozy 居心地のよい
* Keep Off the Grass                                                * bar code バーコード
    芝生に入るな
                                               crazy 気のくるった
* No Eating in the Store                          ditzy 狂った         * brand name
* No Parking
                                               dizzy 目まいがして         * country of origin 製造
                                                 doozy 凄い物          * fiber content 繊維含有率
* No Smoking                                 fizzy シューシュー泡立つ
* No Trespassing 立入禁止                                               * maker (manufacturer)
                                                  frenzy 狂乱
* Quiet                                                             * price
                                                 fuzzy ぼやけた
* Slow / Reduce Speed                        gauzy 薄く透き通る           * size
* Speed Limit                                glazy 目がどんよりした         * washing instructions
                                                                       洗濯の注意
* Stop                                        hazy もやのかかった
* Turn Off After Use                           jazzy 活気のある
* Yield ゆずれ, 譲れ                                   ritzy 豪勢な
                                               sleazy だらしのない
                                                tizzy 混乱状態
                                            woozy 頭がぼんやりして
         Incidental Vocabulary Learning in a Quiz Game, Part I                                    11




                                              a mammal 哺乳類 starting
  an animal in the weasel                                                                    a 有袋類
                                                                 with
                                                                                          marsupial
              family                                    the letter “c”.
         (Mustelidae イタチ科).
                                                        * camel ラクダ             * bandicoot / bilby バンディクート *
          * badger アナグマ                              * capuchin オマキザル
* ermine シロテン、オコジョ * ferret シロイ                                                  cuscus クスクス              *
                                                      * capybara カピバラ
                  タチ
                                                       * caracal カラカル             kangaroo * koala コアラ
         * fisher フィッシャー
                                                      * caribou カリブー
           * marten テン                                                          * opossum/possum オポッサム *
                                                  * cat * chamois シャモア
           * mink ミンク
                                                         * cheetah                 Sminthopsis スミンソプシス
        * otter カワウソ、らっこ
                                                    * chimpanzee チンパンジー
        * polecat ケナガイタチ                                                        * Tasmanian Devil フクロアナグマ
                                                      * chinchilla チンチラ
          * sable クロテン
                                                      * chipmunk シマリス           * Tasmanian Wolf フクロオオカミ
          * skunk スカンク                                * civet ジャコウネコ
          * stoat シロテン                                                          * wallaby ワラビー             *
                                              * coatimundi, coati ハナグマ * cougar
         * wolverine クズリ                                   * cow                      wombat ウォンバット
                                                       * coyote コヨーテ


 An occupation                        職業                                                    A sign
                                              a weapon                  武器   you
     that might be                                                                      at the beach:
                                                            throw
 very lonely                                                                                 “No…
                                              * bolo / bola 鉄の玉のついた投げ
                                                なわ(獣の足に投げつけてからませる)
* astronaut 宇宙飛行士
* astronomer 天文学者
                                              * boomerang ブーメラン                            what ?”
                                              * dart 投げ矢
* forest ranger 山林監視人                         * hammer
                                                                                   * No Alcohol
* judge 審査員                                   * hand grenade 手りゅう弾
                                              * harpoon 銛                          * No B-B-Q
* late-shift 遅番 store clerk
                                              * knife                              * No Fireworks 花火
* lighthouse keeper 灯台守* mortician 葬
儀屋                                            * lasso 投げ縄                          * No Fishing
* night watchman 夜警員                          * Molotov cocktail / fire bomb 火炎瓶   * No Food
* security guard 警備員
                                                   * net                           * No Glass Bottles
                                              * ninja stars 手裏剣                    * No Nudity 裸禁止
* truck driver                                * rock / stone                       * No Open Fires
                                              * spear / lance / javelin 槍
                                                                                   * No Pets
                                              * tomahawk 石斧
                                                                                   * No Swimming
                 12                                                Walter KLINGER



                                                    the countries with the highest
                                                                                     A ruler 定規 measures
                                                        percentage of people           length 長さ. Name
              In what countries                        working as farmers             other measuring
                  are the largest
                                                                                        instruments.
                                                 * Bhutan 93.9%                      *altimeter 高度計 (altitude)
              sports stadiums?                                                       *anemometer 風速計 (wind)
                                                 * Nepal 93.3%                       *barometer 気圧計 (air pressure)
                                                                                     *calendar (days & months)
* Czech Republic (Strahov. Prague. Capacity 収容   * Burkina 92.4%
   力: 240,000)
                                                                                     *clock (hours, minutes, seconds)
* Brazil (Maracana. Rio de Janeiro.                                                  *compass 磁石(directions)
                                                 * Rwanda 91.2%
   205,000)                                                                          *hygrometer 湿度計
                                                                                         (specific gravity)
* North Korea (Rungnado. Pyongyang. 150,000)     * Burundi 90.7%                     *odometer 積算計
* Iran (National. Azadi. 128,000)                                                    *pedometer 歩数計
                                                 * Niger 89.2%
* Portugal (Luz. Lisbon. 120,000)                                                    *protractor 分度器 (angles)
* Indonesia (Senayan. Jakarta. 120,000)          * Mali 89.2%                        *scales 秤 (weight)
                                                                                     *seismometer 震度計 (earthquakes)
* India (Yuba Bharati. Calcutta. 120,000)                                            *speedometer 速度計
                                                 * Ethiopia 85.3%
                                                                                       (vehicle speed)
                                                                                     *thermometer 温度計 (temperature)
                                                                                     *voltmeter 電圧計 (electricity)


                                                  The    Beatles              have
a Beatles song                                                                       What         slang word
                                                    sold     164 million
                                                                                     俗語 means             to   vomit
 starting with                                    albums in the USA.
                                                                                                         き出す
                                                                                                                        吐



                                                  What are the other                 *
the letter “E”                                    top selling artists?               *
                                                                                       barf
                                                                                       blow beets/ blow chunks
                                                                                     * heave
* Eight Days A Week                              * LED ZEPPELIN 105 million          * hurl
* Eleanor Rigby                                  * GARTH BROOKS 105m                 * puke
                                                 * ELVIS PRESLEY 103m                * ralph * retch * rolph
* Every Little Thing                             * EAGLES 86 m                       * spew
                                                 * BILLY JOEL 77 m                   * throw up
* Everybody’s Got Something To Hide
  Except For Me And My Monkey                    * PINK FLOYD 73 m                   * toss/blow/lose your
                                                 * BARBRA STREISAND 70 m                cookies
* Everybody’s Trying                             * ELTON JOHN 67 m                   * toss/blow/lose your
   To Be My Baby                                 * AEROSMITH 63 m                       breakfast/lunch
                                                                                     * upchuck * woof
                                                 * ROLLING STONES 63 m
          Incidental Vocabulary Learning in a Quiz Game, Part I                                                 13



                                                                                          Cattle 畜牛& oxen 雄牛
  Countries that use nuclear                                                           (cows & bulls) belong to the
                                                     In the USA, there are 805
             power 原子力                                                                    family Bovidae ウシ科.
                                                  televisions per 1,000 population.
                                                                                          Name other members.
the most for electricity generation               Name the other top TV-owning
                                                                                      * antelope レイヨウ (bushbuck,
                                                                  countries.              rhebok, springbok, nyala, eland, oryx
             (as of 2002)                                                                 オリックス, wildebeest/gnu ヌー,
                                                                                          nilgai, kudu, bongo, topi, duiker, chiru,
* Lithuania 80.1%                                                                         chamois シャモア)
* France 78.0%                                 * Monaco. 750 per 1,000 people.
* Belgium 57.3%                                                                       * banteng バンテン
* Slovakia 54.7%                               * Malta. 749.                          * buffalo, bison 水牛、バッファ
* Bulgaria 47.3%                               * Canada. 714.                             ロー
* Ukraine 45.7%                                * El Salvador. 689.                    *   gazelle ガゼル
* Sweden 45.7%                                                                        *   goat ヤギ
* Slovenia 40.7%                               * Japan. 684.
                                                                                      *   ibex アイベックス
* Armenia 40.5%                                * Oman. 657.
* Switzerland 39.5%                                                                   *   impala インパラ
                                               * France. 589.
* Korea 38.6%                                                                         *   muskox ジャコウウシ
* Hungary 36.1%                                * Denmark. 574.
                                                                                      *   serow カモシカ
* Japan 34.5%
* Germany 29.9%                                                                       *   sheep ヒツジ * yak ヤク
                                                                                      *   zebu コブウシ


                                                                                      a dog does this
           something
                                                    What country                      to tell you his
     beautiful                                 starts with the
         you can see
                                                                                          feelings.
          in the sky                             letter               “F”?            *   barks ほえる
                                                                                      *   bites かむ
* birds * butterflies                                                                 *   cowers 縮こまる
* clouds * kite 凧                                       * Fiji
                                                        * Finland                     *   growls うなる
* moon
* Northern Lights / aurora 北極光、オーロラ                     * France                      *   jumps up on you
* rainbow                                                                             *   licks your hand / face
* shooting star, meteor     流れ星 *                                                     *   pants 息を弾ませる
     stars                                                                            *   puts his paw 足 on you
* sunrise 日の出                                                                         *   wags his tail 尾をふる
* sunset 日暮れ                                                                          *   whimpers クンクン鳴く
                                                                                      *   whines めそめそ愚痴を言う
             14                                                Walter KLINGER




       countries                                   the fastest                           countries with
                                                         animals
            with the                                                                        the highest
                                                    in the sea
       highest                                                                                 recorded
                                           * Sailfish バショウカジキ 110km/h                                  さ て る
                                                                                                      記 れ い



   recorded                                * Swordfish メカジキ 100km/h
                                  記 れ い
                                   さ て る

                                           * Marlin マカジキ 80km/h                           rainfall
temperatures                               * Tuna (Bluefin /Yellowfin)
                                                 70-74 km/h
                                                                                        * India (Cherrapuni) 10,797mm
* Mali (Arouane) 54.4C                     * Albacore ビンナガマグロ
                                                                                        * Columbia (Andagoya) 7,137mm
* Iran (Abadan) 52.8C                      * Bonito      カツオ 65-70 km/h
                                                                                        * Samoa (Pago Pago) 4,928mm
* Australia (Cloncurry) 52.8C              * Wahoo (Acanthocybium solandri)
                                                                                        * Burma (Moulmein) 4,826mm
                                                 65-70 km/h カマスサワラ
* Sudan (Wadi Halfa) 52.8C                                                              * Indonesia (Tabing) 4,445mm
* Egypt (Aswan) 51.1C                                                                   * Liberia (Monrovia) 4,420mm
* Algeria (Fort Flatters) 51.1C                                                                 mammals

       the fastest birds                   the fastest land                                     ほ乳動物     with the


                                                       animals                           longest tails
* Peregrine Falcon
     ハヤブサ diving=298 km/h
* Golden Eagle                             * cheetah 105km/h                            * elephant (Asian 150cm,
      イヌワシ 240 km/h
* Spine-tailed Swift                       * antelope (Pronghorn)                            African 130cm)
                                                   レイヨウ 89 km/h
     アマツバメ 171 km/h                                                                     * leopard ヒョウ 140cm
* Racing Pigeon                            * gazelle ガゼル (Mongolian, Thomson’s)   76-

      レース鳩 177 km/h
                                                    80km/h
                                                                                        * buffalo バッファロー
* Frigate bird 軍艦鳥 153 km/h                * springbok
                                                   スプリングボック 80km/h                           (African) 110cm
* Spur-winged Goose                        * lion 80 km/h                               * giraffe キリン 110cm
      ツメバガン 142 km/h
                                           * wildebeest / gnu
* Red-breasted Merganser                             ヌー 80 km/h                         * kangaroo (Red) 110cm
        ミイ
       ウ ア サ 129 km/h
                                                                                        * langur ハヌマンラングール
                                                                                              110cm
          Incidental Vocabulary Learning in a Quiz Game, Part I                                           15




                                                        the            birds                         the
                                                with the largest
  the fastest                                                                                LONGEST
                                                     wingspan                     翼幅


          insects                              * stork コウノトリ(Marabou) 4m
                                                                                              SNAKES
                                               * albatross アホウドリ 3.7m
                                               * swan ハクチョウ (Trumpeter, Mute, Whooper)   * python ニシキヘビ (Reticulated)
* dragonfly トンボ 32 km/h
                                                  3.1-3.4m                                 10.7m
* hornet スズメバチ 21 km/h
                                               * pelican ペリカン (Grey) 3.1m                * anaconda アナコンダ 8.5m
* bee ミツバチ 18 km/h
                                               * condor コンドル                             * cobra コブラ (King) 5.8m
* horsefly                                         (California) 3.1m
                                                                                         * boa constrictor 王ヘビ,
   ウマバエ、アブ 14 km/h                             * vulture ハゲタカ (Black) 3.1m                  ボアコンストリクター 4.9m

                                               * bustard ノガン (Great, Kori) 2.7m          * bushmaster
                                                                                            ブッシュマスター 3.7m




                                                       the most common                             the basic
          the planets
                                                                                                   elements
                  惑星                                         elements      元素
                                                                                              元素     of rocks
* Mercury 水星
                                                      in the universe         宇宙
* Venus 金星                                                                               * oxygen 酸素 46.5%
* Earth                                                                                  * silicon ケイ素 28.9%
                                               * hydrogen 水素 74%
* Mars 火星                                                                                * aluminum アルミニウム 8.3%
                                               * helium ヘリウム 24%
* Jupiter 木星                                                                             * iron 鉄 4.8%
                                               * oxygen 酸素 1%
* Saturn 土星                                                                              * calcium カルシウム 4.1%
                                               * carbon 炭素 0.5%
* Uranus 天王星                                                                             * potassium カリウム 2.4%
                                               * neon ネオン 0.14%
* Neptune 海王星                                                                            * sodium ナトリウム 2.3%
                                               * iron 鉄 0.12%
* Pluto 冥(めい)王星                                                                          * magnesium マグネシウム 1.9%
                                               * nitrogen ちっ素 0.10%
           16                                            Walter KLINGER




                                               a four-legged
                                                                           Parents might say
    Things                    in a                                        this to their children
                                         animal that lives
 medicine chest                    救急箱
                                                                           at bedtime.
* antacid 制酸薬
* anti-histamine 抗ヒスタミン剤
* aspirin /pain killer 鎮痛剤
                                         in the    water.                 * Good night.
* bandages                                                                * I love you.
* cold remedy 風邪治療薬                      *   alligator アメリカワニ             * Sweet dreams.
* diarrhea 下痢 medicine                   *   beaver ビーバー                  * Pleasant dreams.
                                                                          * Sleep tight.
* disinfectant 消毒薬                       *   crocodile ワニ
* first aid cream                                                         * Sleep well.
                                         *   frog / toad ヒキガエル
* laxative 下剤                                                             * Did you set your
                                         *   hippopotamus カバ                  alarm clock?
* liniment 塗布薬
                                         *   otter カワウソ、らっこ               * Did you brush your teeth?
* scissors はさみ
* thermometer 温度計                        *   platypus カモノハシ               * I’ll wake you up (at 7:00/
* vitamins                               *   turtle 亀                         in the morning/ etc).
                                                                          * Go to sleep!
                                                                          * Stay in bed!



                                             Where are things in           When you
         this is used to collect
                                                  alphabetical
 weather information                                                                  go
                                                  order ABC 順 ?
                                         * address book
                                                                           swimming, this
*   anemometer 風速計
*   balloon                              * atlas 地図帳 index 索引                       might
*   barometer 気圧計                        * book index
*
*
    radar
    rain gauge *雨量計
                                         * cookbook index
                                         * dictionary
                                                                          wash off                   洗い落


*   satellite 衛星                         * encyclopedia 百科事典                            とす
*   thermometer 温度計                      * library
                                                                          * anti-perspirant 制汗剤
*   weather vane 風向計                     * office directory
                                                                          * bandage/bandaid 包帯
*   wind sock 円錐状吹き流し                    * stock market 株式市場 list
                                                                          * deodorant デオドラント, 脱臭剤
                                         * student list
                                                                          * dirt / sand
                                         * telephone book
                                                                          * makeup /cosmetics 化粧品*
                                                                          perfume 香水
                                                                          * suntan lotion / sun-tan oil /
                                                                          sunblock 日焼け(止め)ローション
                                                                          * insect repellent 虫よけ
                                                                          * removable tattoo 入れ墨
            Incidental Vocabulary Learning in a Quiz Game, Part I                                      17



                                                                                          something you
When you do this, you cover part
                                                 A word that means about the same      can     hear         that
    of your face with your hand.
* blow your nose 鼻をかむ                             as “wonderful” or “excellent” or                is
* brush your teeth
* burp げっぷをする
* cough せきをする
                                                                    “great”                far away
* pick ほじる your nose                             *   amazing おどろくべき
* pick ほじる your teeth                            *   awesome 畏敬させる                    *   airplane
* pluck your eyebrows ま ゆ を 抜 く                  *   brilliant                        *   bird
* put in contact lenses                          *   extraordinary 非凡な
                                                                                      *   explosion
* put on / take off makeup                       *   fabulous すばらしい
* shade your eyes from the sun                   *   fantastic 空想的な                   *   foghorn 濃霧号笛
* shave ひげそり                                     *   marvellous                       *   frog
* smell a bad smell
                                                 *   outstanding 抜群の                  *   gun / gunshot
* sneeze くしゃみをする
                                                 *   stupendous とてつもない                *   motorcycle gang 暴走族
* take an eye test 視力検査を受ける
                                                 *   superb 豪華な
* think * throw a kiss 投げ                                                             *   siren サイレン
     キスをする                                       *   superlative
                                                                                      *   sonic boom 衝撃波音
* wash / wipe your face                          *   [slang 俗語] ace / cool /
* whisper ひそひそ話す                                      dynamite / far out / groovy/    *   thunder 雷
* yawn あ び す
         く を る                                         out of sight / super / sweet   *   train
                                                                                      *   waterfall



                                                                                       Name a
When you say goodbye to someone,                       the       Great
            you might do this.
                                                                                      country
* bow おじぎをする
* cry                                                       Lakes
* high five
   ハイファイブをして喜び合う
                                                                                       beginning
* hug だきしめる                                                         五大湖
* kiss
* shake hands
                                                       米国のカナダ国境にある五つの湖水)

                                                       *【暗記法】頭文字を取って HOMES
                                                                                          with the
* slap on back 背中を叩く                             *   Huron
* smile                                          *   Ontario                          letter “V”
* wave 振る                                        *   Michigan
                                                 *   Erie                             * Vanuatu バヌアツ
                                                 *   Superior                         * Vatican バチカン市国
                                                                                      * Venezuela ベネズエラ
                                                                                      * Vietnam ベトナム
           18                                         Walter KLINGER




    When you want to                     What’s slang 俗語 for               this is on a car
                 take                           “money” ?                 dashboard and it
their picture, children              *   beans * bills
                                     *   bread *bucks                    has   numbers on it.
                                     *   cabbage *coin
      might do                       *
                                     *
                                         dinero * dough
                                         green * greenback
                                                                       * clock
                                                                       * gear indicator
                                     *   jack * lettuce
                                     *   moolah                           指針 (some cars)

                this.                *
                                     *
                                         simoleons
                                         buck (=$1 bill 札)
                                                                       * heater-air conditioner

                                     *   fin (=$5 bill)                * odometer 走行距離計
*   cry                              *   ten-spot (=$10 bill)          * radio / CD player
*   giggle クスクス笑う                    *   G-note (=$100 bill)
*   hide their face 顔をそむ             *   C-note (=$1,000 bill)         * speedometer 速度計
*   look away                        *   plastic (=credit card)        * tachometer
*   make faces 面白い顔をする
                                                                                  コ ー ー
                                                                          回転速度計, タ メ タ
*   make the peace sign / “V” sign
*   move around / fidget
      Wind,
    そわそわする      rain, & clouds                                           “Horse” begins
* run away / hide
    usually come with a
* smile
*summer storm. What
  stick out their tongue
                                       teenagers                       with the letter “h”.
    舌を出す                                                                     what other
                 else
                                                 might                  animals
           might come ?
*downburst 下降気流
*frogs                                      complain                    begin with “h” ?
*hail 雹の粒
*humidity 湿気
                                                                       * hamster ハムスター
*hurricane / typhoon
*lightning 電光
                                           about this.                 * hare 野ウサギ
*mildew かび *mist 霞                                                     * hedgehog ハリネズミ
                                     * acne, pimples にきび
*ozone オゾン /                                                           * hippopotamus カバ
                                     * chores 家庭の雑用
   negative ions 陰イオン
                                     * curfew 門限                       * hog ブタ
*rainbow 虹                                                             * hound 猟犬
                                     * everything
*thunder 雷鳴                                                            * human 人間
                                     * money/allowance
*tornado 竜巻                            小遣い、あてがい扶持                      * hyena ハイエナ
*water spout 水の上の竜巻                  * parents / adults                * hyrax イワダヌキ
                                     * privacy プライバシー
                                     * rules
                                     * school
                                     * teachers
                                     * homework
                                     * siblings 兄弟姉妹たち
            Incidental Vocabulary Learning in a Quiz Game, Part I                                                       19




  Mozart wrote 202                                                                                Michael Jackson’s
                                                   in what countries                              “Thriller” sold 47 million

                                                      are the world’s                              copies worldwide.
hours of music. Name
                                                                                                   Name the other
    other prolific                  多作の
                                                             largest
                                                                                                  top selling albums.
classical composers 作曲 universities?                                                            * Greatest Hits Eagles. 40m
                                                                                                * The Bodyguard
                     家   .                       * France (Univ of Paris 310,000 students)           Soundtrack. 36m.

                                                 * India (Univ of Calcutta 300,000              * Sgt. Pepper The Beatles. 32m
                                                 & Univ of Bombay 260,000 students)             * Come On Over
* Haydn ハイドン 340 hours
                                                 * Mexico (Univ of Mexico City 260,000 & Univ        Shania Twain. 32m
* Handel ヘンデル 303 hours                          of Guadalajara 214,000)                        * Dark Side of the Moon
* Bach バッハ 175 hours                             * Argentina (Univ of Buenos Aires 206,000)          Pink Floyd. 30 million.

* Schubert                                       * Italy (U of Rome 180,000 students)           * Led Zeppelin IV
                                                                                                     Led Zeppelin 30m
     シューベルト 134 hours
* Beethoven                                                                                     * Saturday Night Fever
                                                                                                     Soundtrack. 30 million.
     ベートーベン 120 hours
                                                                                                *.Music Box Mariah Carey.
* Purcell パーセル 116 hours                                                                             23 million.
* Verdi ベルディ 87 hours
                                                                                                If you lived in Afghanistan, you
         The USA produces 550 kg                      What            animals
                                                                                                might only live to age 42. What
        of waste per person per year.
                                                       belong to the                                  other countries have
        What are the other biggest
                                                                      Dog                         low life expectancy
        garbage-producing
                                                                                                               平均余命?
                                                             (Canidae)
        countries?                                             Family?
                                                                                                * Sierra Leone 41 years
                                                                                                * Guinea-Bissau 42

* Australia 695 kg/person                                                                       * Guinea 43
* New Zealand 662                                * coyote コヨーテ                                  * Gambia 43
* France 662
* Canada 612                                     * dingo ディンゴ                                   * Mali 44
* Norway 480                                     * fox キツネ                                      * Ethiopia 44
* Netherlands 430
* Denmark 430                                    * jackal ジャッカル                                 * Angola 45
* Finland 430                                    * raccoon dog たぬき                              * Niger 45
                                                 * wolf      オオカミ                               * Somalia 45
               20                                            Walter KLINGER



                                            Americans go to see a
                                              movie about 4 times                the cities with
 Titanic won 11 Oscar film awards            a year per person.                       the largest
    in 1997. What other movies

       many Oscars オ カ 賞 ?
                    スー
                                    won     Name the other top
                                                                                    indoor
                                             movie-going
* Ben-Hur ベン・ハー 1959. 11.
* West Side Story 1961. 10.
                                                                                  theaters
* Gigi 恋の手ほどき 1958. 9.                        countries.
* The Last Emperor 1987. 9.
* The English Patient 1996                * Lebanon.                          * Beijing, China. National People’s
                                           35 visits per person per year.        Congress Building Theatre. 1959. 10,000.
* Gone with the Wind
    風と共に去りぬ 1939. 8 Oscars.
                                          * China. 12.                        * Perth, Australia. Perth
* From Here to Eternity                   * Republic of Georgia.                 Entertainment Centre. Opened 1976.
                                                                                 8,003 seats.
    地上より永遠に 1953. 8.                       グルジア共和国 6.
                                          * India. 5.                         * Havana, Cuba. Chaplin
* On the Waterfront 波止場 1954. 8.                                                 (Blanquetta). Opened 1949. 6,500 .
* My Fair Lady 1964. 8.                   * Iceland. 5.                       * New York, USA.
                                          * Australia. 4.                        Radio City Music Hall. Opened 1932.
                                                                                 6,200+ seats.
                                          * New Zealand. 4.
                                          * Monaco. 4.


                                           a Beatles song
    Greenland is the world’s largest
                                             with the word                       London - New York
     island, with    2,175,597                                                is one of the busiest air routes 航空路

               square kilometers.                 “she”                       in the world, with   2.6   million passengers
                                                                              per year flying between the cities. What
               What are the other
                                                                                        are the other busiest
                                             in the title
           largest islands?                                                     international air routes (as of 1999)?
                                          * Ain’t She Sweet                   *Hong Kong - Taipei 4.1m
*   New Guinea 820,033 sq.km.             * I Want You (She’s So Heavy)       *London - Paris 3.5m
*   Borneo 743,107                        * She Came In Through               *London - Dublin 2.5m
*   Madagascar 587,042                        The Bathroom Window             *Singapore - Kuala Lumpur
*   Baffin Island (*in northern Canada)   * She Said She Said                       2.3m
     476,068
                                          * She Loves You                     *Tokyo - Honolulu 2.3m
* Sumatra 473,605
                                          * She’s A Woman                     *Tokyo - Seoul 2.2m
* Honshu 230,316
                                          * She’s Leaving Home                *London - Amsterdam 2.2m
* Great Britain 229,883
                                                                              *Hong Kong - Bangkok 1.9m
Incidental Vocabulary Learning in a Quiz Game, Part I   21

				
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