NAME OF MECHANISM ADVERSE INDICATION CONTRAINDICATION NURSING CONSIDERATIONS DRUG OF ACTION EFFECTS Generic name: Inhibits the Essential, renal, >Contraindicated with CNS: drowsiness, Clonidine central vasomotor and hypertension hypersensitivity to dizziness, fatigue, >Monitor BP and pulse rate frequently Hydrochloride centers, thereby clonidine sedation, nervousness decreasing headache > Maybe given to rapidly lower BP in some Brand Name: sympathetic > Renal failure hypertensive emergency situation Catapres outflow CV: orthostatic hypotension, > Discontinuing clonidine for surgery is not Classification bradycardia, severe recommended. Anti- rebound hypertension hypertensive >In patient s receiving both clonidine and a beta blocker, EENT: dry mouth the beta blocker should be gradually withdrawn before Dosage, clonidine to minimize adverse effects. frequency, GI: constipation interval >Instruct patient to check with doctor or pharmacist GU: urine retention, before taking OTC medications. 150mcg Tablet impotence >Observe for tolerance to the drug’s therapeutic effects METABOLIC; that may require an increased dosage. transient glucose intolerance after large >Inform patient that orthostatic hypertension can be doses minimized by rising slowly and avoiding sudden position changes. SKIN: pruritus >Elderly patients may be more sensitive to hypotensive effects. >Last dose should be taken immediately before retiring. MECHANISM OF ADVERSE NAME OF DRUG INDICATION CONTRAINDICATION NURSING CONSIDERATIONS ACTIONS EFFECTS Selectively blocks the >Treatment of >Contraindicated with >CNS: Headache, >Warning: Alert surgeon and mark Generic Name: binding of angiotensin II hypertension, alone or in hypersensitivity to dizziness, syncope, the patient’s chart with notice Losartan to specific tissue receptors combination with other Iosartan, insomnia theIosartan is being taken. The found in the vascular antihypertensives. blockage of the rennin-angiotensin smooth muscle and >Use cautiously with >Dermatologic: system following surgery can Brand Name: adrenal gland; this action >Treatment of diabetic renal impairment Rash, , pruritus, produce problems. Hypertension may Lifezar blocks the nephropathy with an dry skin be reversed with volume expansion. vasoconstriction effect of elevated serum creatinine Dosage, Frequency, the renin-angiotensin as and proteinuria in patients >GI: dry mouth >Monitor patient closely in any interval: well as the release of with type 2 (non-insulin situation that may lead to decrease in 50mg tablet aldosterone leading to dependent) diabetes and a >Respiratory: BP secondary to reduction in fluid decreased BP. history of hypertension. cough, volume-excessive perspiration, dehydration, vomiting, diarrhea- >Reduction of the risk of >Other: muscle excessive hypotension can occur. CVA in patients with weakness. hypertension and left >Take the drug without regard to ventricular hypertrophy. meals. Do not stop taking this drug without consulting your health care provider. MECHANISM OF NAME OF DRUG INDICATION CONTRAINDICATION ADVERSE EFFECTS NURSING CONSIDERATIONS ACTIONS >Mechanism of of >Symptomatic >Contraindicated with >CNS: Drowsiness, >contraindicated in shock or comatose states. Generic Name: Action not understood; relief of anxiety allergy to hydroxyzine or involuntary motor activity, Hydroxyzine actions may be due to and tension cetirizine including tremor and >dosage should be reduced in elderly or debilitated hydrochloride suppression of associated with seizures patients. subcortal areas of the psychoneurosis; >Use cautiously with Brand Name: CNS; has clinically adjunct is uncomplicated vomiting >GI: dry mouth, >Warn patient to avoid activities that require Atarax demonstrated organic disease (may contribute to Reye’s alertness and good psychomotor coordination until antihistaminic, states in which syndrome or unfavorably >GU: Urinary retention CNS effects of the drug are known. Dosage, Frequency, analgesic, anxiety is influence its outcome; interval: antispasmodic, manifested. extrapyramidal effects >Hypersensitivity: >Warn patient not to combine drug with alcohol or 25mg tablet antiemetic, mild may obscure diagnosis of Wheezing, dyspnea, chest other depressants. antisecretory, and Reye’s syndrome) tightness. bronchodilator activity. >Observe for excessive sedation due to potentiation with other CNS drugs. >Used perioperatively as anti-emetic and anxiolytic. Its sedative and antihistamine properties make it especially useful to treat pruritus that prevents sleep. >Used in psychogenically induced allergic conditions, such as chronic uticaria and pruritus. MECHANISM OF NAME OF DRUG INDICATION CONTRAINDICATION ADVERSE EFFECTS NURSING CONSIDERATIONS ACTIONS Inhibits reabsorption of Edema >Contraindicated with >CNS: dizziness, vertigo, >Potent loop diuretic; can lead to profound water and electrolyte depletion. Monitor BP and pulse rate during rapid dieresis Generic Name: sodium and chloride associated with allergy to furosemide, weakness, headache, Furosemide from the proximal and renal disease sulfonamides; allergy to drowsiness, fatigue, blurred >Sulfonamide sensitive patient may have allergic reactions to distal tubules and and hypertension tartrazine (in oral vision, furosemide >If oliguria or azolemia develops or increases, may require Brand Name: ascending limb of the solution); anuria, severe stopping drug Uritol loop of henle, leading renal failure; lactation. >GI: nausea and vomiting, >Monitor serum electrolyte, BUN, and CO2 frequently to a sodium-rich constipation >Monitor serum potassium level. Watch for sign of hypokalemia (for ex:muscle weakness and cramps). Patient also and digitalis Classification: loop diuretics >Use cautiously with have an increased risk of digitalis toxicity from the potassium diuretics diabetes mellitus. >GU; polyuria, nocturia, depleting effect glycosuria, urinary bladder >Consult with doctor and dietitian to provide Dosage and intervals: spasm High potassium diet 20mg OD >HEMATOLOGIC: >Food rich in potassium include citrus fruits, tomatoes, bananas, dates, and apricots leucopenia, anemia, thrombocytopenia, >Monitor blood sugar in patient with diabetes. May treat severe hyperuricemia. hyperglycemia with oral diabetic agents >Give P.O and I.M. preparation in a.m.to prevent nocturia. Give OTHER>:muscle cramps second doses in early afternoon and muscle spasm >Store tablets in light – resistant container to prevent discoloration (doesn’t affect potency). Don’t use discolored (yellow) injectable preparation. Oral furosemide solution should be stored in the refrigerator to ensure instability of drugs. >Promotes calcium excretion. IV furosemide often used to treat hypercalcemia >Advise patient to report immediately ringing in ears severe abdominal pain or sore throat and fever may indicate furosemide in toxicity >Discourage patients receiving furosemide therapy at home from storing different types of medication in the same container. This increases the risk of drug errors, especially for patients taking both furosmide and digoxin, since the most popular strengths of these drugs pills are while tablets approximately equal in size. MECHANISM OF ADVERSE NAME OF DRUG INDICATION CONTRAINDICATION NURSING CONSIDERATIONS ACTIONS EFFECTS Selectively blocks the >Treatment of >Contraindicated with >CNS: Headache, >Warning: Alert surgeon and mark Generic Name: binding of angiotensin II hypertension, alone or in hypersensitivity to Iosartan, dizziness, the patient’s chart with notice Losartan to specific tissue combination with other syncope, insomnia theIosartan is being taken. The receptors found in the antihypertensives. >Use cautiously with renal blockage of the rennin-angiotensin vascular smooth muscle impairment >Dermatologic: system following surgery can Brand Name: and adrenal gland; this >Treatment of diabetic Rash, , pruritus, produce problems. Hypertension Lacidipine action blocks the nephropathy with an dry skin may be reversed with volume vasoconstriction effect of elevated serum creatinine expansion. Dosage, Frequency, the renin-angiotensin as and proteinuria in >GI: dry mouth interval: well as the release of patients with type 2 (non- >Monitor patient closely in any 20mg tablet aldosterone leading to insulin dependent) >Respiratory: situation that may lead to decrease decreased BP. diabetes and a history of cough, in BP secondary to reduction in fluid hypertension. volume-excessive perspiration, >Other: muscle dehydration, vomiting, diarrhea- >Reduction of the risk of weakness. excessive hypotension can occur. CVA in patients with hypertension and left >Take the drug without regard to ventricular hypertrophy. meals. Do not stop taking this drug without consulting your health care provider. NAME OF DRUG MECHANISM OF INDICATION CONTRAINDICATION ADVERSE NURSING ACTIONS EFFECTS CONSIDERATIONS Co- enzyme for Vit. B12 deficiency Hypersensitivity SKIN: itching >use cautiously in anemic various metabolic patients with co-existing Generic Name: functions necessary cardiac, pulmonary or for cell replication hypertensive disease, and in Dibencozide and hematopoiesis. severe Vit. B12 deficiencies. Bramd Name: >protect from light and heat. heraclene forte >closely monitor serum Classification: potassium for first 48 hours. Vit. B12 supplement >physically incompatible with Dosage and dextrose solutions, alkaline or Frequency: strongly acidic solution, 3 mg capsule oxidizing and reducing agents, and many other drugs. Name of Drug Mechanism of Indication Contraindication Adverse Effect Nursing Consideration Action Generic Name: Insulin is a Treatment of type Contraindicated with >: Dosage is always expessed in USP units. Insulin hormone secreted 2 diabetes mellitus allergy to pork LOCAL: itching : >:Lente semilente, and ultra lente insulin may be mixd in any Brand Name: by beta cells of the that cannot be products (varies with usually resolves in a proportion. pancreas that by controlled by diet preparation; human few days to a few >:Regular insulin should not be mixed with globin insulin Classification: receptor-mediated or oral drugs with insulin not weeks a changes in Anti diabetic effects promotes contraindicated with type or speci8es >: Note that switching from separate injection to a prepared mixture Hormone the storage of the pork allergy ); source of insulin may alter patients response. bodies fuels, history of smoking may be tried; >: Store insulin in cool area. Refrigeration desirable but not Dosage, frequency facilitating the or lung disease lipodystropy; essentials, except with regular insulin concentrated. and intervals: transport of (inhaled insulin) pruritus >: Don’t use insulin that has changed color or becomes clumped or metabolites and granular in appearance. ions (potassium) METABOLIC : through cell hypoglycemia; keto >: Check expiration date on vial before using contents. membranes and acidosis >: Administration route is S.C because absorption rate and pain are stimulating the less than with i.m. injection synthesis of >: press but do not rub site after injection. Rotate injection sites and glycogen from chart to avoid overuse of one area. glucose, of fats from lipids, and >: Be sure the patient knows that therapy relieves symptoms but doesn’t cure the disease. proteins from amino acids. >: Advise patient to wear medical identification alert at all times; to carry ample insulin supply and syringes on trips; to have carbohydrates (lump of sugar or candy) on hand for emergency ; to take note of time zone changes for dose schedule when traveling. >: Cigarette smoking decreases the amount of absorption of insulin administered subcutaneously. Advise patient not to smoke within 30 minutes after insulin injection. MECHANISM OF ADVERSE NURSING NAME OF DRUG INDICATION CONTRAINDICATION ACTIONS EFFECTS CONSIDERATIONS The drug works by type II diabetes Hypoglycemia, type 1 METABOLIC: >make sure patient inhibiting ATP- DM, hypoglycemia understand that Generic Name: sensitive potassium therapy relieves Glyburide channels in SKIN: rash, pruritus symptoms but doesn’t pancreatic beta cure the disease cells. This inhibition Bramd Name: causes cell >monitor patient Glibenclamide membrane closely for depolarization, hypoglycemia Classification: which causes anti-diabetic drug voltage-dependent >advise patient to calcium channels to avoid large intake of Dosage and open, which causes alcohol. It may inhibit Frequency: an increase in the absorption. 5 mg tab intracellular calcium in the beta cell, which stimulates insulin release.
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