Pruning Guide A – Z (Season sorted) c/o One Two Tree (Issued - Jan 08) SPRING Details Abelia x grandiflora Sp Sm Spring – shape up, remove longer branches. Summer – prune to shape after flowering (reduce 1 : 4 branches to near ground level) To renovate = cut all branches to base early spring. Abutilon megapotamicum Sp Early / mid Spring – shape, remove crossing and overly long stems … Aucuba japonica Sp Spring after display of winter berries. (If no berries then winter prune acceptable) Cut back lanky branches back to within body of plant. Otherwise trim branches over body of plant to maintain size / shape. Bamboo Sp Cut back old canes to ground floor level if clump becomes congested. Thin out as necessary through year. Remove overcrowded stems to ground level. If prune off top then will not regrow in height. Bergenia cordifolia Sp Flowers over winter/ spring. Remove dead leaves as necessary eg spring Betula Sp Prune out dead / damaged / diseased branches. Prune crown only if overgrown. Brachyglotis Sp Sm Mid-spring after frosts and prior to onset of new growth. These tend to put on a lot of growth over the year and can become leggy. Prune accordingly ie prune 1 in 3 back hard just above to new shoots. NOTE: flowers bourne on previous years growth in summer. Hard pruning therefore results in finer foliage effect at expense of flowers. Routine and sensible pruning should enable both! May also be pruned after flowering. Buddleja davidii Sp Prune HARD early spring with the onset of new growth. (eg 20 / 30cm or 05 / 1m pending final required height) A prolific self seeder, therefore for ease, remove spent flowerheads promptly (may promote secondary flowering) Callicarpa Sp Early spring after frost but whilst plant is still dormant. Camellia japonica Sp Spring, after flowering but before growth buds break. Shorten over vigorous stems to balance future growth and to encourage a bushy plant. Renovative pruning can be performed by hard pruning eg prune third of stems above ground floor per annum. Carpinus betulus Sp Spring – prune as necessary. Ceanothus dentatus Sp Sm NOTE: pruning depends on whether flowering on new / old wood. Species dependant. Either spring prior to flowering if on new wood, Or Late summer after flowering if on old wood. DA suggest – trail / error – initial prune after flowering safer method – after flowering mid summer Chaenomeles Sp Sm Late spring /early summer after flowering. Show a fair degree of growth over the season so prune back accordingly eg reduce circa 5 / 6 shoots on all stems. Thin out main body of crossing stems. Choisya ternata Sp Spring after flowering and may get 2nd flush in Autumn. Hard pruning in spring (immediately after flowering) is best for well grown species. Equally respond well to hard pruning in spring if overgrown. Clematis Montana Sp Sm Very dependant on species. Eg. Spring flowering – flower on last seasons growth in spring - prune after flowering eg summer. (Eg evergreen armandii) Other (majority) = investigate type as either flower on previous or current seasons growth – safest option = prune after flowering. Potential to cut back hard. Convolvulus cneorum Sp Early spring before buds break. Allow to develop initially before pruning, followed by simple pruning of overly long stems. Cornus alba Sp Early spring before bud break. New growth is brightly coloured. Therefore good to prune back hard in spring to encourage new growth following winter. Cotinus coggygria Sp Spring before growth begins. Rotating pruning eg reduce half stems by half / ¾ length. Erica Sp Late spring after flowering. Species dependant, some respond well to hard pruning, others don’t! Escallonia Sp Renovate – spring Routine pruning summer after flowering. Neglected plants can be pruned hard to produce vigorous new growth Euonymus fortunei Sp Prune to shape as nec eg spring. Renovative pruning possible by cutting back hard. Euonymus japonica Sp Prune to shape as nec eg spring. Euonymus radicans Sp As per Euonymus jap Fatsia japonica Sp Mid spring. Cut back unwanted stems completely (will reshoot from base). Remove faded berries later spring. Fremontodendron Sp Flowers on current seasons growth. (hairs irritant). Light pruning only to train to shape. Prune out flowered growth where strong shoots exist to replace it. Fuchsia magellanica Sp Au Flowers on current seasons growth in summer /autumn. Cut back hard annually. Prune early spring once growth starts or if exposed reduce stems by 1/3 in Autumn to reduce wind damage. Pinch out tips to encourage bushy growth. Garrya elliptica Sp Catkins winter/ spring. Prune early spring as the catkins fade. And before growth starts. Griselinia littoralis Sp As required. Cut out stems as required typically in spring. Trim over with secateurs summer to shape up as required. Haemomeles x intermedia Sp Slow growing and respond slowly to pruning. If necessary prune early spring after flowers fade but before leaves unfold. Often grafted - remove suckers. Hebe Sp Spring so time for new shoot growth / flower. Also after flowering as nec. Trim the plant over lightly each yea to maintain size / shape Hedera helix Sp Sm Prune throughout year as necessary. Preferred before new growth so that juvenile growth display for sp / sm. Hibiscus Sp Flowers on current seasons growth in late summer. Prune late spring. Cut back established plants by redn stems by upto 1/3 to good buds. Old stems can be removed to base if required to rebud at base. Prune young plants lightly to maintain well balanced plant. Remove lopsided / badly placed branches, otherwise lightly prune as applicable. Hydrangea macrophylla Sp W Either after flowering or else leave flower heads over winter to protect young growth below. Cut back to good bud for flowering. Leave leaders with bud. Spring : 1. Cut out one or two less productive branches at ground level 2. Shorten the flowered stems to pairs of healthy buds eg 20 – 30 cm 3. Remove weak and spindly stems, completely or if there are buds low down to these. Hypericum calycinum Sp Flowers on current seasons growth. Annual prune in early spring. Jasminum nudiflorum (winter) Sp Early spring after flowering. Remove dead stems. Jasminum officinalie Sp W Early spring (summer) Laurus nobilis Sp Sm Prune to maintain shape eg select appropriately facing bud (cut leaves look unattractive) Lavandula angustifolia Sp Au Dead head in Autumn, prune best left until spring. Do not reshoot if cut into old wood. As such prune annually to remove bulk of previous seasons growth. Lavatera (Mallow) Sp Au Prune in spring after the buds begin to break. Stems can also be shortened in autumn. Equally during growing season remove damaged wood. Flower on current seasons growth over a long period summer – autumn. Wood is particularly weak and can often ‘self-destruct’. Prune before they become top heavy. Tolerant of hard pruning to reshoot at base. Leycesteria Formosa Sp Spring. Remove selected stems to base / shape as necessary. New stems grow and flower in a single season. Ligustrum (PRIVET) Sp Sm Trim 2 – 3 times between late spring & late summer. Renovate old examples by hard pruning in spring (possible reversion of variegated types though). Lonicera nitida Sp Au Flexible – eg Spring to Autumn as required (eg esp if hedging) 2 – 3 pa Mahonia aquifolium Sp Spring after flowering. Cut back old shoots to ground level to renovate. Mahonia x media Sp Spring after flowering. Cut back lanky stems to strong growth lower down. Possible to renovate by pruning low down (recovery may be slow) Nandina Sp Flowers summer, red berries afterwards. Prune only to keep in shape. Prune back spindly plants to lower regrowth or indeed remove unwanted stems to ground level. Perovskia Sp Flowers bourne on end of new stems. Prune back reasonably hard down to new shoots early spring as new growth is breaking. Phlomis Sp Mid spring when plant is growing actively. Photinia x fraseri Sp Bright red leaves early spring. Shortening stems by 15cm to outward facing bud to encourage more bright young growth. Eg after initial spring flush. Prune hedges through year as necessary. Pieris Sp Young red leaves and flowers in spring. Prune accordingly in spring after flowering. Pittosporum tenuifolium Sp Sm Mid spring when growth has started. Also midsummer as necessary. Potentilla Sp Au Flowers on current seasons growth throughout summer. Prune mid spring and again as necessary in autumn. Prunus lusitanica Sp Su Late spring or early summer. Can develop to tree like if unpruned. Prune to restrict size and cut overlong shoots well back to trunk or main stem. Pyracantha atalantioides Sp Thorns -wear gloves. Prune typically mid spring. Wall trained also in late summer shortening new growth to expose berries. Flowers form early summer which then turn into autumn / winter display of berries. Prune hedges in spring then clip 2 / 3 thro year as required. Rhus typhina (Staghorn) Sp Sap potentially harmful – wear gloves. Prune for shape early spring. Remove unwanted suckers as they appear. Ribes sanguineum Sp Wn Flowers on previous seasons growth. Prune mid to late spring after flowering. Renovate in late winter. Regular pruning encourages fresh new growth. Rotational pruning beneficial. Salvia Sp Prune in spring when growth begins. Saroccoca Sp Sm Fragrant flowers in spring on previous years growth. Prune after flowering. Skimmia Japonica Sp Fruits on female (Autumn / winter). Cut back over vigorous shoots in spring after flowering. Can tolerate hard pruning if nec. Taxus Baccata Sp Spring as necessary Tilia x europaea (Lime) Sp Sm Mainly in spring. Continually remove suckers from base (trunk) as necessary. Viburnum tinus Sp Flowers winter / spring. Prune late spring after flowering. Vinca major Sp Spring Vinca minor Sp Spring. List not exhaustive & for guidance only. Refer to Hessayon Pruning Guide as necessary for ID / guidance. Remember suitable deadheading throughout season as necessary. Sp = Spring, Sm = Summer, Au = Autumn, W = Winter.