Immigration Categories and the Naturalization Process
On March 1, 2003 the responsibility for providing immigration-related services and benefits, such as naturalization and work authorization, were transferred from the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) to the United States Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) or the Bureau of Citizenship and Immigration Services (BCIS), a bureau of the Department of Homeland Security. USCIS processes all immigrant and non-immigrant benefits provided to visitors of the United States, including family-based petitions, employment-based petitions, asylum and refugee processing, naturalization, special status programs – adjudicating eligibility for U.S. immigration status as a form of humanitarian aid to foreign nationals, and document issuance and renewal – including verification of eligibility, production and issuance of immigration documents. IMMIGRATION CATEGORIES
Lawful Permanent Resident (LPR): a foreign born individual admitted to the U.S. who has been accorded the privilege of permanently residing in the U.S. as an immigrant. LPRs are also known as “green card” holders. A person becomes an LPR upon admission to the U.S. with an immigrant visa or upon adjustment of status in the U.S. With limited exceptions LPR status is the only immigration status from which an immigrant can become a U.S. citizen.
A as a general rule in order to adjust status an individual has to be admissible, which includes the requirement to be lawfully in the U.S. at the time of adjustment.
However, there are some situations when an individual is in unlawful status, but was inspected and admitted to the U.S., who may be able to adjust to LPR. For example, immediate relatives of U.S. citizens may adjust under 245(a) of INA even while being in an unlawful status.
Refugee: a foreign born individual who flees his/her country due to persecution or a well founded fear of persecution on the basis of at least one of the following internationally recognized grounds: race, religion, nationality, political opinion, or membership in a social group. Refugees generally apply for admission to the U.S. in refugee camps or designated processing sites outside their home country. However, in some instances refugees may apply for refugee status within their home countries, for example, Cuba, Vietnam. After one year of physical presence in the U.S. a refugee may apply for adjustment of status. Refugees may apply for LPR status after one year of having refugee status. There is no annual cap on the number of refugees who may adjust their status to that of LPR, but there is annual cap on the number of refugees who may be permitted to enter the U.S. in any given year.
1. Political Asylee: a foreign born individual who flees his/her country due to persecution or a well founded fear of persecution on the basis of at least one of the following internationally recognized grounds: race, religion, nationality, political opinion, or membership in a social group. A person who is seeking asylum applies for this status while in the U.S., unlike a refugee who applies from abroad. Under the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996 the asylum seeker must file an application within one year of arriving in the U.S. Once granted asylum, asylees may adjust status to LPR after one year. As established by law, only 10,000 asylees may adjust their status to that of a LPR in any given fiscal year.
2. Asylum Applicant: a person who is awaiting a decision about asylum from the USCIS.
3. Withholding of Deportation: a foreign born individual who is in deportation or removal proceedings who demonstrates that he or she faces a clear probability of persecution in his/her home country. The clear probability standard is significantly stricter than the well-founded fear of persecution required for asylum eligibility. Because of withholding's stricter statutory standard, an immigration judge would consider the application for withholding only after reaching a determination on an asylum application. (Immigration judges can deny asylum applications based on discretionary factors, such as fraudulently entering the U.S. In addition, automatic denial for asylum would result if the applicant committed certain statutory crimes.) One is unable to adjust to LPR status in this category, but he/she is able to obtain an employment authorization from the USCIS.
4. Parolee: the USCIS has discretionary authority to permit certain foreign born individuals or groups to enter the U.S. in “for emergent reasons or reasons deemed strictly in the public interest”. Parolee status may be granted for humanitarian, legal, or medical reasons. Generally, individuals paroled into the U.S. for less than a year are not eligible to adjust their status to that of an LPR unless they have other grounds for adjustment. Presently there is only one group of parolees who are eligible to adjust status to LPR base on their parolee status, called the “Lautenberg Parolee”. This status is for certain individuals from the former Soviet Union, Estonia, Latvia or Lithuania who are found ineligible for refugee classification. After one year in the U.S., parolees under the Lautenberg Amendment can apply for adjustment of status without regard to quota. Parolees do not have employment authorization incident to status but they can apply for the authority to work.
5. Amerasian: children fathered by U.S. citizens in certain Southeast Asian countries during the years of U.S. conflict in that region. Such children are granted LPR status under special provisions of immigration law.
6. Cuban/Haitian Entrant: this category was created for the Cuban and Haitian arrivals in 1980 that were allowed to obtain work permits and to apply for public assistance. It now applies to Cuban and Haitian nationals who have been granted special status as an entrant, as well as to Cubans and Haitians who are applying for asylum, have been granted parole, or are in removal proceedings. Cuban/Haitian entrants are eligible for refugee services. This status is temporary until the USCIS determines admissibility, at which time another status may be granted.
1. Conditional Permanent Resident: a person who obtains lawful permanent residence based on a marriage to a U.S. citizen within 2 years of the date of the marriage. Conditional status is granted under the presumption the marriage may not be bona fide. This status is valid only for 2 years. Ninety days prior to the 2-year anniversary of becoming a conditional permanent resident both the conditional permanent resident and his/her spouse must file a joint petition to remove condition. If approved, the conditional status is removed. If an application to remove the conditional status is not filed, the permanent status will be terminated and the USCIS can start removal proceedings. When a conditional resident cannot file a Joint Petition, he/she must file a waiver of the requirement to file the joint petition and must show one of the following:
1. Even though the conditional resident is now divorced, he/she entered into the marriage in good faith and it is not the conditional resident’s fault that the marriage has legally ended.
2. Deportation will cause an extreme hardship to the conditional resident, if he/she is removed from the country.
3. Qualifying marriage was entered into in good faith and that during the marriage the conditional resident (spouse or child) was abused or subjected to extreme cruelty by the U.S. citizen.
2. Temporary Protected Status (TPS): a temporary immigration status granted to eligible nationals of designated countries. In 1990, Congress established a procedure by which the Attorney General may provide TPS to immigrants in the U.S. who are temporarily unable to return to their homeland because of ongoing armed conflict, environmental disasters, or other extraordinary and temporary conditions, which make it a hardship for them to return to their home country. Persons who qualify for TPS are authorized to remain in the U.S. for a specific period of time and are eligible for employment authorization. This category is in flux and time frames for various groups change. One is unable to adjust to LPR status in this category.
3. Deferred Enforced Departure: Like TPS, DED Like TPS, DED is a temporary protection from removal that is granted to immigrants from a designated country. Unlike TPS, DED is designated by the Office of the President of the United States of America, as a constitutional power to conduct foreign relations. The U.S. Attorney General can designate a country for TPS, but the President is the one to designate DED for nationals of a particular country by Executive Order or Presidential Memorandum.
1. Cancellation of Removal: formerly called suspension of deportation, the immigrant must show they have been continuously present in the U.S. for at least 10 years before the beginning of any deportation proceedings, have good moral character, not be convicted of document fraud, and deportation would cause "exceptional and extremely unusual hardship" to a U.S. citizen or lawful permanent resident spouse, child under the age of 21, or parent. Such individuals can adjust their immigration status to LPR, if cancellation of removal is granted.
7. Voluntary Departure: granted by an immigration judge instead of deportation. Eligibility is based on the immigrant's good moral character, physical presence in the U.S. for one year, ability and willingness to pay their way out of the country, and guarantee to leave the country by the date on the departure form.
8. Registry Applicant: an undocumented individual who has continuously been residing in the U.S. since 1/1/72, is a person of good moral character, has no other means of becoming a LPR, and has not participated in terrorist activities, certain criminal behavior or smuggling is eligible to apply for LPR status. Any immigrant who fails to appear at a removal hearing, or who fails to depart after agreeing to voluntary departure, is ineligible for registry for a period of 10 years.
9. PRUCOL is not a specific immigration status. The term describes non-citizens who are residing in the U.S. with the knowledge of the USCIS and who have been given permission by the USCIS to remain for an indefinite period or whose departure from the U.S. they do not contemplate enforcing. It is an unofficial term used by benefitsgranting agencies to describe these non-citizens who are known by the USCIS to determine their eligibility for state funded benefit programs. The benefit granting agency makes the determination whether the individual is PRUCOL, not the USCIS.
10. A Non-immigrant: a visa holder who enters the U.S. legally but does not intend to stay permanently. These include tourists, business people, students, medical visa, etc.
11. Undocumented Alien: those who reside in the U.S. without permission from the USCIS. These include those who have overstayed their visa, those who entered without inspection, and those who may have an unexpired visa, but have violated the terms and conditions of their visa. Visa overstayers are those who have a visa for a limited amount of time, for example a tourist, who extend their stay in the U.S. beyond the permitted date. Those who entered without inspection are those who crossed the borders illegally without a visa. Undocumented aliens are unable to adjust to LPR status.
OBTAINING LAWFUL PERMANENT RESIDENCY (LPR)
The only immigration status from which an immigrant can naturalize is the LPR status. An immigrant can obtain lawful permanent residency ("green card" status) through adjustment of status from another immigration category or through sponsorship.
Adjustment of Status
Adjustment of status is a legal term to indicate when an immigrant, lawfully and permanently residing in the U.S., changes his/her immigration status to lawful permanent residency. There are, however, limited instances when an undocumented alien in the U.S. can adjust their status to that of a LPR, for example, immediate relatives of U.S. citizens may adjust under 245(a) of INA even while being in an unlawful status. The immigrant requests a petition from the USCIS for an adjustment of status and the USCIS makes the determination.
Family-Based and Employment-Based Visas
An eligible family member (family based visas) or an employer (employment based visa) may petition an immigrant to reside permanently in the U.S.
Employment Based Visas
The Employment Preference System allows certain immigrants to obtain permanent residence in the U.S. to work. Currently immigration law allots 140,000 employmentbased visas to immigrants. These employment-based visas are divided into the following categories:
12. Priority workers, persons of extraordinary ability in the arts, sciences, education, business, or athletics, 13. Professionals, requiring an advanced degree or exceptional ability,
14. Skilled workers, able to perform work which requires 2 or more years of experience, and 15. Unskilled workers, performing labor which requires less than 2 years experience, limited to 10,000 visas per year nationwide
The employer must show the following:
1. A shortage of workers in a particular field of work, or 2. The immigrant has skills and experience needed by an employer that are not available in the general pool of legal residents and U.S. citizen job applicants.
Family- Based Visas
Family based visas make up roughly 85% of the national total of immigrants. The immigrant must have a sponsor in the U.S., a relative who is either a U.S. citizen or LPR, who petitions for his/her relative. Sponsors must meet certain requirements, see below. Family-based immigrants are admitted to the U.S. either as immediate relatives of the U.S. citizen or through family preference system.
1. Immediate Relative: A U.S. citizen who sponsors a spouse, child (under 21 and single) or parent (the child who sponsors a parent must be at least 21) is not subject to the annual visa quota limits and is immediately available.
2. Family Based Visa Preference System: For all other immigrants of family members, the number of immigrants allowed into the U.S. is based on a quota set each year. The waiting period to receive a visa can be quite long and is determined by family relationship and whether the sponsor is a U.S. citizen or LPR. The lower the preference, the longer it will take for the immigrant's priority date to become available. Priorities are listed below:
Family Based Preference System 1st Priority: 3rd Priority: Unmarried children (21 & over) Married children Legal Permanent 2A Priority: 2B Priority: Residents Spouses & Minor Unmarried child Children (any age) U.S Citizen
4th Priority: Siblings
A relative will file the petition and a priority date is assigned when the USCIS Service Center receives the application. When the priority date becomes current, an interview is conducted and if accepted, the individual will be granted LPR status.
1. VAWA: Based on the passage of the Violence Against Women Act (VAWA), a new self-petitioning right was created for the immigrant spouse and/or child who are battered. This breaks the dependency created under the situation where the U.S. citizen or LPR spouse holds the sole right to petition for legal status for the beneficiary spouse or child. To qualify the battered person must be residing in the U.S. and have been subjected to extreme cruelty, battery, and or/severe neglect by a U.S. citizen or LPR spouse or parent.
Other Ways to Obtain Lawful Permanent Residency
2. Religious workers - must have worked for the church for 2 years
3. Special immigrant juveniles - under 18 and wards of the court
4. Investors who create U.S. jobs - invest at least $1 million into an enterprise
1. Federal Diversity Immigrant Visa Lottery Program – at a designated time during the course of a calendar year, the U.S. State Department awards a limited number of permanent resident visas nationwide to individuals seeking a green card. Selection of
the visa lottery does not guarantee the lottery winner will receive a permanent resident visa, but it does make the winner eligible to apply for a green card. Individuals currently residing in the U.S., whether legal or not, as well as individuals residing in countries with low levels of immigration to the U.S. can enter the lottery. If an individual receives such a visa he/she will be authorized to live and work permanently in the United States. Some restrictions apply and eligibility should be checked before submitting an application. Such individuals will be allowed to bring his/her spouse and any unmarried children under 21 to the U.S. For more information contact the U.S. State Department at (202) 331-7199 http://travel.state.gov or the USCIS at (800) 375-5283.
Requirements for Obtaining Legal Permanent Residency
Eligibility to apply for LPR does not guarantee an application will be approved. In order to obtain LPR status the individual has to be admissible. The following are grounds for inadmissibility.
3. Persons with serious criminal records.
4. Persons with communicable diseases.
5. Likelihood of becoming a public charge - an immigrant applying for LPR status may jeopardize his/her application if he/she is currently in receipt of certain public benefits or likely to become a public charge in the future.
1. Receipt of cash welfare benefits (Public Assistance or SSI) are counted in determining public charge. In-kind benefits such as Food Stamps, school lunch, rent subsidies, etc. are considered "supplementary" in nature and will usually not render the individual a public charge. Receipt of Medicaid, Child Health Plus, Family Health Plus, or other short-term health care benefits will also not be considered, although receipt of Medicaid for institutionalization for long-term care may. Cash assistance provided to an immigrant’s children might not be weighed as heavily as receipt of benefits by the immigrant him/herself. The public charge issue is extremely important and may negatively effect the
immigrant's application for LPR. An organization that specializes in this area should be consulted before the immigrant applies for benefits.
2. Receipt of such benefits does not automatically make an individual ineligible to adjust status to LPR. The law requires that the USCIS official consider several additional issues as well, including the immigrant’s age, health, family status, assets, resources, financial status, education, and skills. Each determination is made on a case-by-case basis.
3. Public charge is not an issue for refugees, asylees or battered spouses and children seeking to adjust status.
Advocacy Tip: It is important to consult an immigration lawyer if any of the above conditions exist. It is always possible that a waiver may be granted in specific situations.
New laws require sponsors to assume responsibility for the immigrant they sponsor. Sponsors must have incomes equal to 125% of the poverty level for the number of persons they will support, including themselves, their families/dependents, the sponsored immigrant as well as any family the sponsored immigrant may bring. For example, if an individual with a spouse and two children sponsor an immigrant and his/her spouse, the sponsor must be able to show he/she can support all six, at 125% of the poverty level. Sponsors who are on active duty in the armed services and sponsoring a spouse or child need only demonstrate income at 100% of the poverty level.
The sponsor must sign an "affidavit of support" which is legally enforceable by the local, state or federal entity that provides any needs based benefits to the immigrant. When determining eligibility for certain needs based benefit the agency will consider the income and resources of the immigrant's sponsor and the sponsor's spouse. The total amount of the sponsor's income and resources is considered available to the immigrant and the immigrant's family. There is no longer an allowance for the needs of the sponsor's family, as in previous law, with the exception of Food Stamps, which does provide a support reserve for the sponsor and their household. If the immigrant's and the
sponsor's combined income exceed the income criteria for the particular benefit the immigrant is applying for, they will be ineligible to receive that benefit.
Under this legally binding contract sponsors are responsible until the immigrant naturalizes or is credited with 40 qualifying quarters of coverage with Social Security. In addition, the government agency may pursue the sponsor for any money paid out to the immigrant, for 10 years after the date such benefits were received.
All family based immigrants are required to have at least one affidavit of support filed by the petitioner. Refugees, asylees, widows, battered spouses and children seeking LPR status are exempted from this requirement. The new affidavit of support became effective 12/19/97.
BECOMING A U.S. CITIZEN
Naturalization is the process by which a lawful permanent resident (LPR) becomes a U.S. citizen. Over the last several years there has been a marked increase in the number of applications for citizenship. Several factors contributed to this increase:
4. Large numbers of immigrants who obtained legal status under the 1986 IRCA legalization program are now eligible for naturalization, 5. Many immigrants who are required to replace their green cards under the green card replacement program, have opted, instead, to apply for citizenship, and 6. Many immigrants are seeking citizenship in response to the federal welfare reform act, the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act of 1996, which limits legal immigrants' eligibility for public benefits.
The USCIS’ definition of public charge refers to an immigrant who has become or is likely to become primarily dependent on the government for subsistence. Immigration law does not deny citizenship to LPR’s who are receiving public benefits for which they are eligible. Receiving public benefits endangers an application for citizenship only if the LPR lied about eligibility to receive benefits, or when applying for legal residence, lied about a disability or some other barrier to their economic independent that later caused them to depend primarily on public assistance.
Public charge issues arise only when a family-based immigrant seeks a visa to come to the U.S. or applies in the U.S for adjustment to LPR status. It does not apply to refugees, asylee or registry applicants who are adjusting status to LPR. Only receipt of the following benefits would be considered in a public charge determination: SSI, Family Assistance, Safety Net Assistance, or institutionalization for long-term care (institutional Medicaid). Receipt of health care benefits such as community Medicaid, Child Health Plus, Family Health Plus, Food Stamps, WIC, or other programs that do not provide cash, such as public housing, child care, energy assistance, etc, would not be considered a public charge issue. In addition, receipt of cash assistance does not automatically incur a public charge determination. USCIS officials must also consider the immigrant’s age, health, family status, assets, medical status, education and skills in each determination.
Benefits of Citizenship
1. Right to vote, and run for office,
2. Right to file for immediate visa petitions for spouses and minor children, and the right to petition for parents and siblings,
3. Right to enter and leave the U.S. without time limitations on travels,
4. Protection from deportation, and
5. Right to access important benefits and services.
Basic Requirements for Citizenship
In order to apply for naturalization, an immigrant must:
1. Have been a LPR for five years, or
2. Have been a LPR for three years and married to a U.S. citizen for those 3 years and continue to be married to that citizen, and
3. Be 18 years of age or older,
4. Have good moral character for the five-year period prior to filing for naturalization - there are no set rules for showing one has good moral character. The decision is left to the discretion of the immigration judge. Convictions or admissions of certain crimes such as failure to pay income taxes, failure to pay child support, using fraudulent immigration documents to obtain benefits, habitual gambling or drunkenness, drug possession or trafficking, prostitution, alien smuggling, can be enough to exclude an applicant from become in a citizen,
5. Be willing to pledge to uphold the Constitution of the U.S.,
6. Have knowledge and understanding of the U.S. government and history to pass an oral test, unless otherwise exempt,
7. Speak and understand the English language, unless otherwise exempt, and
8. Have been physically present in the U.S. for at least 30 months of the five years they had LPR status (or half the time for 3 year eligibility). Any absence outside the U.S. for over 6 months, without USCIS permission may breach the continuous residency requirement.
7. Complete the Application for Naturalization (N-400)
6. Include $595 filing fee, plus a $80 fee for fingerprints, 3 color photo ID's, 1 photocopy of resident alien receipt card (I-551 or I-151) - back and front, copy of marriage license and U.S. spouse's passport, if applying as a spouse to a U.S. citizen. Waivers are available for the filing fee, check with the local district.
7. All new naturalization applicants must submit their N-400 forms to USCIS without fingerprints, they will then be scheduled for a fingerprinting appointment.
8. The USCIS District Office provides free applications, call the USCIS at 1 (800) 870-3676 to obtain an application by mail.
8. An applicant can file 3 months prior to the actual date they become fully eligible for citizenship. All NYC residents can file with:
U.S. Department of Homeland Security U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Vermont Service Center 75 Lower Welden St. St. Albans, VT 05479-9400
9. NYC residents may expect to wait 30 to 60 days for a receipt notice once the application is filed. It may take an additional 18 - 20 months for the USCIS appointment to be scheduled.
10. USCIS will schedule the applicant for an interview with an examiner regarding educational requirements. The interview includes:
9. An U.S. civics test (history and government) via an oral exam, which is given at the time of the naturalization interview. There is no extra charge for the exam. If the individual fails the test, they can take it again. If they fail again, the naturalization application will be denied, and the immigrant must begin the process again.
10. A literacy requirement, a demonstration of the English language, including ability to read, write and speak words of ordinary usage in the English language.
11. Study materials are available on the Internet at: http://www.uscis.gov/, see “Learn about US citizenship” on the left
11. If the USCIS interview is successful, the individual will attend a swearing-in ceremony and take the oath of allegiance to the U.S. This typically occurs 2 - 3 months after the interview.
Waivers from the Educational Requirements
The USCIS recognizes that some applicants may be eligible for either full or partial waivers from the USCIS educational requirements, due to their age and length of residency in the U.S. or a disabling condition, known as special consideration applicants. Applying for a waiver does not guarantee an applicant will be granted an exemption. Exemptions are listed below.
Elderly LPR's may apply for a waiver from the English requirement if:
9. 50 years old or older and have lived in the U.S. as a LPR for at least 20 years, or 10. 55 years or older and have lived in the U.S. as a LPR for at least 15 years
Elderly LPR's may also apply for a limited civics test if:
12. 65 years and older and have lived in the U.S. as a LPR for at least 20 years
Elderly applicants should include a cover letter with their N-400 applications, stating they are eligible for the English waiver. Such applicants are also allowed to take the civics test in their native language and should request an interpreter on the day of their interview.
Applicants who have a medically determinable mental and/or physical impairment making may be eligible for an exception to the English and civics requirements. A qualified licensed medical doctor or clinical psychologist must file a Medical Certification for Disability Exceptions (Form N-648) with the N-400 Application for Naturalization. The physician does not have to be certified by the USCIS to make such a determination.
The physician will be required to attest that the disability prevents the applicant from demonstrating the required level of English and/or civics knowledge for naturalization. The form also incorporates a release of any relevant medical records that the USCIS may
require to evaluate the certification. The USCIS reserves the right to refer the applicant to another authorized medical source, if the USCIS has credible doubts about the authenticity of the initial medical attestation. The disability waiver does not waive the naturalization interview or the oath ceremony.
To apply for a disability exception, the disability must be at least one year old or excepted to last at least a year; and it must not have been caused by illegal drug use.
If the individual qualified for a disability exception from the English and civics requirement, he/she must still be able to take the Oath of Allegiance to the United States. If the individual cannot community an understanding of the meaning of the oath because of a physical or mental disability, the USCIS may excuse the individual from this requirement.
An LPR who is unable to go to the USCIS office should submit a letter requesting a home visit with their N-400. There is a wait for home visits.
Note: Immigration law is very complex. Advocates should consult with an immigration lawyer or advocacy organization before advising a client in this area. The USCIS has provided an extensive guide on the naturalization process, go to
Discovering the Status of the Application
13. Online: If an individual e-filed an application or petition and has his/her receipt number, or filed an application with a USCIS Service Center and has a receipt, he/she can find the status of their case at https://egov.uscis.gov/cris/jsps/index.jsp
14. Calling: An individual may also obtain case status by calling 1 (800) 375-5283, and following the automated instructions.
15. Writing: To make a written request contact the Service or Benefits Center where the case is pending. Provide the following:
11. Current name and address, and, if different, name as it appears on the original application 12. Any A-number, which is an 8 or 9 digit number following the letter "A", assigned to the individual 13. Date of birth 14. The date and place where application was filed 15. Any receipt number from any receipt notice issued by USCIS 16. A copy of the most recent notice sent to you by the USCIS, and 17. The date and office where the individual was fingerprinted and where he/she was interviewed, if this has been done. 18. If the individual filed electronically, include a copy of the Confirmation Receipt notice.
Sign the request and mark the envelope: ATTN: Status Inquiry and address it to the USCIS Field Office at the address above.
LOCAL OFFICES AND CONTACT INFORMATION
USCIS Service and Office Locator https://egov.uscis.gov/crisgwi/go?action=offices
Application Support Centers Before going to an Application Support Center, contact the National Customer Service Center at 1 (800) 375-5283 /TDD 1 (800) 767-1833 Monday through Friday 9:00 AM 5:00 PM to schedule an appointment.
Bronx ASC 1827 Westchester Avenue Bronx, NY 10472
Brooklyn ASC 227 Livingston Street Brooklyn, NY 11201
Jamaica ASC 153-01 Jamaica Avenue Jamaica, NY 11432
New York ASC 201 West Houston Street, Suite 1023 New York, NY 10014
Woodside ASC 63-05 Roosevelt Avenue Woodside, NY 11377
RESOURCES AND INFORMATION
Spar & Bernstein Law Offices http://www.4immigration.com
Specializing in immigration law, offers information on visa lottery, checking one’s priority date, common questions about immigration issues, obtaining visas, etc.
For a list of organizations refer to Vol. I – Legal Services, Section A 5, Immigrant Services.