16 - Appendix E - Glossary by chrstphr


									                                                                                                                  APPENDIX E – GLOSSARY

                                                                                                                                          CRADOCK HISTORIC DISTRICT DESIGN GUIDELINES
ADDITION. A new part such as            BATTERED PIER. A pier which                 CEMENTITIOUS SIDING. Also
a wing, ell, or porch added to an       tapers from the bottom up so that           referred to as fiber-cement siding
existing building or structure.         the top dimension is smaller than           it is made from portland cement,
                                        the bottom dimension. Often                 ground sand, wood fiber, and in some
                                        associated with the Craftsman style.        instances, clay. Available in a variety
of paint failure that occurs when
                                                                                    of historic siding profiles and shingle
the layers crack in a pattern that      BAY. A part of a structure
                                                                                    patterns it may be more resistant to
resembles the skin of an alligator.     defined by vertical divisions such
                                                                                    rot and insect damage than wood.
                                        as adjacent columns or piers.
ALTERATION. Any change,
                                                                                    CLAPBOARD. Horizontally
modification, or addition to             BAY WINDOW. Fenestration projecting
                                                                                    laid wooden boards which taper
the exterior any building or            from an exterior wall surface and often
                                                                                    from the bottom to the top.
structure or any part thereof.          forming a recess in the interior space.
                                                                                    CLADDING. Any exterior wall
APPURTENANCE. An accessory              BOND. The arrangement of bricks
                                                                                    covering, including masonry.
property element, such as an            (headers and stretchers) within a wall.
outbuilding or mechanical unit.                                                     CLASSICAL. Pertaining to the
                                        BRACKET. A wooden or stone
                                                                                    architecture of Greece and Rome, or to
BALUSTER. One of the vertical           decorative support beneath a
                                                                                    the styles inspired by this architecture.
members contained within an             projecting floor, window, or cornice.
railing. Often balusters are found in                                               CLIPPED GABLE ROOF. A roof type
                                        CAME. The soft division piece which is
pairs at each stair tread. They are                                                 in which the gable ends are cut back at
                                        located at the seams in glass in either a
usually turned pieces of wood.                                                      their peaks and a small roof section is
                                        stained glass or leaded glass window.
                                                                                    added to create an abbreviated hipped
BARGEBOARD. A sometimes
                                        CAPITAL. The upper portion                  form. Also called a jerkinhead roof.
richly ornamented board placed
                                        of a column or pilaster.
on the verge (incline) or the gable                                                 COLUMN. A vertical support, usually
to conceal the ends of rafters.         CASEMENT WINDOW. Windows that               supporting a member above.
                                        are hinged at the side and open outwards.
BATTEN. The vertical member which                                                   COMPLEX ROOF. A roof that is
                                        Often these have multiple window panes.
is located at the seam between two                                                  a combination of hipped and gable
adjoining pieces of wood, often used    CAULKING. A non-hardening                   forms and may contain turrets or
in exterior wood siding and doors.      putty used to seal the joint at an          towers. The majority of these occur
                                        intersection of two different materials.    on Queen Anne style houses.

                                              APPENDIX E – GLOSSARY

                                                            CORNERBOARD. The vertical                    DOWNSPOUT. A pipe for directing               FOUNDATION. The base of a building

                                                            board which is found at the corners          rain water from the roof to the ground.       which sits directly on the ground.
                                                            of a building and covers the seam
                                                                                                         EAVE. The edge of the roof                    FRIEZE. A horizontal band, sometimes
                                                            made by horizontal siding boards.
                                                                                                         that extends past the walls.                  decorated with sculpture relief, located
                                                            CORNICE. The upper, projecting part                                                        immediately below the cornice.
                                                                                                         ENGLISH BASEMENT. The lowest,
                                                            of a classical entablature or a decorative
                                                                                                         mostly above grade, floor of a residential     GABLE ROOF. A pitched roof
                                                            treatment of the eaves of a roof.
                                                                                                         building. The main entrance to the            in the shape of a triangle.
                                                            CORNICE RETURN. When the                     dwelling is at the level of the floor above.
                                                                                                                                                       GAMBREL ROOF. A roof in which
                                                            cornice is terminated by itself by turning
                                                                                                         ENTABLATURE. This is an element               the angle of pitch changes part way
                                                            in at a right angle towards the gable.
                                                                                                         of classical architecture which refers        between the ridge and eaves.
                                                            CRAWL SPACE. The space located               to the area located above the column.
                                                                                                                                                       GLAZING. Another term
                                                            beneath the first floor. The space has         It is composed of the architrave,
                                                                                                                                                       for glass or other transparent
                                                            not been fully excavated and is often        cornice, and frieze. It also refers to
                                                                                                                                                       material used in windows.
                                                            used for mechanical equipment.               the elements of a classical cornice.
                                                                                                                                                       HIPPED ROOF. A roof with
                                                            CRESTING. A decorative ridge                 FACADE. The front face or
                                                                                                                                                       slopes on all four sides. They are
                                                            for a roof, usually constructed              elevation of a building.
                                                                                                                                                       more common on older houses
                                                            of ornamental metal.
                                                                                                         FANLIGHT. A semi-circular                     than on those built after 1940.
                                                            DENTILS. Small square blocks found in        window with radiating muntins,
                                                                                                                                                       INFILL BUILDING. A new
                                                            series on many cornices, moldings, etc.      located above a door.
                                                                                                                                                       structure built in a block or
                                                            DORIC. One of the classical orders           FASCIA. The horizontal member which           row of existing buildings.
                                                            of architecture characterized by             serves as the outer edge of the eave.
                                                                                                                                                       INTEGRITY. Authenticity of
                                                            a simply carved capital and base
                                                                                                         FENESTRATION. The arrangement                 a property’s historic identity,
                                                            with less decoration than either
                                                                                                         of the openings of a building.                evidenced by the survival of physical
                                                            the Ionic or Corinthian orders.
                                                                                                                                                       characteristics that existed during
                                                                                                         FINIAL. An ornament that
                                                            DORMER. A small window with its                                                            the property’s historic period.
                                                                                                         caps a gable, hip, pinnacle, or
                                                            own roof projecting from a sloping roof.
                                                                                                         other architectural feature.                  LEADED GLASS. Glass
                                                            DOUBLE-HUNG SASH. A type of                                                                set in pieces of lead.
                                                                                                         FLASHING. Pieces of metal used
                                                            window with lights (or windowpanes)
                                                                                                         for waterproofing roof joints.                 LIGHT. A section of a window;
                                                            on both upper and lower sashes,
                                                                                                                                                       the glass or pane.
                                                            which move up and down in vertical           FLUTE. A recessed groove found
                                                            grooves one in front of the other.           on an column or pilaster.
                                                                                                                            APPENDIX E – GLOSSARY

LINTEL. A horizontal beam over an               PILASTER. A pier attached to                 REHABILITATION. Returning a

                                                                                                                                                    CRADOCK HISTORIC DISTRICT DESIGN GUIDELINES
opening carrying the weight of the wall.        a wall with a shallow depth and              property to a state of utility through
                                                sometimes treated as a classical column      repair or alteration which makes possible
MODILLION. A block or bracket in
                                                with a base, shaft, and capital.             an efficient contemporary use while
the cornice of classical architecture.
                                                                                             preserving those portions or features
                                                PITCH. The degree of slope of a roof.
MOLDING. Horizontal bands                                                                    that are significant to its historical,
having either rectangular or                    POINTING. Filling the mortar                 architectural, and cultural values.
curved profiles, or both, used for               joint between two bricks.
                                                                                             REMODEL. To alter a structure in a
transition or decorative relief.
                                                PORTE-COCHERE. An exterior shelter           way that may or may not be sensitive
MUNTIN. A glazing bar that                      often used to cover a portion of the         to the preservation of its significant
separates panes of glass.                       driveway area on the side of a house.        architectural forms and features.

PALLADIAN WINDOW. A                             PORTICO. An entrance porch often             RENOVATION. See REHABILITATION
neoclassical style window that is               supported by columns and sometimes
                                                                                             RESTORATION. Accurately recovering
divided into three sections. The                topped by a pedimented roof; can
                                                                                             the form and details of a property and
middle section is larger than the               be open or partially enclosed.
                                                                                             its setting as it appeared at a particular
other two and is usually arched.
                                                PRESERVATION. The sustaining of              period of time, by removing later work
PARGING. Plaster, mortar, or a similar          the existing form, integrity, and material   and/or replacing missing earlier work.
mixture used to coat walls or chimneys.         of a building or structure and the
                                                                                             RETROFIT. To furnish a building with
                                                existing form and vegetation of a site.
PATINA. Usually a green film that                                                             new parts or equipment not available
forms naturally on copper and bronze by         PRIMER. A base coat used prior               at the time of original construction.
long exposure or artificially (as by acids)      to painting to prepare a surface.
                                                                                             REPOINT. To remove old mortar
and often valued aesthetically for its color.
                                                QUOINS. Large stones, or                     from courses of masonry and
PEDIMENT. A triangular section                  rectangular pieces of wood or brick,         replace it with new mortar.
framed by a horizontal molding on its           used to decorate, accentuate and
                                                                                             REVEAL. The depth of wall thickness
base and two raking (sloping) moldings          reinforce the corners of a building;
                                                                                             between its outer face and a window
on each of its sides. Used as a crowning        laid in vertical series with, usually,
                                                                                             or door set in an opening.
element for doors, porticos, and windows.       alternately large and small blocks.
                                                                                             RISING DAMP. A condition in
PIER. An upright structure of masonry           RAIL. The horizontal framing member
                                                                                             which moisture from the ground
serving as a principal support.                 found between panels in a door.
                                                                                             rises into the walls of a building.
                                                                                             SASH. The movable part of a
                                                                                             window holding the glass.
                                              APPENDIX E – GLOSSARY

                                                            SETBACK. The distance                    SYNTHETIC SIDING. Any siding

                                                            between a building and the               made of vinyl, aluminum, or other
                                                            front of the property line.              material to resemble a variety of
                                                                                                     authentic wood siding types.
                                                            SHED ROOF. A simple roof form
                                                            consisting of a single inclined plane.   TRANSOM. The window
                                                                                                     area above the front door.
                                                            SIDELIGHTS. Narrow
                                                            windows flanking a door.                  TURRET. A small tower placed
                                                                                                     at the corner of a building
                                                            SILL. The horizontal water-
                                                                                                     and extending above it.
                                                            shedding member at the bottom
                                                            of a door or window.                     VERNACULAR. Indigenous
                                                                                                     architecture that generally is not
                                                            SPALLING. A condition in which
                                                                                                     designed by an architect and may be
                                                            pieces of masonry split off from the
                                                                                                     characteristic of a particular area. Many
                                                            surface, usually caused by weather.
                                                                                                     simpler buildings that were constructed
                                                            STABILIZATION. The re-                   in the late-nineteenth century and
                                                            establishment of a weather-resistant     early-twentieth century are considered
                                                            enclosure and the structural stability   vernacular because they do not exhibit
                                                            of an unsafe or deteriorated property    enough characteristics to relate to
                                                            while maintaining the essential          a particular architectural style.
                                                            form as it currently exists.
                                                                                                     WEATHERBOARD SIDING. A
                                                            STANDING-SEAM METAL ROOFS.               horizontal exterior wallboard laid on
                                                            A roof where long narrow pieces of       edge overlapping the next board below.
                                                            metal are joined with raised seams.
                                                            STILE. A vertical framing
                                                            member of a paneled door.
                                                            STRING COURSE. A continuous
                                                            horizontal band of masonry used
                                                            for decorative purposes.
                                                            STUCCO. Exterior wall plaster.


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