“Maps and How They Are Made” by tyndale

VIEWS: 46 PAGES: 8

									Links to Earth/Space Science

Landforms
Investigation 1: Schoolyard Models
Part 2:
Activity: Find School-Site Plans
Check with the principal for copies of the school-site plans and blueprints. Students can compare
them with the maps they have drawn.
(TG Investigation 1, p.27)

Investigation 1: Schoolyard Models
Part 2:
Activity: Read Other Maps
Bring in city or county road maps and have students find the school and their house on the map.
Have them invent a symbol to represent the school and their homes and use them on the map.
(TG Investigation 1, p.27)

Investigation 1: Schoolyard Models
Part 3:
Notebook Writing:
Prompt: Constructed Response A “School Yard Models”
Adri and a group from her Girl Scout troop were studying a local park to find out the best place to
put the new playground. They are to present their suggestion to the city council. They need to
show the area where they want to build the playground as well as the area surrounding the park.
In addition, they need to include all the landmarks, both natural and man-made. The group
hoped that the council would approve their plan.

She and her friends couldn’t decide whether making a model of the playground or drawing a map
would be the best way to present their ideas. Your task is to help Adri and her Girl Scout troop
decide if a model or a map is the best choice to present to the city council.
     List the characteristics of maps and models on the Venn diagram provided. This
         information will assist the Girl Scout troop to decide whether to use a map or model in
         their presentation for a playground to the city council.
     Write your recommendation on the back of the graphic organizer or in your science
         notebook.
     Include SPECIFIC reasons it might be more useful to have a map or reasons it might be
         more useful to have a model in your recommendation.
                                   MODELS


                MAPS




Submitted by Carol Olson and Kris Siebers – June, 2007
Key Elements – Evidence of Understanding:
    A graphic organizer containing:
       -Map section includes evidence of what makes using maps easy and what
       makes using a map hard.
       -Model section includes evidence of what makes using a model easy and
        what makes using a model difficult.
    The recommendation includes:
       -Reasons for their choice
       -Reasons that are appropriate
(Embedded Assessment Package, p.14-28)

Investigation 1: Schoolyard Models
Part 3:
Math: Make Proportional Drawings
Challenge students to create enlarged versions of cartoons or drawings using the proportional
drawing technique. For example, they could enlarge a newspaper cartoon two times by using the
Overlay Grid (its squares are 2 cm on a side) and a larger paper grid with squares 4 cm on a
side. To do this, they would place the overlay on the cartoon. Whatever is in one of the Overlay
Grid squares should be duplicated in the larger paper square.
(TG Investigation 1, p.26)
Note: Overlay Grid transparencies are included in the FOSS Landforms kit.

Investigation 1: Schoolyard Models
Part 3:
Math: Problem of the Week
Jessie’s group decided they wanted to make a map of their schoolyard on a larger sheet of paper.
The largest sheet of paper they could use was a square measuring 100 cm on a side. They used
a trundle wheel to measure the lengths of the school boundaries. The sketch shows their
measurements (Investigation Duplication Masters, Student Sheet No.29)

Think about the size of the paper they have to draw their map.
     In order for Jessie to fit the whole schoolyard on this sheet of paper, how many meters
         should each centimeter equal on the map? Show your work.
     Use the drawing to estimate the longest side of the game field.
(TG Investigation 1, p.26)
(Investigation Duplication Masters, Student Sheet No.29)



Investigation 2: Stream Tables
Part 2:
Notebook Writing:
Prompt: Constructed Response B “Stream Tables”
One morning on his way to school, Josh noticed a fan-shaped pile of sand covering part of the
sidewalk. It wasn’t there the day before, and he wondered how it got there. He made a list of
clues to help him solve the mystery. These are some clues Josh wrote in his notebook:
    1. Yesterday there was a big pile of sand next to the sidewalk.
    2. It rained really hard last night.
    3. When I looked closely at the sand, I noticed there was some clay along the edges of the
         fan farthest from the sidewalk.

Write a note to Josh and include the following:



Submitted by Carol Olson and Kris Siebers – June, 2007
       Explain how you think the sand, in the shape of a fan, got on the sidewalk. Include why
        you think there was clay along the edges of the fan farthest from the sidewalk. Use your
        prior knowledge of erosion and deposition.
       Draw and label a picture of what you think it looked like after the rainstorm.
       Label where you would find the clay and where you would find the sand.

Key Elements – Evidence of Understanding:
    Evidence of understanding in the note to Josh will include an explanation indicating the
       sand got on the sidewalk through a process of erosion and
       deposition. The note includes supporting facts such as:
          -Water erodes earth materials like sand, carrying it to new locations (clue: it rained
          hard).
          -The earth materials eroded by the flow of water have to be deposited somewhere
          else (clue: the fan of sand).
          -Sand in the pile along the sidewalk matches that on the sidewalk (the clay is
          probably mixed with the sand, but you can’t see it until the water separates it).
    The illustration includes the sand and clay clearly labeled and placed correctly. (The
       sand should be further away than the clay.)
(Embedded Assessment Package, p.29-41)

Investigation 2: Stream Tables
Part 2:
Technology: Video “Earth’s Physical Features” Medianet #92494
Illustrate the major characteristics of various landforms including continents, peninsulas, plains,
and plateaus. This video also explains the differences between lakes, oceans, bays, and gulfs.
After viewing, students will be able to list and label the seven continents of the world, list the
major types of land masses, and label the four oceans. (12 minutes)

Investigation 2: Stream Tables
Part 2:
Activity: Where Did the Grand Canyon Filler Go?
Have students use a map to follow the Colorado River from the Grand Canyon down to its mouth.
Where does it empty into the sea? How many dams are there between the Grand Canyon and
the mouth of the river? What might be happening to those lakes formed by the dams?
(TG Investigation 2, p.24)

Investigation 2: Stream Tables
Part 2:
Activity: Go on a 15-Minute Field Trip
Take your class on a schoolyard field trip right after a hard rain. What evidence of erosion and
deposition can they find? Look for places where sand and soil have been deposited. How are
these places similar to what they saw in their stream tables?
(TG Investigation 2, p.24)



Investigation 3: Go With the Flow
Part 2:
Notebook Writing:
Prompt: Constructed Response C “Go with the Flow”
Allyson was very interested in the results of the investigation in the stream table. She had read
about a flash flood on a river flowing through a steep canyon in Colorado several years ago. The
flood caused quite a bit of damage to property and loss of lives. She wondered how she might
set up an investigation in the stream table to find out what effect flooding would have on a stream
with a steep slope.



Submitted by Carol Olson and Kris Siebers – June, 2007
Set up an investigation plan using a stream table to show what effect flooding would have on a
stream with a steep slope. Please include these parts:
     List materials that you would need.
     Predict what the erosion and deposition might look like after a flood in an area with a
       steep slope.
     Write the steps needed to run this investigation.
     Include before and after illustrations of your stream table showing the path of the water.
     Label your drawings.

Key Elements – Evidence of Understanding:
    A written investigation plan that includes:
       -Materials needed (stream table, earth material, water, something to create a slope)
    Predict results. Students should note:
       -The higher the slope, the faster the flow of water
       -The faster the water moves, the more erosion and deposition will occur.
    Steps needed to run this investigation:
       -Construct exaggerated slope
       -Pour water from indicated flood height
       -Record observations
    Before and after illustrations of stream table showing the path of the water.
(Embedded Assessment Package, p.42-54)

Investigation 3: Go With the Flow
Part 3:
Notebook Writing: Prepare a Report for a Scientific Conference
Tell students that information presented at scientific conferences is often published. Have each
group prepare a report on their results, with maps and pictures, to be published and distributed to
each student, the library, other teachers, and the principal.
(TG Investigation 3, p.25)

Investigation 3: Go With the Flow
Part 3:
Notebook Writing: Home/School Connection
Students begin watching television newscasts, the Internet, and newspapers and magazines for
news about landforms and the processes that create and change them. They prepare a report
that includes the details of the event, where it happened, what types of landforms were described,
and how the landforms were created or changed by natural or human-caused processes.
(TG Investigation 3, p.28)
(Investigation Duplication Masters, Student Sheet No.36)

Investigation 3: Go With the Flow
Part 3:
Math: Problem of the Week
Ms. Hayden’s class investigated how the slope of the stream table affected deposition. Each
group tested the same four slopes by elevating the end of the tray 2, 3, 4, and 5 cm. They
measured the length of the delta after each test. The results are in the data table (Investigation
Duplication Masters, Student Sheet No.31).
     Calculate the average length of the deltas formed. Round your answers to the nearest
         tenth.
     Prepare a graph of the average delta lengths.
     Predict the length of the delta if the tray were elevated 1 cm.
(TG Investigation 3, p.26-27)
(Investigation Duplication Masters, Student Sheet No.31)

Investigation 3: Go With the Flow



Submitted by Carol Olson and Kris Siebers – June, 2007
Part 3:
Activity: Take Stream-Table Photos
Take instant photographs or digital images of the stream tables in action. Have these images
prepared for students’ science notebooks. They can also use these photographs for comparisons
with the aerial photographs used in Investigation 5 (TG Investigation 5, p.35).
(TG Investigation 3, p.27)

Investigation 3: Go With the Flow
Part 3:
Activity: Plan a Field Trip
Look into field trips in your local area. Possibilities might include visiting a nature center located
on a river (Beidelman Nature Center, Bear Creek Nature Center), an Army Corps of Engineers
project such as a dam/reservoir site or stream model, or the water utilities offices (Colorado
Springs Utilities).
(TG Investigation 3, p.27)

Investigation 3: Go With the Flow
Part 3:
Activity: Find a Local Erosion-Control Expert
Find out which agencies are responsible for erosion control in your area – Soil Conservation
Service, Flood Control, and so forth (Colorado Springs Utilities).
(TG Investigation 3, p.27)



Investigation 4: Build a Mountain
Part 3:
Math: Problem of the Week
Keshia’s class was planning a hike on a trail in the local state park. Her teacher asked them to
figure out where the steepest part of the trail was. They looked at a topographic map of the park
and figured out the distances between stops and the elevation of each stop. They recorded their
data on the table you see here (Investigation Duplication Masters, Student Sheet No.32).
      Use the data in the table to draw a slope graph for the trail.
      Between which two stops is the trail the steepest?
      Between which two stops is the trail the least steep?
      Use the back of this sheet to explain how you came up with these answers.
(TG Investigation 4, p.26-27)
(Investigation Duplication Masters, Student Sheet No.32)

Investigation 4: Build a Mountain
Part 3:
Activity: Collect Maps from Other Places
Have students begin collecting maps, especially topographic maps, from other places in the U.S.
and the world. They can compare the different maps to find out what information is represented
and the types of symbols and keys that are used.
(TG Investigation 4, p.25)

Investigation 4: Build a Mountain
Part 3:
Activity: Construct Other Profiles
Challenge students to draw other profile lines across their Mountain Maps or the Foss Creek
Maps and construct the profiles for the new lines. How do the resulting profiles compare to the
original profile?
(TG Investigation 4, p.27)




Submitted by Carol Olson and Kris Siebers – June, 2007
Investigation 5: Bird’s-Eye View
Part 1:
Notebook Writing:
Prompt: Constructed Response D “Take a Hike”
William and his uncle are planning a hike to Stone Peak. They will stay at the campsite north of
Foss Lake. His uncle had a topographic map for the area and was trying to plan the best route to
the top of the peak from their campsite. They don’t mind climbing up steep slopes and want to
make sure they can see an interesting historical spot and an old mine on some part of their hike.
William also thought it might be easier for them to walk down a less steep slope at the end of the
day.

On the attached map, please do the following:
     Draw a trail that you would suggest for William to take to the top of Stone Peak and back
        again, starting and ending at the campsite north of Foss Lake.
     Label the start and end points.
     Use arrows to show the direction they should hike.
     Explain why you think your trail would be the best one.
        (Hint: Refer back to the prompt.)
     On the map, draw arrows along the San Juan River, show the directional flow of the
        water. Remember to consider the elevation.
     What is the approximate elevation at the mine?
     On the back of this sheet or in your science notebook, explain what might happen to the
        surrounding areas if a flash flood occurred on the San Juan River. In your explanation,
        be sure to include the role of erosion and deposition in this process.

Key Elements - Elements of Understanding:
The map should show:
    A trail labeled with start and end points for the hike.
    Arrows with trail to show directions of hike
    Elevation of the mine
    Arrows for the direction of flow of San Juan River
The explanation of the hiking route should include:
    A route going up and back down on Stone Peak
    Justification for easiest route on return trip
The explanation of the flash flood on the San Juan River should include:
    An understanding of how the volume and the speed of the water would have an effect on
       the surrounding areas
    How the elevation change from one lake to the other would increase the speed of the
       water and increase the damage
(Embedded Assessment Package, p.55-69)

Investigation 5: Bird’s-Eye View
Part 2:
Notebook Writing: Response Sheet – Bird’s-Eye View
Ben is a student representative working with the city planning commission to plan a bike trail
around his community. Last week he visited the U.S. Geological Survey’s map center with his
aunt. While he was there, he found a topographic map of the area where he lived. He also found
an aerial photograph of the same area. He only had enough money to buy either the topographic
map or the photograph, but he couldn’t get both.

If you were Ben, which would you buy if you wanted the one that would give you the most
information for planning the bike trail? Explain why you chose the one you did.




Submitted by Carol Olson and Kris Siebers – June, 2007
On the aerial photograph and the topographic map shown on this sheet (Investigation Duplication
Masters, Student Sheet No.22), identify three common structures or landforms. Circle each on
the map and photo and give them matching numbers to identify them as the same.
(TG Investigation 5, p.19)
(TG Assessment, p.14)
(Investigation Duplication Masters, Student Sheet No.22)

Investigation 5: Bird’s-Eye View
Part 2:
Activity: Interpret a Local Topographic map
Acquire a topographic map of the area in which your school is located (www.fossweb.com Click
on: Grades 3-6, Landforms, Websites, TerraServer). Locate your school on the map, students’
homes if they are on the map, and any local landforms, such as hills or river valleys. Challenge
students to use the index contours to draw a profile along a line that includes your school. Use
the map to plan a hike. Locate a bench-mark symbol on the map and try to find it.
(TG Investigation 5, p.35)

Investigation 5: Bird’s-Eye View
Part 3:
Activity: Draw a Local Landforms Map
Acquire copies of aerial photographs that include the area around your school site. Have
students use the Overlay Grid and Map Grid to draw a landforms map for the area.
Note: The Technology Link in Part 3 will help with this activity.
(TG Investigation 5, p.35)

Investigation 5: Bird’s-Eye View
Part 4:
Activity: Find the Slope
Make a slope-measuring device using a meter stick, string, line level, and long dowel. Tie one
end of the string around the meter stick so the loop can move freely. Measure exactly 1 m to the
pencil and fasten the other end of the string. Place the line level as shown below.
(TG Investigation 5, p.35)

To measure the slope, stick the pencil into the ground at the slope’s upper end. Then push the
string on the pencil to the ground. Pull the string taut. Stand the meter stick straight up. Slide
the string up the meter stick until it is level. The number under the loop on the meter stick is the
number of centimeters per meter in slope that you are measuring.
(TG Investigation 5, p.35-36)

Investigation 5: Bird’s-Eye View
Part 4:
Activity: Study Topographic Maps from Other Countries
You can often find topographic maps from other countries at stores that sell camping and
mountain-climbing gear. Have students try to locate topographic maps from other countries to
compare with the USGS maps. Foreign maps often use the metric system to measure elevation
and distance.
(TG Investigation 5, p.34)

Investigation 5: Bird’s-Eye View
Part 4:
Activity: Study a U.S. Landforms Orthophoto
Student Sheet No.28 is a copy of a digital orthophoto from the USGS, showing landforms of the
U.S. A digital orthophoto is a computer-generated image of an aerial photograph. This particular
image is a compilation of aerial photographs covering the conterminous U.S. (lower 48 states).




Submitted by Carol Olson and Kris Siebers – June, 2007
If your photocopier produces good-quality images, you might like to make copies of this page for
your students. Ask them to locate your area on the map and search for landforms in the area.
They can also look for other landforms on the photo, such as rivers, mountain ranges, plains,
plateaus, and basins.

See the Resources tab (p.4) for information about obtaining an inexpensive poster-size version of
this orthophoto from the USGS.
(TG Investigation 5, p.34)
(Investigation Duplication Masters, Student Sheet No.28)

Investigation 5: Bird’s-Eye View
Part 4:
Activity: Create Aerial Photographs
Students use a 35-mm camera and black-and-white film to take aerial photographs of the results
of the stream-table investigations. How do their photographs compare with the aerial
photographs of Mt. Shasta, the Grand Canyon, and Death Valley? If you can have students’
photos enlarged, have them use the grid materials to create a landform map of their stream
tables.
Note: See TG Investigation 3, p. 27 Take Stream-Table Photos for a related activity.
(TG Investigation 5, p.35)




Submitted by Carol Olson and Kris Siebers – June, 2007

								
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