Muslims by mdfazil


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For other uses, see Muslim (disambiguation).

Muslims are found throughout various parts of the world including the People's Republic
of China
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           right to left in a cursive style with some letters
           joined. Without proper rendering support, you may
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A Muslim (Arabic: ‫م س لم‬‎ , pronounced /ˈm
                          )                   ʊslɨm/, is an adherent of the religion of
Islam. Literally, the word means "one who submits (to God)". Muslim is the participle of
the same verb of which Islam is the infinitive.[1] The feminine form is sometimes used as
Muslimah (Arabic: ‫م س لمة‬‎ , especially in recent years.[citation needed] All Muslims observe
Sunnah, but differences in the definition of what is and what is not Sunnah has led to the
emergence of sectarian movements. The well-organised and cohesive community of
Muslims who accept the Sunnah as defined within one of the traditional Maliki, Hanafi,
Shafi or Hanbali madhabs are the classical Sunni Muslims. Those who fall outside of this
fold are the Shia Muslims, though often thinking themselves to be Sunni Muslims.

Muslims believe that there is only one God, translated in Arabic as Allah. Muslims also
believe that Islam existed long before Muhammad though it was not called Islam until the
revelation of Surah al-Maeda. Muslims believe that this religion had evolved with time
from the time of Adam until the time of Muhammad and was completed with the
revelation of verse 3 of Surah al-Maeda:

This day have I perfected your religion for you, completed My favour upon you, and have
chosen for you Islam as your religion.
The Qur'an describes many Biblical prophets and messengers as Muslim: Adam, Noah
(Arabic: Nuh), Moses and Jesus and his apostles. The Qur'an states that these men were
Muslims because they submitted to God, preached his message and upheld his values.
Thus, in Surah 3:52‎of‎the‎Qur'an,‎Jesus’‎disciples‎tell‎Jesus,‎"We‎believe‎in‎God;‎and‎
you be our witness that we submit and obey (wa ashahadu bil-muslimūna)."

Muslims consider making ritual prayer five times a day a religious duty (fard) (see the
section‎on‎Ismāˤīlīs‎below‎for‎exceptions);‎these‎five‎prayers‎are‎known‎as‎fajr, dhuhr,
ˤasr, maghrib and ˤishā'. There is also a special Friday prayer called jumuˤah. Currently,
the most up to date reports from an American think-tank and PBS have estimated 1.2 to
1.57 billion Muslims populate the world, or about 25% of an estimated 2009 world
population of 6.8 billion.[2] With 60% in Asia and 20% of Muslims living in the Middle
East and North Africa.[3][4][5][6]

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        1 Etymology
        2 Other words for Muslim
        3 Islam
        4 Muslim and mu'min
        5 See also
        6 References and notes
        7 External links

Main article: S-L-M#Islam "Piety, Faith"

Arabic muslimun is the stem IV participle[7] of the triliteral S-L-M "to be whole, intact".
A literal translation would be "one who wants or seeks wholeness", where "wholeness"
translates islāmun. In a religious sense, Al-Islām translates to "faith, piety", and Muslim
to "one who has (religious) faith or piety".

The feminine form of muslimun is muslimatun (Arabic: ‫مسلمة‬‎ .

Other words for Muslim
The ordinary word in English is "Muslim", pronounced /ˈmʊslɪm/ or /ˈmʌzləm/. The
word is pronounced [ˈm   ʊslɪm] in Arabic. It is sometimes transliterated "Moslem", an
older, possibly Persian-based spelling, which some regard as offensive.[8]

Until at least the mid-1960s, many English-language writers used the term
Mohammedans or Mahometans.[9] Although such terms were not necessarily intended to
be pejorative, Muslims argue that the terms are offensive because they allegedly imply
that Muslims worship Muhammad rather than God.

English writers of the 19th century and earlier sometimes used the words Mussulman,
Musselman, Musulman, or Mussulmaun (plural -mans, rather than -men).[citation needed]

Variant forms of this word are still used by many Indo-European and Turkic languages.
These words are similar to the French, Spanish, Portuguese, Italian, Russian, Turkish,
Bosnian, Persian, Kurdish, and Hindi words for "Muslim".

In spite of that, the Polish word for Muslim almost certainly does come directly from the
Turkish. While it appears as if it came directly from the Arabic, in‎"Muzułmanin",‎the‎"ł"‎
sound is close to either the English "w", or to the "l" in Allah, when pronounced by the
Turkic peoples.

Most Muslims accept as a Muslim anyone who has publicly pronounced the Shahadah
(declaration of faith) which states,

Ash-hadu an laa ilaha illa-lah
Wa ash-hadu anna Muhammadan rasulullah
"I bear witness there is no deity worthy of worship except Allah and I bear witness,
Muhammad is His final messenger".

The Amman Message[10] more specifically declared that a Muslim is one who adheres to
one of the eight schools of Islamic legal thought.

Currently, there are between one billion and two billion Muslims, making it the second
largest religion in the world.[11]

Muslim and mu'min

Zakir Naik is a popular Muslim figurehead. He is the founder and President of the Islamic
Research Foundation and the first global Islamic television channel, Peace TV.

One of the verses in the Qur'an makes a distinction between a mu'min, a believer, and a

       The Arabs of the desert say, "We believe." (tu/minu) Say thou: Ye believe not; but
       rather say, "We profess Islam;" (aslamna) for the faith (al-imanu) hath not yet
       found its way into your hearts. But if ye obey [God] and His Apostle, he will not
       allow you to lose any of your actions: for [God] is Indulgent, Merciful ('The
       Koran 49:14, Rodwell).

According to the academician Carl Ernst, contemporary usage of the terms "Islam" and
"Muslim" for the faith and its adherents is a modern innovation. As shown in the Quranic
passage cited above, early Muslims distinguished between the Muslim, who has
"submitted" and does the bare minimum required to be considered a part of the
community, and the mu'min, the believer, who has given himself or herself to the faith
heart and soul. Ernst writes:

       "The Arabic term Islam itself was of relatively minor importance in classical
       theologies based on the Qur'an. If one looks at the works of theologians such as
       the famous al-Ghazali (d. 1111), the key term of religious identity is not Islam but
       iman (faith), and the one who possesses it is the mu'min (believer). Faith is one of
       the major topics of the Qur'an; it is mentioned hundreds of times in the sacred
       text. In comparison, Islam is a less common term of secondary importance; it only
       occurs eight times in the Qur'an. Since, however, the term Islam had a derivative
       meaning relating to the community of those who have submitted to God, it has
       taken on a new political significance, especially in recent history."[12]

For another term in Islam for a non-Muslim who is a monotheist believer (usually applied
historically in a pre-Islamic context), see hanif.

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