karuk a 329 by fjhuangjun


									Here is the first installment of a revised Karuk dictionary, corresponding to the letter “a". This
dictionary installment is intended to be more user-friendly than what is in my book (The Karuk
Language, Berkeley, 1957), specifically in the following ways:

(1) The “technical” writing system has been converted into the practical writing system currently
used by the Karuk tribe. Note that the apostrophe (‟) is used for a glottal stop at the END of a
syllable (a‟vári „high‟), while a hyphen is used for one at the BEGINNING of a syllable (máh‟iit
„morning‟); but this difference is optional.

(2) Instead of the system of entries and sub-entries used earlier, every word is now an independent
entry, with everything in a single alphabetical order.

(3) All entries are written as they would be pronounced in isolation. Some entries are pronounced
differently in different environments, and that information is indicated as follows:

        (a) Some entries are pronounced with a final vowel when they are followed by another
element in the same word, but are pronounced without the vowel at the end of a word; for instance,
„rock‟ is asa- in the combination asá-maam „uphill from the rock‟, but it is pronounced as when
nothing follows in the same word. Such an entry is written with the final vowel in parentheses, i.e.
as(a). Another example is áaksur(u), as in ni-aaksúruti „I‟m shooting (the gun)‟, but tani-áaksur
„I‟m shooting it‟.

        (b) Some entries are pronouncede with a final h when they are followed by another element
in the same word, but at the end of a word the h is absent (or at least very hard to hear). I write
these with the final h in parentheses, i.e. as (h). An example is asáxvu(h) „turtle‟; the h comes out
in a word like asaxvuhpihnîich „Old Man Turtle‟.

        (c) Some entries are pronounced with different final consonants, depending on whether
something follows in the same word. For instance, „to eat‟ is pronounced am when a consonant
follows, as in amkir „table‟ or ni-áamti „I‟m eating‟. But it‟s pronounced av when a vowel follows,
or at the end of a word, as in ávaha „food‟ or táni-av „I‟ve eaten‟. In a case like this, i write av
(v/m). Similarly, „to bewitch‟ is ápun when a consonant follows, as in u-ápunti „he‟s bewitching
him‟, but ápur at the end of a word, as in tu-ápur „he bewitched him‟. In this case, i write ápur

        (d) Some entries are pronounced with different final vowels, depending on whether
something follows in the same word. For instance, „to find out, to know‟ is áapunma at the end of
a word, as in tu-áapunma „he‟s found out‟, but áapunmu when something follows, as in
u’aapúnmuti „he knows‟. In a case like this, i write áapunma (a/u). Similarly, „to get wet‟ is áas-ha
at the end of a word, as in tu-áas-ha „she got wet‟, but u-áas-hiti „she‟s getting wet‟; in this case i
write áas-ha (a/i).

Obviously, what i‟ve prepared is still not as user-friendly as it might be. Suggestions for further
revision are welcome. As i find time, i‟ll move on to the other letters of the alphabet, and also add
material that wasn‟t in the dictionary as originally published, including contributions from whoever
is interested; and also re-do the english-karuk section. Súva nik nupmáheesh; Bill

a‟ loc. up, above [WB no. 1, p. 313]

á‟hinva high: G621.16 [WB no. 1.1, p. 313]
á‟iknêechhan a bird sp., probably the duck hawk: see Kroeber, 1946, p. 13: "one who lives above":
  493, G758, G532 [WB no. 1.4, p. 313]

á‟iknuuptíhachhan footed bowl basket (O'Neale, p. 44): "one which pierces upward" (i.e., perh.,
  "is pointed"); 502, G757, G758, G532 [WB no. 1.5, p. 313]

á‟ikxiiptíhan airplane: "one which flies above" (from ikxip „to fly‟); 549, G757, G532 [WB no.
  1.6, p. 313]

á‟kuma-îirish loc upstairs: "above floor" (cf. îirish „floor‟); G530, 684 [WB no. 1.7, p. 313]

á‟uuyich loc. Sugarloaf, a mountain near Somes Bar: "little above-mountain" (cf. uuy
  „mountain‟); 1531, G621.9 [WB no. 1.2, p. 313]

a‟vári(h) adj. high: G621.19 [WB no. 1.3, p. 313]

aachíchha (a/i) p.i. to be happy: G622.1? [WB no. 8, p. 313]

aachíchhar (a) happy (T24.32): G754.3, G761 [WB no. 8.1, p. 313]

aachíchhiivrik tp.t. to be glad to see (someone): G754.21, with irreg. morphophonemics [WB no.
  8.2, p. 313]

áachip loc. middle, center [WB no. 10, p. 313]

áachip vapeepithváram loc Van Pelt & Delaney's store in Orleans: "middle store"; G420, 1108.1
  [WB no. 10.4, p. 313]

áaf excrement [WB no. 17, p. 314]

áah(a) fire; lantern, electric light, electricity: G761. The irreg. alternant áah occurs in most
  combinations.[WB no.29.1, p. 314; from áah "to handle fire"]

áah p.i. to carry or handle fire [WB no.29, p. 314]

áahka (a/u) p.t. to set fire to, to burn: "to put fire on," G753.8 [WB no.29.3, p.315; from áah "to
  handle fire"]

aak tp.t. to hit (with an implement, as a stick) [WB no.49, p.316]

áak (u) tp.t. to hit (with an implement), to chop (with an ax): "to hit on," G753.8 [WB no.49.1,
  p.316; from aak "to hit")

áakram(u) p.i. to argue, to wage war [WB no.63, p.316]

aakrúpri(h) tp.t. to lock arms with: "to put one's hands through," G753.22 [WB no.48.2, p.315]

aaksâanva (a/u) p.i. to incur bad luck [WB no.66, p.316]

aaksâanva bad luck: G761 [WB no.66.1, p.316; from aaksâanva (/u) "to incur bad luck"

áaksur(u) p.t. to shoot (a weapon): G753.27 [WB no.48.3, p.315]
áakup tp.3172t. to challenge to (a game) [WB no.76, p.317]

áama salmon: perhaps 201, G751 (with irreg. morphophonemics), G761. Combined with a
  following noun, the alternant amva- usually occurs. [WB no.86, p.317]

áan string, twine, thread, rope [WB no.93, p.317]

âanaxus (or âanxus) weasel [WB no.96, p.318]

aaníhich older brother, older male cousin (diminutive of ári (h))

âanva (a/u) p.i. to paint one's (own) face: G751? [WB no.100, p.318]

âanvath tp.t. to paint (some)one's face: G754.12, with haplology [WB no.100.1, p.318]

âanxus (or âanaxus) weasel [WB no.96, p.318]

áapha (a/u) p.t. to carry (two objects) [WB no.108, p.318]

áapuchur a.i. to collapse (meaning and form uncertain; found only in T52.74) [WB 119, p.319]

âapun loc. on the ground [WB 120, p.319]

âapunich adj. low: G621.9 [WB 120.2, p.319]

áapunma (a/u) tp.t. to know (a fact), to know about (a person or thing), to find out: 753.10?
  [WB 122, p.319]

aapúnmiik tp.t. to learn from: cf. 1241.1 [cf. áapunma; WB 122.1, p.319]

áas loc. water; juice [WB 145, p.321]. Note the idiom áas u-íishti „he‟s eating a meal‟.

aas-kípach adj. wet (-p- never lengthened): G621.12 [WB 145.8, p.321]

áasha (a/i) s.i. to be wet: G622.1 [WB 145.4, p.321]

áasish(rih) p.i. to go to bed, to lie down: G753.3, with irreg. morphophonemics [WB 157.4,

áasiv loc. cave, overhanging rock [WB 158, p.323]

aasrávar(a) brains [WB 164, p.323]

áat 'spring salmon,' king salmon, Onchorrhynchus tschawytscha (H) (obsolete; now replaced by
  ishyâat , 744.1) [WB no.177, p.324]

áathva (a/u) s.i. to be afraid [WB no.200, p.325]. Note the idiom áathva ukyâati „he scares him,
  makes him afraid‟ [WB no.200.1, p.325]

áatish(rih) p.t. to carry (acorns or the like) home in a pack basket: "to carry down," G753.3 [WB
  no.187.2, p.325]
aatíship(riv) p.t. to raise up with a pack basket full of (acorns or the like) on one's back: "to carry
  up," G753.26 [WB no.187.3, p.325]

aau interj. imitation of Bear's growl (T32.61) [WB no.212, p.326]

áav loc. face [WB no.202, p.326]

âavahar (a) adj. alive [WB no.204, p.326]

áavha (a/i) tp.t. to face: G622.1 [WB no.202.1, p.326]

áavkam loc. ahead, in front: "face-side," G621.11 [WB no.202.3, p.326]

âavnay loc. a place name, Cappell (a Yurok town) [WB no.211, p.326]

áax blood; (as a postpound) red [WB no.215, p.326]

ããx! interj. an exclamation of disgust [WB no.216, p.327]

áaxha (a/i) s.i. to bleed: G622.1 [WB no.215.1, p.327]

aaxkúnish adj. red: "like blood," G621.13 (-n- never lengthened) [WB no.215.4, p.327]

aay wild grape, Vitis californica (Schenck & Gifford,no. 147) [WB no.257, p.329]

aayâach (ayu-âach, eeyâach) adv. it was because ...: 260, G621.9? [WB no.261, p.329]

áchak (u) a.i. to float in a bunch [WB 3, p. 313]

áchakich puppy. [WB no. 2, p. 313. Stem áchak- plus dimin. -ich.]

achavúra adv. a variant of chavúra "finally" [WB no. 4, p. 313]

achêevish a woman's name: G621.10? [WB no. 5, p. 313]

áchi interj. an exclamation of fright [WB no. 6, p. 313. “ch” is pronounced short.]

achichtunvêech blue grass, Poa anua (Schenk & Gifford, no. 28): "little lice," 1398.1. [WB no.
  7.1, p. 313; from achiich “louse”]

achiich louse: G621.9? [WB no. 7, p. 313]

achiimûuch a variant of chiimûuch "lizard" [WB no. 9, p. 313]

achip-óorayva a certain cut of salmon: "middle belly-rumbling"; 1028, G761 [WB no. 10.2, no.
  313; from áachip “middle”]

achípchiinkirak loc. a place name, Bluenose (Map, no. 49): "at middle island"; 299, G621.1 [WB
  no. 10.1, p. 313; from áachip “middle”]

achíptiik middle finger: 1375 [WB no. 10.3; from áachip “middle”]
áchkuun swamp robin [WB no. 11, p. 313]

achnaat rat [WB no. 12, p. 313]

achnat-apvúyhiich a plant, yarrow, Achillea millefolium var. lanulosa (Schenck & Gifford, no.
  236): "imitation rat-tail"; 125, G614.2 [WB no. 12.1, p. 313; from achnaat “rat”]

achnát-iiv loc rat's nest: 789 [WB no. 12.2, p. 313; from achnaat “rat”]

achnátus place where a rat stores its food: cf. 1239.2 [WB no. 12.3, p. 313; from achnaat “rat”]

achnatxâat flying squirrel: "stinking rat," 1608 [WB no. 12.4, p. 313; from achnaat “rat”]

áchnuuk eel's gills; a type of mushroom [WB no. 13, p. 314]

áchpuus a part of the salmon, identified as 'white stuff under the throat': a plant, wintergreen,
  Pirola asarifolia var. incarnate (Schenck & Gifford, no. 173) [WB no. 14, p. 314]

achviiv bird [WB no. 15, p. 314]

achvíivhirak loc. a place name (Map, no. 74): G622.1, G823.2 [WB no. 15.2, p. 314, from
  achviiv "bird"]

achviv-ápkaas a type of wild iris (see Schenck & Gifford, no. 47): "bird iris," 109 [WB no.
  15.1, p. 314, from achviiv "bird"]

achvívkaam California condor, Gymnogyps californianus (H): "big bird," 846 [WB no. 15.3, p.
  314; from achviiv "bird"]

achvivyáas-ara a bird sp.: "bird-chief," 1660 [WB no. 15.4, p. 314; from achviiv "bird"]

achvuun hookbill salmon, dog salmon [WB no. 16, p. 314]

afchufíchthuuf loc Crawford Creek: 1464 [WB no. 18.1, p. 314; from afchúufich "a place

afchúufich loc. a place name (Map, no. 108): perh. "little excrement creek"; 1484, G621.9, but
  with irreg. accent. [WB no. 18, p. 314]

afiknívnaamich loc privy: "little excrement-house"; 493.4, G621.9 [WB no. 17.1, p. 314; from
  áaf "excrement"]

áfir(a) leaves of imkáanva, the "sunflower" or gum plant, Grindelia robusta var. patens
  (Schenck & Gifford, no. 222) [WB no. 19, p. 314]

áfish p.t. to touch [WB no.20, p. 314]

afísheen (a) p.t. to feel (by touching). /eena is not identifiable. [WB no.19.1, p. 314; from áfish
  "to touch"]
afíshii(h) Western service berry, Amelanchier alnifolia (Schenck & Gifford, no. 123) [WB no.
  21, p. 314]

afíshiip service berry bush: 638 [WB no. 21.1, p. 314; from afíshii "service berry"]

afishnihanpihnîich pers. bachelor: "old unmarried man," 1117.1 [WB no.22.1, p. 314; from
  afishríhan "unmarried man"]

afishríhan pers. young man, esp. an unmarried one: G753.3, G532? The dimin. is afíshnihanich.
  [WB no.22, p. 314]

afishrihanxára a man's name: "tall young man," 1622 [WB no.22.2, p. 314; from afishríhan
  "young man"]

afitúunva (a/u) s.i. to be jealous: G751 [WB no.23, p. 314]

áfiv a) loc. bottom (of anything): G761. The dimin. is afivîich "(the) very bottom.". [WB
  no.24.1, p. 314; from áfiv "to make the bottom"]

áfiv p.t. to make the bottom of (a basket) [WB no.24, p. 314]

afivîich loc. the very bottom

áfnuun hip [WB no. 17.2, p. 314; cf. áaf "excrement"]

áfrii(h) coarse acorn meal [WB no.25, p. 314]

afruus mildewed acorns [WB no.26, p. 314]

aftáram loc. a place name (Map, no. 59) [WB no.27, p. 314]

aftarámthuuf loc. Stanshaw Creek: 1464 [WB no.27.1, p. 314; from aftáram "a place name"]

áfup buttocks [WB no. 17.3, p. 314; cf. áaf "excrement"]

afupchúrax anus. [WB no. 17.3.1, p. 314; cf. áfup "buttocks"]

afyiiv pers. friend. Idiom: afyíiv umáahti, lit. "he sees him (as a) friend" = "he is friendly with
  him". [WB no.28, p. 314]

aha (a/i) a.i. to burn (rare; largely replaced by íinka (a/u), 622.1) [WB no.39, p.315; cf. áah

áha/ p.t. to herd, drive. Only in combinations like áhathun (a) "to herd around" (G753.29) [WB
  no.30, p.315]

áhachak(u) tp.2t. to withhold from, to hold out on [WB no.31, p.315]

ahákna(h) goose [WB no.32, p.315]

áhakuv p.i. to go to (a place) [WB no.33, p.315]
áhar (a) used in counting points of a deer's horns (see 1275) but occurring only in itroopa-áhar
  (a) "five-point buck" and itahara-áhar (a) "ten-point buck." [WB no.34, p.315]

aháraam(u) s.i. to become ashamed [WB no.35, p.315]

áharam(u) tp.t. to follow, chase. [WB no.30.1, p.315; from áha "to herd"]

ahavará-kuusra(h) adv. the ninth month of the Karuk year: 932 [WB no.36, p.315]

ahavíshkaanva (a/u) p.i. to fish with a type of large dip-net: to hunt or fish (in general): G753.4,
  G751? [WB no.37, p.315]

ahávoo p.t. to herd toward (T70.17): G753.10, G754.13 [WB no.30.2, p.315; from áha "to herd"]

ahcahípanach loc. a place name, part of Red Cap rancheria (Map, no. 113): 644, G621.9? [WB
  no.38, p.315]

ahéemshiipar(a) widower: "one whose fire has gone out"; 593, G764 [WB no.29.1.1, p. 314;
  from áah (a) "fire"]

ahikyáaraam loc. fireplace, chimney: "fire-making place"; 557, G766 [WB no.29.1.2, p. 314;
  from áah (a) "fire"]

ahíram loc. fireplace: "burning place," G766 [WB no.39.1, p.315; from aha (a/i) "to burn"]]

ahirímkaanva (a/u) a.i. (trees) to lie burned across a stream (T3.81): G752.2, G753.4, G751
  [WB no.39.2, p.315; from aha (a/i) "to burn"]

áhish(rih) p.i. to set or light a fire: "to put fire down," G753.3 [WB no.29.2, p.315; from áah "to
  handle fire"

ahíthyur(a) railroad train: "fire-car." 787.2 [WB no.29.1.3, p.315; from áah (a) "fire"]

áhkuus inner bark of the maple [WB no.40, p.315]

áhoo p.i. to go, walk, travel, arrive (here) [WB no.41, p.315]

ahóokir(a) sidewalk: G754.9. G761 [WB no.41.1, p.315; from áhoo "to walk"]

áhpaah steamship: "fire-boat," 1039 [WB no.29.1.4, p.315; from áah (a) "fire"]

ahtákni muyukúku(h) automobile tire: "auto its-shoe"; G410, 1713 [cf. ah-táknih; WB
  no., p.315]

ahtáknih(a) automobile "fire-wheel," 1285.1 [WB no.29.1.5, p.315; from áah (a) "fire"]

ahtûun oak bark [WB no.42, p.315]

ahtuuy loc. trash pile: cf. 1409 [WB no.43, p.315]

ahtuyshúnukich loc. a sweathouse at ameekyáaraam rancheria: "under a trash pile," 1248.3,
  G621.9 [WB no.43.1, p.315; from ahtuuy "trash pile"]
áhup stick, wood [WB no.44, p.315]

ahup-ámvaan woodworm: "wood-eater," 201.5 [WB no.44.1, p.315; from áhup "wood"]

ahup-ásip wooden box, coffin: "wooden basket," 156 [WB no.44.2, p.315; from áhup "wood"]

ahup-ikyávaan pers. female assistant at the ameekyáaraam m world- renewal ceremony
  (Kroeber & Gifford, p. 7): "wood-gatherer"; 557, G762 [WB no.44.3, p.315; from áhup

ahvákir(i) p.t. to die of: G754.9? [WB no.45, p.315]

ahváraa hollow tree [WB no.46, p.315]

ahyuum foot-log, bridge [WB no.47, p.315]

ak/ p.t. to put (one's hands), to do with one's hands, to reach. Occurring only in combinations
  like áaksip (riv) "to raise one's hands" (G753.26). [WB no.48, p.315]

áka(h) father [WB no.50, p.316]

akâay (or akáray) pron. who?, anyone. After pu-= "not," the allomorphs akára and kára occur;
  see 1171.4. [WB no.52, p.316]

akâayva (or akárayva) anyone, someone, whoever: G621.17 [WB no.52.1, p.316]

akáhyaan stepfather: G614.10 [WB no.50.1, p.316; from áka (h) "father"]

ákakuri(h) p.i. (pl.) to shout [WB no.51, p.316]

akáray (or akâay) pron. who?, anyone. After pu-= "not," the allomorphs akára and kára occur;
  see 1171.4. [WB no.52, p.316]

akárayva (or akâayva) anyone, someone, whoever: G621.17 [WB no.52.1, p.316]

ákat a.i. to taste like [WB no.53, p.316]

akchak p.i. to close one's hands: G752.1 [WB no.48.1, p.315]

akee interj. ouch! [WB no.54, p.316; with lengthened "e" as in Eng. "bed"]

ákeekva (a/u) p.t. to carry long objects, esp. bows [WB no.55, p.316]

áki(h) tp.2t. to give (things, or a mass of something) to; to feed [WB no.57, p.316]

akich interj. friend! (term of address used between men) [WB no.56, p.316]

ákith p.t. to handle or move (a soft mass, such as acorn dough) [WB no.58, p.316]

ákith/ a.i. to be coiled. Occurs only in combinations like ákithriv (v/m) "to lie coiled" (G752.2)
  [WB no.59, p.316]
ákithriv (v/m) to lie coiled (G752.2 [WB no.59,. p.316]

ákithtir (r/n) tp.t. to hit by throwing a soft mass (T63.12): cf. 516 [WB no.58.1, p.316]

aknap tp.t. to slap, to pat [WB no.60, p.316]

aknup p.t. to punch or thump with one's fingers [WB no.61, p.316]

aknupunúpar (a) guitar: "repeated-thumping instrument": G740, G761 [WB no.61.1, p.316;
  from aknup "to thump with fingers"]

akooná-anamahach hatchet: "small ax," 129.1 [WB no.49.1.1.l, p.316; from akôor (a) "ax"]

akôor(a) ax: "chopping-instrument"; G751, G754.3, G761 [WB no.49.1.1, p.316; from áak (u)
  "to chop"]

akraa(h) lamprey, "eel" [WB no.62, p.316]

akramúram loc. a place name (Map, no. 16): "arguing-place," G766 [WB no.63.1, p.316]

akrap tp.t. to slap: cf. 480 [WB no.64, p.316]

akrávsiip Oregon ash tree, Fraxinus oregona (Schenck & Gifford, no. 187): 638? [WB no.65,

aksanváhiich a flower, the shooting-star, Dodecatheon sp. (Schenck & Gifford, p. 390):
  "imitation bad luck," G614.2 [WB no.66.1.1, p.316]

aksíptaahkoo loc. a place name, Head Camp: 1273.2 [WB no.67, p.316]

ákthiip wild barley, Hordeum leporinum (Schenck & Gifford, no. 31) [WB no.72, p.316]

akthiiphírak loc. Trinity Summit: "(at) barley-place," G622.1, G823.2 [WB no.72.2, p.317]

akthip-ámvaan horse (obsolete, now replaced by chishii (h), 305): 201.5 [WB no.72.1, p.316;
  from ákthiip "barley"]

akthípish a man's name: perhaps "little barley"; 72, G621.10 [WB no.73, p.317]

aktif tp.t. to shove aside: cf. 514, 605 [WB no.68, p.316]

aktinákir(a) rocks on each side of the doorway in an Indian house, which one grasps when
  entering: The accent of the locative aktinakírak shows that there is a morpheme boundary
  before -kira (G381.3); presumably /kiri (G754.9) and /a (G761) are present. [WB no.69,

aktipanára ripgut grass, Bromus rigidus (Schenck and Gifford, no. 26) : 1003 [WB no.70,

aktipanaratunvêech a grass sp.: "small ripgut grass," 1398.1 [WB no.70.1, p.316; from
  aktipanára "ripgut grass"]
aktumtôor(a) guitar: "repeated-plucking instrument"; G740, G754.3 (with irreg. contraction),
  G761 [WB no.71.1, p.316; from aktuv- "to pluck at"]

aktuv (v/m) p.t. to pluck at [WB no.71, p.316]

akuniháaski(h) a man's name: translated in Kroeber, 1925, p. 108, as "shoots swiftly"; cf. 75,
  703 [WB no.74, p.317]

ákunva (a/u) p.t. to hunt: G751? [WB no.75, p.317]

akunváapxaan man's work cap (O'Neale, pp.317 41-42): "hunting cap," 126 [WB no.75.1, p.317;
  from ákunva (a/u) "to hunt"]

akvaat raccoon [WB no.78, p.317]

akvákir(a) quiver: G754.9, G761? [WB no.77, p.317]

akvatîiv loc. a place name (Map, no. 64): perhaps "raccoon-ears"; 1414, but with irreg. accent.
  [WB no.79, p.317]

akviin nettle, Urtica gracilis (Schenck & Gifford, no. 77) [WB no.80, p.317]

ákviish wildcat. The dimin. is akvíishich. [WB no.81, p.317]

akvítip alder tree, Alnus rhombifolia or A. rubra (Schenck & Gifford, no's. 67 and 68): 638 [WB
  no.82, p.317]

ákxaap ripgut grass, Bromus rigidus [WB no.83, p.317]

akxáapak-atatúraahitihan morning glory, Convolvulus fulcratus (Schenck & Gifford, no. 192):
  "that which is twisted up onto ripgut grass": G621.1, 182, G753.31, G621.1, G757, G532 [WB
  no.83.1, p.317]

akxárap p.t. to scratch: cf. 1548 [WB no.84, p.317]

amakêem adj. bad-tasting: 868 [WB no.201.1.1, p.325]

amáyav adj. good-tasting: 1665 [WB no.201.1.2, p.325]

ameekyáaraam a place name (Map, no. 85): variant of amveekyáaraam.

amih/ refers to generosity, but is found only in the combinations amihkêem "stingy" and
 amíhyav "generous".

amihkêem stingy: 868 [WB no.87.1, p.317]

amíhyav generous: 1665 [WB no.87.2, p.317]

amkíinva 'lunch,' i.e. food carried on a journey: G754.9 [WB no.201.3, p.325]

amkir(a) table: G754.9, G761 [WB no.201.2, p.325]
ámkuuf smoke [WB no.88, p.317]

ámkuufkunish adj. blue: "like smoke," G621.13 [WB no.88.1, p.317]

amnaam loc. hotel: "eating-place," G766 [WB no.201.4, p.326]

amnaykûutich a man's name: "little Cappell-grandfather"; 942, G621.9 [WB no.211.1, p.326]

ámtaap dust, ashes; (as postpound) gray [WB no.89, p.317]

amtáapich earthworm: "little dust," G621.9 [WB no.89.2, p.317; from ámtaap "dust"]

amtáparas a type of lupine, Lupinus albifrons; also identified as the cotton-batting plant,
 Gnaphalium chilense (Schenck & Gifford, no's. 126 and 230): "dusty ones," G621.2, G621.16
 [WB no.89.1, p.317; from ámtaap "dust"]

amtiikêer(a) "Indian cards," the sticks used in gambling. [WB no.90, p.317]

amtuup clay; (loc.) a place name, uphill and downriver from purith-ípxuv, 1177.3 [WB no.91,

amváamvaan otter: "salmon-eater," 201.5 [WB no.86.1, p.317; from áama "salmon"]

amvaan eater: G751, G762 [WB no.201.5, p.326]

amveekyáaraam loc. a place name (Map, no. 85): "salmon-making place"; 557, G766 [WB
 no.86.2, p.317; from áama "salmon"]

amyiv soot [WB no.92, p.317]

ánaach crow: perhaps "little medicine"; 95, G621.9 [WB no.94, p.317]

anach-fíthi(h) a basket design element (O'Neale, fig. 13i): "crow-foot," 360 [WB no.94.1, p.317;
  from ánaach "crow"]

anach-úhish mistletoe, Phoradendron villosum (Schenck and Gifford, no. 79): "crow-seed,"
  1480.2 [WB no.94.2, p.317; from ánaach "crow"]

anamahach adj. little, small: G621.9. Occurs only in combination after a noun. The sequence -
  ana- behaves morphophonemically like a long vowel (G383). The suppletive plural is -
  tunvêech(as) (a), 1398.1. The corresponding free forms are singular nîinimich, plural tûupichas.
  [WB 129.1, p.320]

anamáhiich(va) doll: "imitation child," G614.2 [WB 129.2, p.320]

ánav medicine [WB no.95, p.317]

aneekrívraam loc. hospital: "medicine-house," 493.4 [WB no.95.1, p.318]

aneekyávaan pers. shaman or 'doctor' who treats by means of sweating and herbs: "medicine-
  maker," 557.5 [WB no.95.2, p.318]
aneekyavan-ikrívraam loc. hospital: "doctor-house," 493.4 [WB no.95.1.2, p.318]

aneekyavániik loc hospital: "(at) doctor-place"; G614.7, G621.1 [WB no.95.1.1, p.318]

anihôohich pers. a woman's name: G621.9? [WB no.97, p.318]

anoo interj. ouch! (used when burnt) [WB no.98, p.318]

ansáfriik loc. a place name, Weitchpec (a Yurok town): G614.7, G621.1 [WB no.99, p.318]

ansáfriik va-áraar by-name for kachakâach, the crested jay: "Weitchpec person", G420, 132
  [WB no.99.1, p.318]

anúphiich a plant, coast trillium, Trillium ovatum; also applied to the root of fat Solomon,
  Smilacina amplexicaulus (Schenck & Gifford; no's. 54 and 55): "imitation navel," G614.2
  [WB 142.1, p.321]

anús-hiich a plant, Godetia sp. (Schenck and Gifford, p. 390): "imitation seed basket," G614.2
  [WB 144.1, p.321]

ánusich thimble: "little seed basket," G621.9 [WB 144.2, p.321]

ap adv. a variant of ip "recent past," 635 [WB no.102, p.318]

apáchi(h) a type of worm, found in the heads of deer; a man's name [WB no.103, p.318]

ápak(a) loc. cliff: G761 [from ápak „(earth) to slide‟; WB no.104.1, p.318]

ápak a.i. (earth) to slide [WB no.104, p.318]

apaka-ípan loc. a place name (Map, no. 19): "clifftop," 644 [WB no.104.1.1, p.318]

ápakach apricot(s): from the English plural [WB no.105, p.318]

ápap loc. on one side [WB no.105, p.318]

apaxantiichyaas-ára the government: "white-man chief," 1660 [WB 126.2.6, p.320]

ápiv (v/m) tp.t. to seek, look for [WB no.107, p.318]

ápkaas ground iris, Iris macrosiphon (Schenck & Gifford, no. 57) [WB no.109, p.318]

apkôok pers. a man's name [WB no.110, p.318]

apkúruh thigh [WB no.111, p.318]

apmaan mouth; beak (of a bird) [WB no.112, p.318]

apman-ikrixúpxup(a) pepper: "mouth-burning"; 498, G761 [WB no.112.1, p.318; from apmaan
apmansúuyha (a/i) s.i. to have traces of food around one's mouth: 1263, G622.1 [WB no.112.2,
  p.318; from apmaan "mouth"]

apmantáchuchar(a) talkative person G621.2?; tachuch/ is not identifiable. [WB no.112.3, p.318;
  from apmaan "mouth"]

apmántiim loc. lip: "mouth-edge," 1377 [WB no.112.4, p.318; from apmaan "mouth"]

apmaráfri(h) lip [WB no.112.5, p.318; from apmaan "mouth"]

apmárar(a) woodpecker-head sash: "having beaks," G621.2 [WB no.112.6, p.318; from apmaan

apmaráxvu(h) whiskers: "mouth-fuzz," 251 [WB no.112.7, p.318; from apmaan "mouth"]

apraax fox [WB no.113, p.318]

áprii(h) tongue [WB no.114, p.318]

apsih-ikxánamkunishichas gold fern, Gymnogramme triangularis (Schenck & Gifford, no. 5):
  "little blacklegs""; 538.4, G621.9, G621.6 [WB no.115.1, p.318; from ápsii (h) "leg"]

apsihthákurar(a) bowlegged: G621. 2?; thákur/ not identifiable. [WB no.115.2, p.318; from ápsii
  (h) "leg"]

ápsii(h) leg [WB no.115, p.318]

apsun-áxraan quaking grass, Briza minor (Schenck & Gifford, no. 29): "snake-tracks, " 231
  [WB no.116.1, p.318; from ápsuun "snake"]

apsunmúnukic a type of snake, the Western yellow-bellied racer (H): "slippery snake," 985
  [WB 116.2, p.319]

apsunmunukic-ímkaanva mountain hemp, Apocynum androsaemifolium var. nevadense
  (Schenck & Gifford, no. 190): "racer's sunflower," 576.1 [WB 116.2.1, p.319]

apsúnpuufveen gopher snake: G767; -puuf- not identifiable [WB 116.3, p.319]

apsúnthuuf loc. Five Mile Creek: "snake creek," 1464 [WB 116.4, p.319]

apsunxára a legendary giant serpent, called a 'boa constrictor' by one consultant: "long snake,"
  1602 [WB 116.5, p.319]

apsunxara-ímkaanva a plant, green dock, Rumex conglomeratus (Schenck & Gifford, no. 80):
  "long-snake's sunflower," 576.1 [WB 116.5.1, p.319]

apsunyúfiv a triangular basket-design element (O'Neale, fig. 13f): "snake nose," 1685 [WB
  116.6, p.319]

ápsuun snake [WB no.116, p.318]

áptiik branch, limb (of a tree) [WB 118, p.319]
aptínihich braided bear-lily leaves, from which aprons are made: G621.9? [WB 117, p.319]

apunáxvu(h) gum (of plants), glue [WB 121, p.319]

apúnfaath pine-mat manzanita, Arctostaphylos nevadensis (Schenck & Gifford, no. 182):
  "ground manzanita," 352 [WB 120.1, p.319]

apúnka (a/u) tp.t. to bewitch, 'devil': G753.8 [WB 123.1, p.319]

ápur (r/n) tp.t. to bewitch, to 'devil'. The variant ápuru- occurs in some combinations. [WB
  123, p.319]

ápuroon magic charm or 'devil machine' used by a sorcerer: perh. G532, with irreg. contraction
  [WB 123.2, p.319]

apurúvaan pers. evil sorcerer, 'Indian devil': "bewitcher"; G751, G762 [WB 123.3, p.319]

apuruvániik loc. a place name, part of asánaamkarak rancheria: "devil place"; G614.7,
  G621.1 [WB 123.3.1, p.319]

ápus apple(s): from the English plural (-p- never lengthened) [WB 124, p.319]

apuspâay apple pie: 1105 [WB 124.1, p.319]

ápvuuy tail; cf. 1344 [WB125, p.319]

apvuyíthyurar(a) Cooper hawk, Accipiter cooper) (M): "tail-dragger"; 787, G754.3, G761, with
  irreg. accent [WB 124.1, p.319]

ápxaan basket cap (O'Neale, pp. 41-43); hat (of any kind) [WB 126, p.319]

apxánmuum bumblebee: cf. 983 [WB 126.1, p.319]

apxantîich (variant of apxantínihich) white man: "flat-cap" (because of the brims on white
  men's hats), 1388.1 (-ii- does not shorten in compounds) [WB 126.2, p.319]

apxantiich-imsháxvu(h) chewing gum: "white man's gum," 592 [WB 126.2.2, p.319]

apxantiichampínishich tea: "white man's yerba buena," 1418.1 [WB 126.2.1, p.319]

apxantíichpuufich sheep, goat: "white man's deer," 1174 [WB 126.2.3, p.319]

apxantíichriik loc. city: "white-man place"; G614.7, G621.1 [WB 126.2.4, p.319]

apxantiichtáyiith potato (obsolete, replaced by putíruh): "white man's brodiaea," 1363 [WB
  126.2.5, p.319]

apxantínich (variant of apxantínihich) white man: "flat-cap" (because of the brims on white
  men's hats), 1388.1 [WB 126.2, p.319]
apxantínihich (or apxantínich, apxantîich) white man: "flat-cap" (because of the brims on
  white men's hats), 1388.1 [WB 126.2, p.319]

ára, árah person [WB 127, p.320]

ára-u-ipamvâanatihirak Medicine Mountain: "where a person eats himself"; G520, G731, 201,
  G754.17, G757, G823.2 [WB 127.2.3, p.320]

ára-utâanaxitihirak the land of the dead: G520, G757, G823.2; -tâanaxi- is not identifiable. [WB
  127.2.4, p.320]

áraar(a) pers. man (i.e., human being), person; Indian; (with possessives) relative: cf. 127 [WB
  132, p.320]

arâarahiti(h) p.i. (pl.an.) to live, sit, stay, be: G622.1, G757, with irreg accent. Corresponds to sg,
  ikriv, du. iin (a). [WB 132.1, p.320]

arákaas pers. old man [WB 128, p.320]

árama(h) pers. child (in the sense of "offspring"). Used mainly with possessives. The
  corresponding plural is -túnviiv(sa(s)). The independent word for „child‟ is axiich. [WB 129,

áramsip(riv) p.i. to start out (on a journey): to come from (a certain place): G753.26, with irreg.
  accent [WB 136.2, p.320]

arankúri(h) a.i. to sink (into water): G753.9 [WB 130, p.320]

arankúrihvar a sinker: "sinking-instrument," G751, G754.3, G761 [WB 130.1, p.320]

arápruut millipede [WB 131, p.320]

arara-pishpíshi(h) yellowjacket: "Indian bee," 1153 [WB 132.3, p.320]

arara-prâms wild plum(s): "Indian plum(s)," 1170 [WB 132.4, p.320]

arará-saak arrowhead: "Indian bullet," 1196 [WB 132.5, p.320]

arara-xúskaamhar(a) bow: "Indian gun," 1642 [WB 132.6, p.320]

arara-yaas-ára the Bureau of Indian Affairs: "Indian-chief," 1660 [WB 132.7, p.320]

araramvanyupsítanach ~ -ich a type of fly, the 'horsefly': "baby man-eater"; 201.5, 1698.10 [WB
  132.2, p.320]

araréeptoorar(a) census taker: "person-counter"; G731, 1396, G754.3, G761 [WB 132.8, p.320]

araréeshpuk(a) dentalium shells: "Indian money," 716 [WB 132.9, p.320]

aráriihkanha (a/i) s.i. to get well, recover (from an illness), (a wound) to heal: G622.1? [WB 133,
araríihkanhivath tp.t. to cure (a sick person): "to cause to recover," G754.12 [WB 133.1, p.320]

aráriik loc. rancheria, i.e., an Indian village: "person-place" G614.7, G621.1 [WB 127.1, p.320]

arátaanva disease object or "pain," i.e., a magical worm which causes illness: 1307. Idioms:
  arátaanva ukêenati “a „pain‟ wiggles, i.e. a disease is present” (in a stated body-part); pa-êem
  arátaanva upíhvuuvti “the doctor „re-uses‟ a pain‟, i.e. dances and sings while holding a „pain‟
  that has been extracted from a sick person” [WB 127.2, p.320]

aratváraf black mud [WB 134, p.320]

arav (v/m) p.i. to start, to come. [WB 136, p.320] Used only in combinations like arávuk „to start
  from (a place)‟, áramsip(riv) „to start out (on a journey)‟

árav (v/m) p.i. to weave with three strands (in basketry) [WB 135, p.320]

arávuk p.i. to start from, to come by way of: G754.17 [WB 136.1, p.320]

ári(h) pers. older brother, older male cousin. The dimin. is aaníhich. [WB 137, p.321]

árih/ p.i. to move quickly, often translated "to jump," or in some contexts simply "to go”;
  occuring only in combinations like árihroov(u) "to go upriver" (G753.19) [WB 138, p.321]

árihish(rih) p.t. to sing: G753.3; but no logical connection with 138.1 seems possible [WB
  139, p.321]

árihish(rih) s.t. to become, to be transformed into: G753.3 [WB 138.1, p.321]

áriim adj. dead [WB 140, p.321]

árip p.t. to cut a strip or thong from [WB 141, p.321]

árup navel, navel cord [WB 142, p.321]

arup-ishúnvaan a type of lizard, the skink, Eumeces sp. (M): "navel-hider"; 732, G762 [WB
  142.2, p.321]

árus seed basket (O'Neale, p. 45) [WB 144, p.321]

áruun adj. empty [WB 143, p.321]

as(a) rock, stone; in some compounds, earth, dirt [WB 145, p.321]

as-íshahiv(a) loc. meal, mealtime: "meal-eating occasion"; 754.1, 761 [WB 145.10.1, p.321]

ása p.t. to wear (on one's body) [WB 147, p.322]

asa-urúh-iivreen loc. a mountain near Katimin: "round-rock summit"; 1497, 798 [WB 146.10,

asá-uuy loc. a hill below the mouth of the Salmon River: "rock hill," 1510 [WB 146.11,
asa-uy-íkuraa loc. the ridge leading up this hill, along which the spirits of the dead pass upon
  leaving this world: 520.1.1 [WB 146.11.1, p.322]

asáfuun red earth, ochre: cf. 370 [WB 145.1, p.321]

ásak vaatxarakavrûukvutihan California wood fern, Aspidium rigidum var. argutum (Schenck
  & Gifford, no. 10): "that which shouts down over from a rock"; G621.1, 1533, G753.38,
  G751, G757, G532 [WB 146.19, p.322]

asakeem-íshaanach loc. a place name (Map, no. 3): perh. "little watery bad-rock"; 868, 689.1
  (with irreg. contraction), G621.2, G621.9 [WB 145.2, p.321]

asámaam loc. a sweathouse at ameekyáaraam rancheria: "behind a rock," 965 [WB 145.3,

asámni(h) loc. a place name; located by Kroeber, 1936, p. 31, as being on the east side of the
  Klamath, two miles below Tea Bar [WB 148, p.322]

asámyiith gravel: 146? [WB 149, p.322]

asánaamkarak loc. a place name (Map, no. 84): 1009, G753.4, G621.1 [WB 145.4, p.321]

asapatxáxak loc. crack in a rock (T33.60): G621.1; -patxax- not identifiable [WB 145.5,

asapêech rock wall: 1106, G761, G621.9, with irreg. contraction. [WB 145.6, p.321]

asapeech-ípan loc. a place name (Map, no. 72): "end (or top) of a rock wall," 644 [WB 146.6.1,

asápiip black cottonwood tree, Populus trichocarpa (Schenck & Gifford, no. 66): 638 [WB
  150, p.322]

asapítvuunup(a) loc. a place name (Map, no. 1): "new-rock flowing-downriver"; 1155, 1595,
  G753.24, G716 [WB 146.7, p.322]

asápsuun garter snake, Eutaenia sp. (M): "water snake," 116 [WB 145.1, p.321]

asapûuxveenach cliff swallow, Petrochelidon sp. (M): "one which carries earth in its mouth";
  1186, G767, G621.9 [WB 146.8, p.322]

asatáran bedrock; cement: cf. G752.5 [WB 146.9, p.322]

asátuum loc. a place name, Trinidad (a Yurok town) [WB 151, p.322]

asavêehkak loc. a place name, The Three Sisters: "(at) rock standing-on"; 1539, G753.8,
  G761, G621.1 [WB 146.12, p.322]

asavúrik(a) loc. a place name (Map, no. 93): "flowing in under a rock "; 1575.2, G761 [WB
  146.13, p.322]
asaxárahsa uvêehrivirak loc. a place name, Allison's Lodge: "where long rocks stand"; 1602,
  G621.16, G520, 1539.2, G823.2 [WB 146.14, p.322]

asaxêem moss, lichen: "rock-seaweed," 1621 [WB 146.15, p.322]

asaxêevar(a) Baldy Peak: "mossy," G621.2 [from asaxêem „moss‟; WB 146.15.1, p.322]

asáxnahich shallow: G621.9; cf. 229 [from áas „water‟, axrah „dry‟; WB 145.2, p.321]

asaxrát-thuuf loc. Halverson Creek (?): perh. "water-thorn (or -gooseberry) creek"; 145, 233,
  1464 [WB 152, p.322]

asaxus-kútrahar(a) raincoat: "rubber coat," 945.1. [from asáxuus „rubber‟; WB 146.16.1]

asaxus-yukúkuku(h) boot(s): "rubber shoe(s)," 1693 [from asáxuus „rubber‟; WB 146.16.2,

asáxuus soapstone; rubber: "smooth rock," 1640 [WB 146.16, p.322]

asáxvaam loc. a place name (Map, no. 4): perh. "muddy water"; cf. 246 [WB 145.3, p.321]

asaxvanish-ámvaanich water ouzel, Cinclus mexicanus var. unicolor (H). "little moss-eater",
  201.5, G621.9 [WB 153.1, p.322]

asaxvárish moss which grows in the water: 145, G621.10? [WB 153, WB ]

asáxvu(h) turtle; lock (on a door). The extension of meaning is said to be due to the fact that
  old-fashioned padlocks resembled turtle shells. [WB 154, p.322]

asaxvuhpihnîich pers. Old Man Turtle (character in a myth).

asaxyípit quartz: 146? [WB 155, p.322]

asayaayâahar(a) loc. a rock near asánaamkarak rancheria, having the power to cure stutterers:
  "stuttering rock"; 1669, G754.3, G716 [WB 146.17, p.322]

asíktaamnam bucket: "carrying water in"; 513, G753.14, G761 [WB 145.5, p.321]

asiktávaan imxaathtíhan a plant sp.: "that which smells like a woman"; 615, G757, G532 [WB
  145.6.2, p.321]

asiktávaan, asiktâan pers. woman; female (as in musmus-asiktávaan "cattle-female, cow"):
  "water-carrier"; 513, G762 [WB 145.6, p.321]

asiktavan-kêem pers. a woman's name: "homely woman," 868 [WB 145.6.1, p.321]

asimáchish(rih) tp.t. to put to sleep (T24.12): G754.12, G753.3, with irreg. accent. [WB 157.1,

asímchak p.i. to close one's eyes: G752.1 [WB 157.2, p.323]
asimchákchakveenach wren, Troglodytes sp. (M): "little one which repeatedly closes its eyes";
  G740, G767, G621.9 [WB 157.2.1, p.323]

asimváram loc. bed: "sleeping-place"; G751, G766 [WB 157.3, p.323]

ásip bowl basket (O'Neale, p. 36); dish, vessel of any kind. May be used as a classifier.

asip-akramníhaan pers. young boy assisting in the Orleans world-renewal ceremony (Kroeber
  & Gifford, p. 7): "one who reaches into a bowl basket"; 48, G753.13, G762 [WB 156.2, p.323]

asíp-anamahach girl's soup basket (O'Neale, plate 5a): "small bowl basket," 129.1 [WB 156.3,

asip-iyaatakúraam loc. dish cupboard: "dish putting-on place"; 819, G752.4, G766 [WB 156.5,

asip-sarishríhraam loc. dish cupboard: "dish putting-down place"; 1211, G753.3, G766 [WB
  156.6, p.323]

asip-tayhitíhraam loc. dish cupboard: "dish-lying place"; 1361.2, G766 [WB 156.7, p.323]

asip-xaná(h)-anamahach boy's soup basket (O'Neale, plate 5b): "small tall bowl-basket"; 1602,
  129.1 [WB 156.9, p.323]

asip-xánahich a type of basket, used for cooking small quantities: "little tall bowl-basket";
  1602, G621.9 [WB 156.8, p.323]

ásipak loc. place name (Map no. 68): "in a bowl basket," G621.1 [WB 156.1, p. 323]

asipák-thuuf loc. Teneyck Creek: 1464 [WB 156.1.1, p. 323]

asipánaxich snail: "little cooking basket," G621.9 [WB 156.4.1, p.323]

asipárax cooking basket (O'Neale, p. 35) or water basket (ibid., p. 37): 1065? [WB 156.4,

ásiv (v/m) p.i. to sleep [WB 157, p.323]

asiv-tíshraam loc. a place name (Map, no. 32): "cave-clearing," 1391 [WB 158.1, p.323]

askamnáathuuf loc. Five Mile Creek (?): 1464 [WB 159, p.323]

askan-yupthúkirar(a) a legendary animal, identified with the African lion by some informants:
  "water panther"; G621.1, 1698.11 [WB 145.7, p.321]

askup-ámvaan kingfisher: "trout-eater," 201.5 [from askuup „trout‟; WB 160.1, p.323]

askup-tunvêech minnows: "small trout," 1398.1 [from askuup „trout‟; WB 160.2, p.323]

askuup trout [WB 160, p.323]

asmaax towhee, Pipilo maculatus (M) [WB 161, p.323]
ásneepirax pers. a woman's name [WB 162, p.323]

asóohraam stone pipe: 1480.3 [WB 146.18, p.322]

asóokir(a) flume: evidently a contraction from *as-ahóokir (a) "water- going instrument"; 41,
  G754.9, G761 [WB 145.9, p.321]

aspahóokraam loc. a pond at Katimin: 1483 [WB 163, p.323]

astaah duck [WB 165, p.323]

astáamich loc. a place name, part of Katimin: 621.9 [WB 166, p.323]

astah-vôonanach coot, Fulica sp. (M): "little slow-moving duck"; 1563, G754.3, G761, G621.9
  [WB 165.1, p.323]

astáriish quiet, silent [WB 167, p.323]

astiip loc. on the river-bank [WB 168, p.323]

astíipich loc. right on (or by) the river-bank [WB 168, p.323]

astuuk sweat [WB 169, p.323]

astúukha (a/i) p.i. to sweat: G622.1 [WB 169.1, p.323]

asúuxar(a) adj. fasting [WB no.171, p.324]

ásuv p.i. to grumble [WB 170, p.323]

asúviish tp.t. to scold: -iish not identifiable [WB 170.1, p.323]

asúxiim sugar-pine gum; sugar [WB no.172, p.324]

asuxim-paxviríxvir(a) candy: "sugar-sucking"; 1103, G761 [WB no.172.1, p.324]

asuxim-xanahyâach candy cane: "long sugar"; 1602, G621.20 [WB no.172.2, p.324]

asvúfam loc. a place name, the Yurok town of kenek (as recorded in Kroeber, 1925, p. 9) [WB
  no.173, p.324]

asvufám-as a basket design (O'Neale, fig. 16): "kenek rock," 146 [WB no.173.1, p.324]

asvutanámkaam wood-ant: 846; -anam- not identifiable [WB no.174.1, p.324]

asvutxâat red ant: "stinking ant," 1608 [WB no.174.2, p.324]

asvuut ant [WB no.174, p.324]

ásxaay adj. damp; green (of wood); green wood: 145? [WB no.175, p.324]
áta adv. maybe, I suppose (-t- never lengthened). May be used as a qualifier of interrogatives, in
  the sense of "I wonder" (G836.1) [WB no.178, p.324]

atafâat adv. maybe: 350 [WB no.178.1, p.324]

atafâat naa maybe (T3.110): 994 [WB no.178.1.1, p.324]

atáh-iivshur(a) pers. a woman's name [WB no.179, p.324]

atahári adv. always, all the time, for some time, anytime: 377 [WB no.178.2, p.324]

atahárish ~ ataháreesh adv. always: G621.10? [WB no.178.2.1, p.324]

atahnúuxveenach bluebird: G767, G621.9 [WB no.180, p.324]

atahvíchkiinach common geranium, Geranium dissectum (Schenck & Gifford, no. 133): G621.9
  [WB no.181, p.324]

átat p.t. to twist [WB no.182, p.324]

átay salmon eggs, roe: 177? [WB no.183, p.324]

ataychúkinach young brodiaea plant, Brodiaea capitata (H): "little blue, (or green?) salmon-
  eggs"; 1469, G621.9 [WB no.183.1, p.324]

ataychúrip California blackberry, Rubus vitifolius (Schenck & Gifford, no. 113): -chúrip not
  identifiable [WB no.183.2, p.324]

ataynamtunvêech(as) the Pleiades: "small stars," 1418.1 [WB no.184.1, p.324]

atáyraam star [WB no.184, p.324]

atayram-sishxárahar(a) dragonfly: "star having a long penis," 1238, 1602, 764 [WB no.184.2,

atáyxuun salmon roe baked with powdered manzanita berries: "salmon-egg acorn-soup ," 1631
  [WB no.183.3, p.324]

áthan gill [192, p.325]

áthan p.i. to float [WB no.193, p.325]

áthiik adj. cold; cold weather. Idiom: áthiik u-íimti „he feels cold‟ (lit. “he‟s dying of cold”) [WB
  no.196, p.325]

áthiith hazel withe [WB no.197, p.325]

áthip p.t. to wring [WB no.194, p.325]

áthipar(a) wringer: "wringing-instrument"; G754.3, G761 [WB no.194.1, p.325]

áthit trash, bits of refuse [WB no.195, p.325]
athithúf-thuuf loc. Indian Creek: 1464 (from synonym athíthuff „Indian Creek‟ + thúuf „creek‟)
  [WB no.197.2.2, p.325]

athithuf-tíshraam loc. a place name (Map, no. 8): "Indian-Creek clearing," 1391 [WB no.197.2.1,

athithúf-vuunupma loc. a place name, Happy Camp (Map, no. 9): 1575, G753.24, G753.10,
  G761? [WB no.197.2.3, p.325]

athíthuuf loc. Indian Creek: "hazel-withe creek," 1464 [WB no.197.2, p.325]

athithxuntápan hazelnut: "hazel-withe acorn," 1631.1 [from áthiith „hazel withe‟; WB no.197.1,

athkúrit fat, grease [WB no.199, p.325]

athkurit-ámvaan gray jay, Perisoreus sp. (M): "grease-eater," 201.5 [WB no.199.1, p.325]

athkuritárahiv(a) loc. hunting season (T72.3): G621.2, G754.1, G761? -ahiv is normally added
  only to verbs. [WB no.199.2, p.325]

áthkuun throat [WB no.198, p.325]

átimnam 'pack basket,' burden basket (O'Neale, pp. 32-33); may be used as a classifier, in the
  sense of "basketful": "carrying in," G753.14, G761. The locative is átimnavak or, irregularly,
  átimnak. [WB no.187.1, p.325]

atípiim(a) carrion, rotten meat [WB no.185, p.324]

atipimáamvaan buzzard: "carrion-eater," 201.5 [WB no.185.1, p.324]

átish back meat of salmon: 690? G621.10? [WB no.177.2, p.324]

átish grand-relative through a man; i.e., father's father, father's mother, father's uncle, father's
  aunt, son's son, son's daughter, nephew's son, or nephew's daughter [WB no.186, p.324]

atishpíyaan great-grand-relative through a man; i.e., father's grandparent's-sibling, son's or
  nephew's grandchild: G614.10 [WB no.186.1, p.324]

atíshuuf back meat of salmon: 1250 [cf. átish „back meat‟; súuf „backbone‟; WB no.177.2.1,

atíshvaas grand-relative through a deceased man; i.e., parent or parent's-sibling of a dead father,
  child of a dead son or nephew: G614.9 [WB no.186.2, p.325]

átiv(a) burden-basket load (used as a classifier): G761 [WB no.187.4, p.325]

átiv (v/m) p.t. to carry (things which lie in a mass, like acorns) in a burden basket. Derivatives
  show two irreg. alternants: átivu- as in the durative átivutih; and áati-, as in aatífuruk "to carry
  indoors" (G753.2) [WB no.187, p.325]
ativákir a) packsaddle: "carrying-instrument"; G754.9, G761 [WB no.187.5, p.325]

atmahavníkaanich a flower, baby-blue-eyes, Nemophila menziesii (Schenck & Gifford, no.
  195): "little one that sees spring salmon coming"; 956.1, G762, G621.9 [WB no.177.1, p.324]

átpii(h) rib [WB no.188, p.325]

átraax arm [WB no.189, p.325]

atrax-ípan loc. shoulder: "arm-end," 644 [WB no.189.1, p.325]

átruup palm of the hand [WB no.190, p.325]

átvaax collarbone [WB no.191, p.325]

av (v/m) p.t. to eat [WB no.201, p.325]

áv-iish cheek: "face-flesh," 690 [WB no.202.2, p.326]

áva food: "eating," G761 [WB no.201.6, p.326]

ávaha food: "being eaten"; G755, G761 [WB no.201.7, p.326]

avaheeknívnaamich loc. pantry: "little food-house"; 493.4, G621.9 [WB no.201.7.1]

ávahkam loc. on top: "above-side," G621.11 [WB no.203.1, p.326]

avahkám-vaas waist (i.e., the upper part) of a dress: "top-blanket," 1526 [WB no.203.1.1,

avahkam-yukúku(h) rubber(s): "top-shoe(s)," 1693 [WB no.203.1.2, p.326]

ávak above (used only as a postpound) [WB no.203, p.326]

ávan husband [WB no.205, p.326]

ávanha (a/i) tp.t. (a woman) to marry: G622.1 [WB no.205.1, p.326]

avanháhiich common-law husband: G761, G614.2 [WB no.205.1.1, p.326]

ávansa pers. man (i.e., an adult human male): cf. 205 [WB no.206, p.326]

avansa-pírish a plant sp., having seeds which adhere to clothing; used by men for love
  medicine: "man-medicine," 1148 [WB no.206.1, p.326]

avansáxiich pers. boy (of pre-pubertal age): perh. "man-child"; 223, with irreg.
  morphophonemics. The plural is avansáxiitichas. [WB no.206.2, p.326]

ávar (r/n) p.t. to go (in order to) get: G754.2 [WB no.207, p.326]

ávax red mud: cf. 215 [WB no.208, p.326]
avax-íshraam loc. a place name (Map, no. 2): "red-mud deer lick," 689.3 [WB no.208.1, p.326]

avêep tp.2t. to take (something) away from (someone): G754.4? [WB no.209, p.326]

ávik(a) p.t. to carry (a light object): G751 [WB no.210, p.326]

avkam-ahóovaan pers. the senior priestess in the world-renewal ceremonies at Katimin and
  Orleans (Kroeber & Gifford, p. 7): "ahead-walker"; 41, G751, G762 [WB no.202.3.1, p.326]

ax tp.t. (animal) to rend with the teeth; to kill. Often translated "to bite," but not used of
  humans, snakes, or insects. [WB no.214, p.326]

axaa-íppan loc. a place name, part of Katimin rancheria: "cliff-top," 644 [WB no.220.1.1,

áxaak loc. cliff: G761, G621.1 [WB no.220.1, p.327]

axaasúruk loc. a place name (Map, no. 37): "under a cliff," 1248.3 [WB no.220.1.2, p.327]

axaavúrik(a) loc. a place name (Map, no. 94): "flowing in under a cliff"; 1575.2, G761 [WB
  no.220.1.3, p.327]

áxak adv. two [WB no.217, p.327]

axak-ivrávapu(h) twins: "two-born": 796, G763 [WB no.217.5, p.327]

áxakhan adv. the second month of the Karok year: G621.5 [WB no.217.1, p.327]

áxakiich adv. just two: G621.9 [WB no.217.2, p.327]

axakinívki(ha) adv. seven: cf. 494 [WB no.217.3, p.327]

axakitráhyar adv. twenty: "two-tens," 755. The combining form is xakitahara-. [WB no.217.4,

axáktak forked-horn buck, i.e., a deer with two points on eachhorn: "two-point," 1275 [WB
  no.217.6, p.327]

axaktíki(h) ring finger: perh. "two-finger"; cf. 1375 [WB no.217.7, p.327]

axákyaan adv. twice: G614. l 1 [WB no.217.8, p.327]

axarívish loc. a place name (Map, no. 25): G621.10? [WB no.218, p.327]

áxaska adj. thin (of persons): G761 [WB no.219.1, p.327]

áxaska s.i. (a person) to be thin; to lose weight [WB no.219, p.327]

áxav/ a.i. to collapse, used esp. of earth, as in áxavsur(u) "(earth) to cave off" (G753.27) [WB
  no.220, p.327]

áxay tp.2t. to take (something) from (someone) [WB no.221, p.327]
axaychákish(rih) tp.t. to grab, seize, catch: G752.1, G753.3 [WB no.221.1, p.327]

axáythip p.t. to rinse [WB no.222, p.327]

axichavaaxvâax pers. crybaby: -vaaxvaax not identifiable [WB no.223.1, p.327]

axichaxus-éethaan pers. nurse for children: "child care-taker": 1638. 1.5, G762 [WB no.223.2,

axicheekrívraam loc. womb: "child-house," 493.4 [WB no.223.3, p.327]

axiich(a) child: man's brother's child: G621.9? The dimin. is axíitich. [WB no.223, p.327]

axímpaah blood vessel: "blood-path," 585 [WB no.215.2, p.327]

axímtup(a) blood clot: 601, G761 [WB no.215.3, p.327]

axmay adv. suddenly [WB no.224, p.327]

axmáy-ik, axméek suddenly; at one moment (T4.114, T20.11): 437, with irreg. contraction in the
  second alternant [WB no.224.1, p.327]

axmúhishanach a type of grass: G621.9 [WB no.225, p.327]

axnatsínihich snow berry, Symphoricarpus albus; also identified as Draperia systyla (Schenck &
  Gifford, no's. 196 and 217): "little shiny-thorn"; 1235, G621.9 [WB no.233.1, p.328]

áxooni(ha) landslide: "collapsing down": G753.30, G761 [WB no.220.2, p.327]

axpa(ha) headdress [WB no.226, p.327]

axpaheekníkinaanach a flower, the 'fawn-lily' or adder's tongue, Erythronium sp. (Schenck &
  Gifford, p. 390): perh. "little headdress-attaching instrument"; 486, G754.9 (with haplology),
  G761, G621.9 [WB no.226.1, p.327]

axpi(h) nail (of finger or toe) [WB no.227, p.327]

áxpuum meadow mouse, Microtus sp. (M) [WB no.228, p.328]

axra(ha) dead tree: cf. 806 (in reference to dryness) [WB no.229, p.328]

axraan foot, paw or hoof of an animal; track(s) [WB no.230, p.328]

axraas gopher [WB no.231, p.328]

axraat thorn; gooseberry, Ribes roezlii var. cruentum (Schenck & Gifford, no. 107). [WB
  no.233, p.328]

axrahasávish loc. a place name (Map, no. 24): "dead-tree flowing-down"; 1220, G753.3, G761.
  The combining form is axrahasávishriha-. [WB no.229.1, p.328]
axráspuuf a plant, Crepis acuminata (Schenck and Gifford, no. 221): cf. 231 [WB no.232, p.328]

axrátip thorn bush, gooseberry bush: 638 [WB no.233.2, p.328]

axrúhi(h) 'Indian purse,' an elkhorn case for holding small objects [WB no.234, p.328]

axrukuxrúku(h) a.i. to rattle: G740 [WB no.235, p.328]

áxruuh gray squirrel [WB no.236, p.328]

axtha(h) mussel [WB no.237, p.328]

áxthaay ground squirrel [WB no.238, p.328]

áxu(h) p.i. to cough [WB no.239, p.328]

axuh-áxu (h) p.i. to have tuberculosis: 740 [WB no.239.1, p.328]

áxup dressed deermeat: G761 [WB no.240.1, p.328]

áxup/ p.i. to put dressed deermeat; used with directionals, as in áxuprupri (h) "to put dressed
  deermeat in through" (G753.22) [WB no.240, p.328]

axvâah head [WB no.242, p.328]

axvâaha (a/i) p.i. to have one's head pointing; used with directionals, as in axvâahiroov (u) vu
  "to lie with one's head pointing upriver" (G753.19): G622.1 [WB no.242.1, p.328]

axvâahara pitch-wood, i.e., wood containing pitch; candle: an irreg. contraction of axváhahara
  "pitchy," which also occurs; G621.2 1. axvaaharaathkúrit kerosene: "candle-grease," 199 [WB
  no.241.1, p.328]

axvâahuuni(h) a.i. to go down head first (T9.51): G753.30, with irreg. morphophonemics [WB
  no.242.1.1, p.328]

axvaam acorn of the Oregon oak, Quercus garryana (Schenck & Gifford, no. 70) [WB no.245,

axváamha (a/i) a.i. to be muddy: G622.1; cf. 145.3 [WB no.246, p.328]

áxvaay 'crane,' i.e., the great blue heron, Ardea herodias (M) [WB no.247, p.328]

axváha pitch (as of the pine) [WB no.241, p.328]

axváhich loc. a place name (Map, no. 54): G621.9 [WB no.243, p.328]

axvahihyákuri(ha) gravestone: "head sticking-in"; 433.1, G761 [WB no.242.2, p.328]

axváhkan sick [WB no.243, p.328]

axváhtaahkoo blond: "white-head," 1273.2 [WB no.242.3, p.328]
axváhxuus bald: "smooth-head," 1640 [WB no.242.4, p.328]

axvêep Oregon oak tree: 638, with irreg. contraction [WB no.245.1, p.328]

axvêev loc. Dillon Mountain: perh. "crane-house"; 247, 789 [WB no.248, p.328]

axvíthin dirty (perh. only in the sense of "morally unclean," as in T52.17) [WB no.249, p.328]

axvithíni(h) grave; graveyard: cf. 249 [WB no.250, p.328]

axvíthirar(a) adj. dirty (physically): G621.2 [WB no.249.1, p.328]

axvuh down, fuzz [WB no.251, p.328]

axyámsurip Western azalea, Rhododendron occidentale (Schenck & Gifford, no. 176): 1259 [WB
  no.252, p.329]

axyamsurip-shúruk loc. a place name (Map, no. 97): "under an azalea," 1248.3 [WB no.252.1,

axyámthirit cicada [WB no.253, p.329]

axyar(a) adj. full: G761 [WB no.254.1, p.329]

axyar (r/n) a.i. (contents) to fill (a container) [WB no.254, p.329]

axyúsip digger pine tree: 638 [WB no.255.1, p.329]

axyuus nut of the digger pine, Pinus sabiniana (Schenck & Gifford, no. 16): 1500? [WB no.255,

ay tp.t. to be afraid of [WB no.256, p.329]

áyan (flat-)iron: from English [WB no.258, p.329]

áyiith, ayíthriim loc. a place name, Eyese Bar (Map, no. 55) [WB no.259, p.329]

ayípan grapevine: "grape-top," 644 [from aay „grape‟, WB no.257.1, p.329]

ayu-âach, aayâach, eeyâach adv. it was because ...: 260, G621.9? [WB no.261, p.329]

ayukîi interj. hello! Used when meeting a person, and also to address a distant person or place
  which is thought of nostalgically (T4.145). The word is said to have been introduced by whites,
  who probably took it from Wiyot ai-e-kwe, ai-o-kwe "friend" (as given in Powers, p. 479). [WB
  no.262, p.329]

ayúu interj. exclamation used to revoke a slip of the tongue [WB no.260, p.329]

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