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									UK Arts International in association with
hampsteadtheatre presents

but the
Written by and starring John Kani

Teacher Resource Pack
By hampsteadtheatre Education
With Research & Activities by Noah Birksted-Breen
January 2007

Supported by
Anglo American
The John S Cohen Foundation
The Morel Trust
A. Introduction for Teachers Page 1
B. Background Information
 Synopsis: Nothing But The Truth Page 2
 Colonialism In South Africa Page 3
 Living With Apartheid Page 4
 Resistance: Fighting Apartheid Page 5
 Is Reconciliation Possible? Page 6

C. Interviews With The Creative Team
 Writer John Kani Pages Pages 7 – 9
 Director Janice Honeyman Page 10 – 11

D. Reflecting And Reviewing Pages 12 – 13
E. Activities
 Discussion: Themes Page 14
 Analysis: Changing Relationships Page 15
 Devising From Characters (Before & After) Page 16
 Devising From Still Images Page 17
 Scriptwriting From Devising Page 18

F. Evaluation Page 19
a. introduction
for teachers
The resource materials in this pack are intended to enhance your
students’ enjoyment and understanding of Nothing But The Truth.
The activities present creative, practical strategies for learning in a
classroom setting. The resources are primarily aimed at pupils aged
14+ who are studying Drama or English at GCSE or A Level. The
activities can be adapted to suit both older and younger students,
as well as other subject areas.

b. background
1. Synopsis: Nothing But The Truth
Sipho, a librarian in South Africa, was separated from his brother, Themba, a political
activist who fought the Apartheid regime and had to flee to London. But even after
1994, when a democratically-elected government came to power in South Africa,
Themba did not return from exile in London. Sipho gives his daughter many different
reasons for this but none of them ring true. It becomes clear that there was some sort
of disagreement or feud between the brothers – but Sipho refuses to talk about it.

Themba dies and his ashes are brought back to South Africa to be laid to rest by
Mandisa, Themba’s daughter. Mandisa is not scared to speak the truth and ask Sipho
difficult questions about his relationship with her father. But will Sipho be brave
enough to reveal the truth? What will happen to the family’s relationships if he does?

Nothing But The Truth asks some important questions:

• What makes reconciliation possible between two family members or two political

• If you had to choose between punishing or forgiving the person who committed
  a crime against you, which would you do? What does the play teach us about
  this choice?

• Is it better to fight a corrupt regime from inside the country or from abroad? What
  does the play suggest about social change during the Apartheid era?

• How do you convince someone to speak openly about a past secret, especially if
  it’s a painful one?

2. Colonialism In South Africa: A Brief History
• 1652: the first colonialists, Dutch settlers, arrived in Cape Town, South Africa.

• Cape Colony, as Cape Town was called, became a thriving port serving ships on the
  trade route between Europe and Asia.

• Native black tribes of South Africa lost land and cattle to the Dutch settlers but
  retained their independence for two centuries.

• In 1795, Britain took over Cape Town by force, becoming the predominant colonial
  power. This was formalised in the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1814.

• Britain made slavery illegal in South Africa in 1833.

• Through the 1860s, Britain moved beyond Cape Colony and took control of most of
  South Africa.

• 1899-1902: Anglo-Boer war. The British fought with the Boers (native white farmers
  descended originally from Dutch settlers) because they wanted to take control of
  their gold mines. It was a brutal war: the British ran a scorched earth policy and
  also let tens of thousands of Boer women and children die in refugee camps. The
  British won the war and amalgamated the two independent Boer Republics into
  the British-controlled territories.

• 1910 saw the founding of the South African Union, which later turned into the
  Republic of South Africa. Only white people were allowed to vote. Black workers
  were restricted to menial work to guarantee a supply of cheap labour for
  white people.

• The ANC (African National Congress) was established in 1912 to fight for black
  people’s rights.

• In 1948, the policy of Apartheid – an ideology of racial segregation - was
  introduced by the right-wing National Party. This lasted for almost half a century.

• The President of South Africa, F.W. De Klerk declared that the policy of Apartheid
  had failed, in 1990.

• The first democratic elections were held in 1994. Nelson Mandela was elected
  president, the first black president of democratic South Africa.

3. Living With Apartheid
Sipho, who represents the older generation in the play, has lived through Apartheid.
He builds a career as a librarian at the central library, the Port Elizabeth Public
Library, but he faces discrimination. During the play, he is waiting to hear whether he
will get the job he has always longed for, Chief Librarian. But what was Apartheid?
What did it mean on a daily basis for people living in South Africa?

i) What was Apartheid?

 Apartheid (literally “apartness” in Afrikaans) was a system of racial segregation that
 was enforced in South Africa from 1948 to 1994.

ii) What did Apartheid mean on a daily basis?

 Apartheid consisted of numerous laws that allowed the ruling white minority in
 South Africa to segregate, exploit and terrorize the vast majority: Africans, mostly,
 but also Asians and Coloureds - people of mixed race. In white-ruled South Africa,
 black people were denied basic human rights and political rights. Their labour was
 exploited, their lives segregated.

 Under Apartheid, racist beliefs were enshrined in law and any criticism of the law
 was suppressed. Apartheid was racism made law. It was a system dictated in the
 minutest detail as to how and where the large black majority would live, work and
 die. This system of institutionalized racial discrimination defied the principles of
 the United Nations Charter and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
 Source: United Nations:

Sipho is a character who has faced racism throughout his life. He works to achieve a
successful career despite the obstacles. He does not directly challenge the regime but
he tries, with quiet determination, to advance to the top of his profession. Now that
Apartheid has ended, can he reap the rewards of his hard work? He is concerned that
he will not get the job of Chief Librarian because he’s too old, and only has two years
before he retires. Clearly, he deserves the job. Will he receive his just dues?

4. Resistance: Fighting Apartheid
Within South Africa, numerous organisations fought the racist regime. The most
famous of these is the ANC, the African National Congress, which played a key role in
challenging the status quo – but it was by no means the only one. Many people who
fought for political change were either imprisoned or sent into exile.

1978: Newspaper editor flees South Africa

 “Newspaper editor Donald Woods has arrived in London after fleeing South Africa’s
 apartheid regime. The former editor of the East London Daily Dispatch newspaper
 in South Africa's Eastern Cape Province, has spent years opposing the government's
 policies of racial discrimination.

 But, fearing for his life, he fled the country after being placed under house
 arrest by the National party government and banned from working, travelling,
 writing or speaking publicly for five years. Mr Woods is part of a group of
 progressive journalists in South Africa who have strived to establish a truthful and
 objective press.

 Mr Woods, who describes himself as a “white liberal”, told how he escaped by
 jumping over his garden fence disguised as a priest, hitch-hiking 300 miles and
 swimming the flooded Tele River. He claimed he had been targeted by the
 government who had kept him a prisoner in his own home, bugged his telephone
 and made threats to his family. Most recently his six-year-old daughter was severely
 burned after putting on a tee-shirt she received in the post, which had been
 soaked in acid.”
 Source: BBC Archives

 Richard Attenborough's acclaimed 1987 film “Cry Freedom”, starring Denzel
 Washington, was based on Donald Wood's struggle against racism in South Africa.

In Nothing But The Truth, Themba – Sipho’s brother – represents the political activist,
fighting the regime. Themba has died before the start of the play and his ashes have
been brought back to South Africa. His daughter, Mandisa Mackay, admires and loves
her father for his fight against Apartheid.

5. Is Reconciliation Possible?
After 1994, South Africa had to find a way of dealing with its difficult past. It set up a
Truth and Reconciliation Committee.

 The Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) was established to investigate
 crimes committed during the apartheid era in South Africa.

 The commission oversees three committees dealing with:
 • Human rights violations.
 • Reparations.
 • Amnesty.

 The 1995 Promotion of National Unity and Reconciliation Act, which set up the
 commission, states that the commission's aims are to investigate and provide “as
 complete a picture as possible of the nature, causes and extent of gross violations
 of human rights”.

 Amnesty may be granted “to those who make full disclosure of all the relevant
 facts relating to acts associated with a political objective committed in the course
 of the conflicts of the past”.

 It is open to perpetrators from both sides of the apartheid divide. Applications
 have come from police, black militants, right-wing activists and others.

 Facts about the commission:
 • The commission is concerned with activities that happened in the period from
   1 March 1960 until 10 May 1994, the day of President Mandela's inauguration.
 • Chaired by Archbishop Desmond Tutu, hearings began in April 1996.
 • The commission has received over 7,000 applications for amnesty.
 • The TRC has rejected more than 4,500 of these applications, and has so far
   granted around 125 amnesties.
 • It has heard testimony from over 21,000 victims of apartheid.
 Source: BBC Archives

In Nothing But The Truth, Thando Makhaya, Sipho’s daughter, works part-time as an
interpreter at the Amnesty hearings of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission. But
there is a dark and terrible secret past between the two brothers in the play, Sipho
Makhaya and the late Themba. Can Sipho forgive his dead brother or is the past just
too painful? Will he choose forgiveness over revenge, reconciliation over justice?

c. interviews with
creative team
1. John Kani: A Passion For The Truth
American Repertory Theatre Artistic Director Robert Woodruff spoke with playwright
and leading South African actor John Kani while Mr. Kani was in Los Angeles,
performing Nothing But the Truth. 6 November 2004.

RW: How has your role as an artist changed since the end of
apartheid in 1994?

 JK: Pre-1994, all black South African artists were aware that our number one
 responsibility was to live in a free and democratic South Africa. So whatever kind of
 artists we were – painters, musicians, sculptors, poets, or actors – our work somehow
 echoed our desire and passion for freedom. In 1994 Nelson Mandela became the first
 president of South Africa. That neutralized a number of scripts in the process of being
 written or about to be presented that were still demanding the freedom of black
 people. When the Iron Curtain fell in Eastern Europe, activists who had been famous
 because they were anti-communist became relatively ordinary people. South Africa
 went through something similar from 1994 – 1997. In 1998, we began to find our
 voices again. We began to understand that yes we have a black or majority
 government, yes we have a government we have appointed with a president or
 presidents we like, but our role as actors or artists has not ended. We still continue to
 be the voice of the conscience of our society. And we have also been liberated to do
 No, No, Nanette without feeling guilty about neglecting the cause!

RW: Nothing But the Truth is the first play you’ve written on your own.
Why did you write it now and not ten years ago?

 JK: Ten years ago I had a number of different roles. I was a political and cultural activist, working
 on government and community projects to establish structures that would serve artists and
 communities. I led the Market Theatre [in Johannesburg] as the Executive Director/Artistic
 Director. I was the Founding Chair of the National Arts Council from 1996 – 2004. And I was also
 the Founding Chair of the Apartheid Museum. But now I've found the time at last to go back my
 favourite pastime, which is storytelling. My passion for storytelling is the reason I met Athol
 Fugard in 1965. When I saw his company perform Antigone, I thought that Sophocles was a very
 good storyteller. And I read Shakespeare – I'm a great student of Shakespeare. He is just like all the
 great storytellers of Africa, especially South Africa – people like S.E.K. Mqhayi and Zakes Mda.

RW: In 1975 you won the Tony Award for your performance in Sizwe
Banzi is Dead. What do you remember most about your collaborations
in the 1970s with Athol Fugard and Winston Ntshona on Sizwe and
The Island?

 JK: The passion for the truth. Three men locked the door and elaborated on a tiny
 idea inspired by a photograph of a man in a white suit with a cigarette and lit pipe
 in a little African studio, where he took the picture to send to his wife or relative.
 But out of that came the most telling story of the South African people under the
 Apartheid regime. Out of that also came a new genre of theatre for South Africa
 that was later known as protest theatre, which became the voice of South Africa.
 I remember those moments with incredible fondness. I look at the way we work
 today in the twenty-first century with some kind of lukewarm caution. Things are
 relatively right. One almost wishes that they would get terribly wrong so we could
 again approach our art with that kind of fever and passion and immediacy. That
 does not mean we cannot do that. We have now found a new language, a new way
 of telling our stories, which still gives us the feeling of passion and commitment to
 our work.

RW: You have performed Nothing But the Truth in New York and are
currently performing in Los Angeles. How has the reception there been
different from its reception at home?

 JK: The play examines a very sensitive reality for South Africa: reconciliation. The
 world applauds South Africa for having opted to go that way rather than tribunal
 hearings, retributions, and revenge. But in the people's hearts there was that little
 question: what if I could have been given just one opportunity to take my little
 revenge, even if it meant just slapping the man who killed my brother, without
 doing anything? That created such a wonderful interaction with the audience in
 South Africa. It's almost like everybody said, “You said exactly what I've been trying
 to articulate.” And some said, “Yes, but I agree with you we needed to move
 forward.” When Nelson Mandela saw the play he said to me, “A great family drama.
 A great human story. Political, but great human drama.” Then we opened in New
 York, where we played to wonderful audiences at Lincoln Center. But what was not
 present there was how it touched the hearts of the South African people who
 suffered and went through that journey. I’m very pleased with its reception here in
 Los Angeles. We have played to many members of the African American and Latin
 American communities. And everybody says it is the right play at the right time.
 People are talking about the role of family in the play. They’re talking about gang
 wars. They’re talking about the wars that are taking place right now. They’re
 talking about this country. And they’re talking about family secrets.

RW: What role do you think U.S. government policy plays in the political
landscape of South Africa and, more generally, across the continent?

 JK: The big economic powerhouses of the world are very important to Africa.
 African countries owe a great debt, not of gratitude really, but of dependency to
 the giant economic houses. The biggest item on our budget is the country's debt
 to the United States, England, Germany, France, the World Bank, and the IMF. That
 is why my president is passionate about finding a way to write off or reduce that
 debt in order to allow Africa to begin rebuilding itself economically. But we spent
 most of our resources paying the debt that we inherited from the colonialists and
 imperialists who occupied our land. Therefore, the role of the United States is very
 important, especially in South Africa. Many major companies like Ford, Chrysler,
 and IBM are creating work in South Africa and investing in the country. So we play
 a very careful game on the issues of Iraq or Afghanistan or Palestine. Nelson
 Mandela made it very clear that we could be friends with the United States, but
 that their enemies are not necessarily our enemies.

RW: What do you envision for yourself as an artist and for the country
in the next ten years?

 JK: In the coming decade we need to consolidate the achievements we have made
 in the first ten years of our democracy. We need to make our structure stronger, to
 create opportunities for artists on all levels and in all disciplines. We also need to
 make sure there are training academies available around South Africa that can
 accommodate the wishes and aspirations of young people who want to become
 artists, writers, painters, or sculptors. We need to create vibrant film, television,
 and theatre industries so that we do not look up to Hollywood as the only solution
 for our dreams and the only way our stories can be told. We also must encourage
 the wonderful philanthropists within South Africa to develop a culture of giving to
 the arts. And the government needs to give some tax incentive or write-off for
 those who give to the arts. As for myself, I will continue acting and writing. I have
 many, many stories that at the age of 61 I need to tell to my children and

2. Director Janice Honeyman
What inspires you about Nothing But The Truth ? Which themes
particularly interest you?

 I am inspired by the inter-relationship of three very different South Africans
 representing three conflicting aspects of our country. John has written a subtle,
 well-made play that explores three different stances in the present, democratic
 South Africa – the support of the concept of Truth and Reconciliation, reflected in
 the daughter, Thando, the politically passionate but naïve stance of a returning
 exile, Mandisa, and the search for the personal truth of Sipho Makhaya, a man who
 chose to stay and live out an ordinary life in The Struggle during the Apartheid
 years in South Africa. The nuance and intricacy of inter-personal relationships has
 been a fascinating exploration, and the personal, heartfelt reflection of of the
 political situation is presented by John in a refreshingly real way. The father/daughter
 relationship between a conservative older South African and a “new” South African
 is interesting, to me but the added ingredient of an outsider judging from a
 perspective not coloured by experience adds another stimulating perspective.

 The theme of forgiveness, and the emotional conflicts and confusions caused by the
 requirement imposed on South Africans is an intriguing theme in the play, and
 causes detailed debate not only between the characters, but within the audience as well.

 I am, of course, also interested in the connections and confusions between the two
 female characters, and think that the shifting relationship between them is both
 amusing and touching.

 It is good to be able to work on a new South African play which doesn't deal with
 protest and politics, but rather the personal coming to the fore, and reflecting the former.

How will you make the script of the play into a fully realised production?

 I have had two very definite approaches to the play. First, detailed text exploration,
 constructing a solid emotional and psychologically firm and valid series of inter-
 relationships between the characters. Secondly I want the personal to illuminate the
 political, and make sense of living real lives within the constant turmoil of political change.

 The South African imagery that underscores the text gives a clever juxtaposition of
 the difference between traditionalism and modern thought, and I have emphasised
 this texturing so that it elaborates on the themes tackled by John in his writing.

 The set and costumes evoke an accurate and detailed picture of life here, and because
 of John’s writing style I believe that realism suits the text and character portrayal.

 Careful shaping and orchestration of the players in relationship to each other is
 crucial to the audiences emotional journey through the play.

What do you want the audiences to experience?

 I want audiences to understand and become involved in the detail of South African
 life, giving them a real, lived-through hour or so that catches and colours their
 imagination. I need them to experience the complexity of being South African, and
 to feel the continual push-pull ethical and moral predicaments in which South
 Africans find themselves every day.

 I have required a full-blooded and deeply felt style of playing, and need the actors
 to work their way under the skins of the audience. They need to give them an
 emotionally charged as well as mentally challenging and thought-provoking
 experience in the theatre.

 Further Resources:
 A Conversation with The Cast Members of Nothing But The Truth.
 Lincoln Center Theater’s Platform series presents conversations with artists working
 at LCT before an audience of interested theatergoers... The following is a transcript,
 edited for clarity, of the December 2, 2003.

d. reflecting and
 Curriculum Link:
 Reviewing live performance is an important element of Drama and Theatre Studies.
 The purpose of this section is to provide approaches to reflecting on the
 performance which can inform the students’ note-taking.

This section is intended to help you reflect on your visit to the theatre.
There is no set format to organising your thoughts and opinions and the
following prompts are only a guide to structuring your notes.

1. Style

 • Read the interviews with the creative team (see above)
 • In what ways did the actors use theatrical conventions? What effect did these
   have? How do they compare to other productions you have seen?
 • Why do you think the director has chosen to work in this style?
 • Can you identify the influence of any theatre practitioners you have studied?

2. Structuring Your Notes

 2.1 Play
 • Summarise the intention of the play, as you see it, in 3 – 5 sentences.
 • What did the writer want the audience to experience?
 • Describe the writer’s use of characters, the narrative, the themes.
 • Did you personally find these enjoyable, stimulating, entertaining? How and why?
 • Did you reflect on your life, or the lives of people you know, or society as a whole?
 • How does the play compare or relate to others that you have seen?

2.2 Direction
• What do you think the director was trying to achieve?
• What theatrical devices and conventions were used?
• How successfully did the elements of the production (acting, staging, design)
• Were these choices successful in serving the writing?
• Were the vocal and aural elements engaging?
• Were the visual and physical elements meaningful?
• Was there an interesting and varied use of pace and rhythm?
• Did you learn anything about modern theatre practices?

2.3 Acting
• How would you describe the acting style?
• How does it compare with work you’ve seen in other productions or have
  done yourself?
• Was the style of acting appropriate to the kind of play and style of production?
  Why or why not?
• What were the key moments from the production that stand out in your memory?
• Who gave the most notable performance and why? What did they do well?
  What skills did they use? What qualities did they convey?

2.4 Design Elements
• Describe the sets, lights and costumes. Include sketches where they are helpful.
• How did the design contribute to the production’s meanings?
• Did the choice of playing area suit the production? Why or why not?
• Could the space have been used in a different way?

e. activities
In an interview at Lincoln Center Theatre in 2004, John Kani talked of
telling the story of reconciliation from the perspective of a family. The
following exercises are designed to encourage students to explore the
issues and creative practice in more depth.

The activities present creative, practical ways of learning in a classroom
setting. The resources are primarily aimed at pupils aged 14+ who are
studying Drama at GCSE or A Level. The activities can be adapted to suit
both older and younger students, as well as other subject areas.

1. Discussion: Themes
You may want to consider these three topics in greater detail: Apartheid;
Resistance to Apartheid; and Reconciliation. As a group, try to think about
the topics from the point of view of the characters.

 • Which injustices happened to characters in the play during Apartheid?

 • What different forms of resistance did the characters show towards

 • How is the theme of forgiveness shown in the play?
   Try to think about all the characters, perhaps with a particular emphasis
   on Sipho, his brother Themba and his son Luvuyo.

2. Analysis: Changing Relationships
Drama is the art form most underpinned by the notion that “we are in
charge of our own fate” or “things could be different”. Each play has its
dramatic conflict: where one character is pulled in different directions or
different characters represent different points of view. There are many
genres: family and political dramas such as Nothing But The Truth where
people must dare to look at the truth and discover how that changes them;
Tragedies, where the truth is revealed but it is too late to change; Farce
where the truth is suppressed, which forces characters to lie in more and
more elaborate ways, etc.

When you are staging a play, the first thing you’ll want to do is to
understand what “happens” during a play, i.e. what changes during the
course of the play. The most significant changes are always in the
relationships between people or how a person perceives themselves.

• Work in groups of 3 – 6 people. Have a large piece of paper, preferably
  poster-sized, or several A4 pieces of paper, and a pen to note down
  everybody’s suggestions. Divide the page up into a section for each
  character. Designate a note-taker.

 • Think back to Nothing But The Truth. As a first step, start with the
  most basic facts. Any little fact can be a clue to a more significant
  change. Ask yourself what’s new from the point of view of the
  characters. It’s worth stating the obvious so for Mandisa, begin with
  “I arrive in South Africa for the first time”, “I meet my uncle and cousin
  for the first time”, “I discover that my uncle doesn’t like to talk about
  my father”. Get a list of around 5 – 10 new things for each character.

 • Once you’re got a list of the facts, start to add the bigger things which
  change to your list. Have characters made important decisions during
  the play? Has the relationship between characters changed? Get at
  least 2 or 3 for each character but there’s no reason to stop if you find
  lots of things which have changed!

 • Test yourself on where the drama lies. Think about each major change
  in terms of “before”, “after” and “what the character learnt”. What a
  character learns is often a case of interpretation, just make sure you can
  back it up by explaining what a character thinks/feels/does at the start
  of the play and what they think/feel/do at the end of the play – and
  how the audience, in your view, is meant to understand that change.

3. Devising From Characters (Before & After)
3.1 If you want to devise a scene around the work you’ve done, you can use
your work to start devising:

• Choose your favourite one of the “bigger” changes or you can think
  about a play you know well and a character’s major change in that.

• You may want to pick an example more close to home, something
  from your own life or something a friend of yours has gone through.
  Remember it is always to do with a change in relationships or the
  relationship to the way you see yourself. Here are some examples:

  BEFORE:                      AFTER:
  The character doesn’t        The character comes
  believe he/she can get       to believe in himself/herself
  a place at university.       and applies.

  He/she is addicted           He/she comes to believe
  to alcohol/drugs.            that they could break their
  He/she lies about
  stealing something in        He/she decides that it is
  the past.                    better to reveal the truth.

3.2 Now there are two further steps to telling a story. Decide HOW this
change happens:

• What makes the character change their mind?
• What prompts the character to re-think?

The best stories give several reasons. It might happen in several stages with
something the character hears, reads or sees. Perhaps the character meets
someone new who suggests that the character could get a place at
university, does not need to be addicted to drugs, shouldn’t be scared to
tell the truth, etc. Some things may be “passive” – the character hears
something – but make sure at least some are “active”, the character
decides to ask somebody a relevant question, etc.


The audience will want to know what happens once the change has
happened. Does the character get a place at university? What new
activity/friendship/healthy habit does the character find once they’ve given
up their addiction? What happens when the character reveals the past
secret: how do other people react?

Now you’re ready to act these scenes out! Prepare a story to show to
others. Assign characters – it can be engaging to be part of other people’s
stories and also to show your own!

4. Devising From Still Images

• The following can be used to explore Nothing But The Truth, or any
  material which explores similar themes.

• In groups of five, creates a series of three still images that depict the
  themes of:
         • Injustice
         • Resistance
         • Reconciliation

• Encourage the group to use their physicality in non-literal ways and to
  fill a defined space. Ensure everyone is active and contributing to the
  image. Present and appraise the outcomes.

• The next task for each group is to create speech and dialogue which
  moves the story from still image to still image. For each of the
  transitional scenes you could ask all or some of the following questions:
• Action - What happens in the scene to move the story from image
  to image?
• Characters – Who are the protagonists? Who are they in conflict with?
  Create brief outline character profiles for each. What specific phrases,
  modes, accent or dialect might they use? Are some characters more
  sympathetic than others? If so, how might that be reversed (in at least
  one scene)?
• Wants – What do the characters want in the scene and what tactics do
  they use to try to achieve them?

• Present the devised scenes and appraise.

As a development activity, scenes could be scripted, rehearsed and staged.
See 5 below for scriptwriting suggestions.

5. Scriptwriting From Devising

• As a development activity from the devising activities above, the group
  could write up the scenes using scriptwriting conventions, including
  dialogue, stage directions, emotion. Furthermore, the groups could
  undertake script development activities, including addressing the
  following questions:
• Tension – What are the conflicts of interest between the characters?
  Are there other sources of dramatic tension? An unanswered question?
  An element of suspense? A secret? What could motivate a character to
  reveal information? Or resolve a problem?
• Language – How does the dialogue sound (long or short vowels, hard
  or soft consonants, loud or quiet)? What are its rhythms? How might
  the words reflect the character’s thoughts and mood? Could the
  language become stylised?
• Editing – Does the dialogue show or tell? Could a scene start later on?
  Does each line move the action forward in some way?

f. evaluation
Please email or fax thoughts, comments, evidence to:
Email: or
Fax: 020 7449 4201

  How did you use the resource? What were the outcomes?
  Please enclose samples / evidence if possible.

Strengths & Weaknesses
  What did you find effective? Helpful? Unusually good?
  What did you find problematic?

Suggestions & Ideas
  How could we improve our teaching resources?
  How can we make school visits to see productions at hampsteadtheatre
  more meaningful?

With thanks and best wishes
hampsteadtheatre Education


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