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					North-South Lower Manhattan From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Main article: Manhattan Lower Manhattan skyline, 1931 Lower Manhattan (or downtown Manhattan) is the southernmost part of the island of Manhattan, the main island and center of business and government of the City of New York. Lower Manhattan or "downtown" is defined most commonly as the area delineated on the north by 14th Street, on the west by the Hudson River, on the east by the East River, and on the south by New York Harbor (also known as Upper New York Bay). When referring specifically to the lower Manhattan business district and its immediate environs, the northern border is commonly designated by thoroughfares approximately a mile-and-a-half south of 14th Street and a mile north of the island's southern tip: Chambers Street from near the Hudson east to the Brooklyn Bridge entrances and overpass. Two other major arteries are also sometimes identified as lower Manhattan's northern border: Canal Street, roughly half a mile north of Chambers Street, and 23rd Street, roughly half a mile north of 14th Street. A row of Greenwich Village brownstones The lower Manhattan business district forms the core of the area below Chambers Street. It includes the Financial District—often referred to as Wall Street, after its primary artery—and the site of the World Trade Center. At the island's southern tip is Battery Park; City Hall is just to the north of the Financial District. Also south of Chambers Street are the planned community of Battery Park City and the South Street Seaport historic area. The neighborhood of TriBeCa straddles Chambers on the west side; at the street's east end is the giant Manhattan Municipal Building. North of Chambers and the Brooklyn Bridge and south of Canal Street lies most of New York's oldest Chinatown neighborhood. Many court buildings and other government offices are also located in this area. The Lower East Side neighborhood straddles Canal. North of Canal and south of 14th Street are the neighborhoods of SoHo, the Meatpacking District, the West Village, Greenwich Village, Little Italy, Nolita, and the East Village. Between 14th and 23rd streets are lower Chelsea, Union Square, the Flatiron District, Gramercy, and the large residential development Peter Cooper Village—Stuyvesant Town. The New York Stock Exchange The lower Manhattan business district is the fourth largest central business district in the United States, after Midtown Manhattan, Chicago's Loop, and Washington, D.C. The area was previously the third largest CBD.[1] Lower Manhattan fell to fourth place due to the district's loss of the World Trade Center, which contributed over 16,000,000 square feet (1,500,000 m²) of office space to the area. The square footage lost in the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks was equivalent to the office space then in the entire city of Cincinnati. It is expected that the district will regain its third place ranking after the construction of the Freedom Tower, which is planned to yield close to the original

center's square footage of rentable commercial space, and the construction of new headquarters for financial firm Goldman Sachs. History The Cooper Union at Astor Place, where Abraham Lincoln gave one of his most important speeches, is one of downtown's most storied buildings. The Dutch established the first European settlements in Manhattan, which were located at the lower end of the island.[2] The first fort was built at the Battery to protect New Netherland. In 1771, Bear Market was established along the Hudson shore on land donated by Trinity Church, and replaced by Washington Market in 1813.[3] Washington Market was located between Barclay and Hubert Streets, and from Greenwich to West Street.[4] The area remains one of the few parts of Manhattan where the street grid system is largely irregular. Throughout the early decades of the 1900s, the area experienced a construction boom, with major towers such as 40 Wall Street, the American International Building, Woolworth Building, and 20 Exchange Place being erected. In the 1950s, a few new buildings were constructed in lower Manhattan, including an 11story building at 156 William Street in 1955.[5] A 27-story office building at 20 Broad Street, a 12-story building at 80 Pine Street, a 26-story building at 123 William Street, and a few others were built in 1957.[5] By the end of the decade, lower Manhattan had become economically depressed, in comparison with midtown Manhattan, which was booming. David Rockefeller spearheaded widespread urban renewal efforts in lower Manhattan, beginning with construction One Chase Manhattan Plaza, the new headquarters for his bank. He established the Downtown-Lower Manhattan Association (DLMA) which drew up plans for broader revitalization of lower Manhattan, with the development of a world trade center at the heart of these plans. The original DLMA plans called for the "world trade center" to be built along the East River, between Old Slip and Fulton Street. After negotiations with New Jersey Governor Richard J. Hughes, the Port Authority ended up deciding to build the World Trade Center on a site along the Hudson River and the West Side Highway, rather than the East River site. Union Square Through much of its history, the area south of Chambers Street was mainly a commercial district, with a small population of residents. In 1960, there were approximately 4,000 residents living downtown.[6] Construction of Battery Park City brought in many new residents to Lower Manhattan. The Complex started construction in the 1980s from landfill from construction of the World Trade Center. Gateway Plaza, the first complex to be completed in Battery Park City, was finished in 1983. The World Financial Center was the centerpiece of the project, consisting of four luxurious highrise towers. By the turn of the century, Battery Park City was mostly completed, with the exception of some ongoing construction on West Street. Around this time, lower Manhattan reached its highest population of business tenants and full-time residents. Since the early twentieth century, Lower Manhattan has been an important center for the arts and leisure activities. Greenwich Village was a locus of bohemian culture from the first decade of the century through the 1980s. Several of the city's leading jazz clubs are still located in Greenwich Village, which was also one of the primary bases of the

American folk music revival of the 1960s. Many art galleries were located in SoHo between the 1970s and early 1990s; today, the downtown Manhattan gallery scene is centered in Chelsea. From the 1960s onward, lower Manhattan has been home to many alternative theater companies, constituting the heart of the Off-Off-Broadway community. Punk rock emerged in the mid-1970s largely at two venues: CBGB on the Bowery, the western edge of the East Village, and Max's Kansas City on Park Avenue South. The area's many nightclubs and bars draw patrons from throughout the city and the surrounding region. Since the turn of the century, the Meatpacking District has gained a reputation as New York's trendiest neighborhood.[7] Historic sites Staten Island Ferry terminal at South Ferry, showing the tall buildings of Lower Manhattan The most famous landmark in lower Manhattan is now the former World Trade Center site. Before the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001 the Twin Towers were major New York icons. The area contains many old and historic building and sites, including Castle Garden, originally the fort Castle Clinton, Bowling Green, the old United States Customs House, now the National Museum of the American Indian, Federal Hall, where George Washington was inaugurated as the first U.S. President, Fraunces Tavern, New York City Hall, the New York Stock Exchange, renovated original mercantile buildings of the South Street Seaport (and a modern tourist building), the Brooklyn Bridge, South Ferry, embarkation point for the Staten Island Ferry and ferries to Liberty Island and Ellis Island, and Trinity Church. Lower Manhattan is home to some of New York City's most spectacular skyscrapers, including the Woolworth Building, 40 Wall Street (also known as the Trump Building), the Standard Oil Building at 26 Broadway, and the American International Building. In fiction In terms of atmosphere, Batman writer and editor Dennis O'Neil has said that, figuratively, "Batman's Gotham City is Manhattan below Fourteenth Street at eleven minutes past midnight on the coldest night in November."[8] Recovery and future Lower Manhattan skyline at night as seen from New Jersey, 2007 After the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, lower Manhattan lost much of its economy and office space. While the area's economy has rebounded significantly, as of February 2008, the enormous site once occupied by the World Trade Center site remains undeveloped. The Lower Manhattan Development Corporation plans to rebuild downtown Manhattan, by adding new streets, buildings, and office space. Defining downtown Chess players in Washington Square Park Downtown in the context of Manhattan, and of New York City generally, has different meanings to different people, especially depending on where in the city they reside. Residents of the island generally speak of going "downtown" to refer to any southbound excursion to any Manhattan destination.[9] A declaration that one is going to be "downtown" may indicate a plan to be anywhere south of 14th Street—the definition of

downtown according to the city's official tourism marketing organization[9]—or even 23rd Street.[10] The full phrase downtown Manhattan may also refer more specifically to the area of Manhattan south of Canal Street.[6] Within business-related contexts, many people use the term downtown Manhattan to refer only to the Financial District and the corporate offices in the immediate vicinity. The phrase lower Manhattan is more often used in narrower senses, but may apply to any of these definitions: the broader ones often if the speaker is discussing the area in relation to the rest of the city; more restrictive ones, again, if the focus is on business matters or on the early colonial and postcolonial history of the island. Bartop dancing at the Meatpacking District's Hogs and Heifers As reflected in popular culture, "downtown" in Manhattan has historically represented a place where one could "forget all your troubles, forget all your cares, and go Downtown," as the lyics of Petula Clark's 1964 hit "Downtown" celebrate. The protagonist of Billy Joel's 1983 hit "Uptown Girl" contrasts himself (a "downtown man") with the purportedly staid uptown world.[11] Likewise, the chorus of Neil Young's 1995 single "Downtown" urges "Let's have a party, downtown all right." Education Higher education Borough of Manhattan Community College (BMCC) is part of the large City University of New York (CUNY) system Institutions of higher education in Manhattan south of 14th Street include: Benjamin Cardozo School of Law Berkeley College—Lower Manhattan Extension Center Borough of Manhattan Community College (BMCC) Cooper Union Metropolitan College of New York The New School New York Law School New York University (NYU) Pace University St. John's University—School of Risk Management, Insurance, and Actuarial Science Primary and secondary education Public schools Escalators inside highly competitive Stuyvesant High School. Stuyvesant sends more students to the most prestigious U.S. universities than any other school in the nation, public or private.[12] The New York City Department of Education operates New York City's public schools. The northeastern corner of lower Manhattan is covered by New York City School District 1, whose northern border is 14th Street. The rest of the area lies within School District 2, which covers midtown and part of upper Manhattan as well. District 1 is served by over twenty elementary and middle schools. The district's high schools include: Bard High School Early College Cascades High School East Side Community High School

Henry Street School for International Studies Lower East Side Preparatory High School Marta Valle Secondary School New Explorations into Science, Technology and Math High School University Neighborhood High School Urban Assembly School of Business for Young Women Public high schools in District 2 south of 14th Street include: High School of Economics and Finance High School for Leadership and Public Service Millennium High School Murry Bergtraum High School Pace University High School Seward Park High School Stuyvesant High School Unity High School University Neighborhood High School Private schools Private schools in the area include: Claremont Preparatory School

North-South Midtown Manhattan Midtown Manhattan with the Empire State Building, Chrysler Building, MetLife Building, and Bank of America Tower under construction visible. Midtown Manhattan, or simply Midtown, is an area of Manhattan, New York City home to world-famous commercial zones such as Rockefeller Center, Broadway, and Times Square. Midtown Manhattan is the largest central business district in the United States and is home to the city's tallest and most famous buildings such as the Empire State Building and Chrysler Building. Midtown, along with "Uptown" and "Downtown", is one of the three major subdivisions of Manhattan (though "Uptown" and "Downtown" can also be used as adjectives or prepositions, and can take on completely different meanings in the other boroughs, whereas the term "Midtown" cannot) and can be understood as those parts of Manhattan in neither of these two other regions - that is, all areas between 14th Street and 59th Street, from the Hudson River to the East River, about five square miles or 12 km2. The core of Midtown Manhattan is from about 31st Street to 59th Street between Third and Ninth avenues, about two square miles (this is the area most commonly referred to as "Midtown.") The "Plaza District", a term used by Manhattan real estate professionals to denote the most expensive area of midtown from a commercial real estate perspective, lies between 42nd Street and 59th Street, from Third Avenue to Seventh Avenue, about a square kilometer or half a square mile.

As New York's largest central business district, Midtown Manhattan is indisputably the busiest single commercial district in the United States, and among the most intensely and diversely used pieces of real estate in the world. The great majority of New York City's skyscrapers, including its tallest hotels and apartment towers, lie within Midtown. More than 700,000 commuters work in its offices, hotels, and retail establishments; the area also hosts many tourists, visiting residents, and students. Some areas, especially Times Square and Fifth Avenue, have massive clusters of retail establishments. Sixth Avenue in Midtown holds the headquarters of all four major television networks, and is one of a few global centers of news and entertainment, and Madison Avenue the major advertising agencies. It is also a growing center of finance, second in importance within the United States only to Downtown Manhattan's Financial District. Times Square is also the epicenter of American theatre. Cityscape Neighborhoods Rockefeller Center's vicinity contains some of the city's most recognizable landmarks, including the GE Building. Madison Square Garden. Times Square is one of the busiest intersections in the world. Columbus Circle subway station is one of the city's busiest. Skyscrapers line Sixth Avenue, which cuts through the heart of midtown. The Diamond District. Midtown encompasses many neighborhoods including Hell's Kitchen and Chelsea on the West Side, and Murray Hill, Kips Bay, Turtle Bay, and Gramercy on the East Side. It is also sometimes broken into "Midtown East" and "Midtown West", or north and south as in the New York City Police Department's Midtown North and Midtown South precincts. A simplistic and by no means comprehensive but general list of the neighborhoods in the greater Midtown Manhattan is as follows: Between 59th Street to the north and 42nd Street to the south, from west to east: Hell's Kitchen from the Hudson River to 8th Avenue, including Theatre Row on West 42nd Street between 11th Avenue and 9th Avenue. where Hell's Kitchen meets Central Park and the Upper West Side at West 59th Street and 8th Avenue, Columbus Circle Times Square and the Theatre District from West 42nd Street to around West 53rd Street (according to some until Central Park at Central Park South/59th Street), and from 8th Avenue to Sixth Avenue The Diamond District on West 47th Street between 6th Avenue and 5th Avenue Midtown East from around 6th Avenue to the East River, including (going from west to east, and north to south): Sutton Place near the East River between East 53rd Street and East 59th Street Turtle Bay from 53rd Street to 42nd Street and from Lexington Avenue to the East River Tudor City from 1st Avenue to 2nd Avenue and East 40th Street to East 43rd Street

Between 42nd Street north and around 34th Street, from west to east, and north to south: Hell's Kitchen from the Hudson River to 8th Avenue The Garment District from West 42nd Street and West 34th Street and 9th Avenue to 5th Avenue Herald Square around the intersection of Broadway, 6th Avenue and West 34th Street Murray Hill from East 42nd Street to East 34th Street and 5th Avenue to 2nd Avenue Between 34th Street and 23rd Street, from west to east: Chelsea between the Hudson River and Sixth Avenue Koreatown from 36th Street to 31st Street and 5th and 6th Avenues, centered around Korea Way on 32nd Street between 5th Avenue and Broadway Rose Hill or Curry Hill between Madison Avenue and 1st Avenue Kips Bay from 3rd Avenue to the East River Between 23rd Street and 14th Street, going west to east and north to south: Chelsea between the Hudson River and Sixth Avenue The Meatpacking District in the southwesternmost corner of Midtown, to the south of West 15th Street Madison Square and the Flatiron District, the area surround the intersection of Broadway, 5th Avenue and 23rd Street. Union Square, to the northeast of the intersection of Broadway, East 14th Street and Park Avenue South Gramercy from East 23rd Street to East 14th Street and Lexington Avenue to 1st Avenue Peter Cooper Village from East 23rd Street to East 20th Street and 1st Avenue to Avenue C (parallel the East River) Stuyvesant Town from East 20th street to East 14th Street and 1st Avenue to Avenue C Midtown also contains historical but defunct neighborhoods, such as the Ladie's Mile, along Fifth Avenue from 14th Street to 23rd Street and the Tenderloin, from 23rd Street to 42nd Street and Fifth Avenue to Seventh Avenue. Further information: List of Manhattan neighborhoods Other important sights in Midtown: Museum of Modern Art St. Patrick's Cathedral Grand Central Terminal New York Public Library Chrysler Building Time Warner Center United Nations Headquarters Carnegie Hall Madison Square Garden Manhattan Center James Farley Post Office Pennsylvania Station

Plaza Hotel Bryant Park Trump Tower Times Square Flagship stores of retailers such as: Bergdorf Goodman Saks Fifth Avenue Bloomingdale's Brooks Brothers F.A.O. Schwarz J. Press Macy's Nat Sherman Paul Stuart Tiffany & Co. Prominent gentlemen's clubs in Midtown: The Brook The Century Association The Cornell Club of New York The Harvard Club of New York The New York Yacht Club The Penn Club of New York City The Princeton Club of New York The Racquet and Tennis Club The Union League Club of New York The University Club of New York The Yale Club of New York City Important streets and thoroughfares in Midtown: Madison Avenue Fifth Avenue Broadway Park Avenue Vanderbilt Avenue 34th Street 42nd Street North-South Upper Manhattan From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Upper Manhattan denotes the more northerly region of the New York City Borough of Manhattan. Its southern boundary may be defined anywhere between 59th Street and 155th Street. Between these two extremes lies the most common definitions of Upper Manhattan as Manhattan above 96th Street (the southern boundary of Manhattan Valley in the west and Spanish Harlem in the east) . This definition of Upper Manhattan takes in the neighborhoods of Marble Hill, Inwood, Washington Heights, Harlem, and parts of the Upper West Side (Morningside Heights and Manhattan Valley).

Like other inner city residental areas, Upper Manhattan could be described as the "nontourist" section of Manhattan. Until the late 20th century it was less influenced by the gentrification that had taken place in other parts of New York over the previous 30 years. Not only do New York tourist maps not normally acknowledge the outer boroughs of the Bronx, Brooklyn, Queens, and Staten Island (and if so, only in the most rudimentary way), but they also regularly neglect Upper Manhattan as well. This is likely due to perceptions that it is less glitzy, less tourist-friendly, less distinctively New York, and more crime-ridden. Even many native New Yorkers tend to treat Upper Manhattan like an outer borough, its distance from Midtown Manhattan and comparatively lower rents leading many to exclude this northern neck from the area New Yorkers call "The City". The Upper West Side is more affluent than its northern neighbors such as Manhattanville, Morningside Heights, Inwood, etc. The Upper East side is similarly more affluent than its northern neighbor Spanish Harlem. Thus the 96th street definition comes from the East Side as well. Gentrification not yet completed in some neighboorhoods, crime, graffiti, etc are associated with Upper Manhattan. Also, tourist attractions and the like are concentrated mainly outside Upper Manhattan, while attractions do exist in Upper Manhattan the popular iconic landmarks are located in lower Manhattan. Examples of such include skyscrapers, theater and Broadway shows, prime restaurants (liquor laws have restricted growth of restaurants in upper Manhattan), clean streets, etc link title. Gentrification is occurring at a different pace, rate, and style than Soho, East Village, etc due to different demographics. All of Upper Manhattan is contained in the larger area New Yorkers know as Uptown (above 59th Street.) The Bronx, though not in Manhattan, is often colloquially referred to as "Uptown", especially in the context of hip hop/inner-city culture.


				
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