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           Contents



                Contributors                                                  ix

           1 The Nucleus – An Overview                                        1
                Dean A. Jackson
                1.1 Introduction                                               1
                1.2 The gene expression pathway in mammalian cells             2
                1.3 Chromosome structure and DNA loops                         9
                1.4 Duplicating the genetic code                               9
                1.5 Nuclear compartmentalization                              10
                1.6 Nuclear architecture – implications for viral infection   18
                1.7 Conclusion                                                19
                References                                                    20

           2 The Eukaryotic Cell Cycle                                        25
                Jane V. Harper and Gavin Brooks
                2.1 Introduction                                              25
                2.2 The G0/G1 transition                                      31
                2.3 The G1–S transition                                       32
                2.4 S phase                                                   39
                2.5 The G2–M transition                                       45
                2.6 Mitosis (M-phase)                                         48
                2.7 Cytokinesis                                               52
                2.8 Endoreduplication                                         53
                2.9 Summary and conclusions                                   53
                References                                                    54

           3 DNA Viruses and the Nucleus                                      69
                G. Eric Blair and Nicola James
                3.1 Introduction                                              69
                3.2 The structure of the nucleus                              70
                3.3 DNA viruses and the nucleus                               75
                3.4 Concluding comments and future directions                 81
                References                                                    81
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          vi                                           CONTENTS

          4 Retroviruses and the Nucleus                                              89
               Carlos de Noronha and Warner C. Greene
               4.1 Retroviral structure                                               91
               4.2 The retroviral life cycle                                          91
               4.3 Entering the nucleus                                               93
               4.4 Inside the nucleus                                                101
               4.5 Leaving the nucleus and the cell                                  113
               4.6 Future perspectives                                               114
               References                                                            114

          5 Negative-sense RNA Viruses and the Nucleus                               129
               Debra Elton and Paul Digard
               5.1 Introduction                                                      129
               5.2 The necessity of a nucleus                                        132
               5.3 Nuclear import machinery                                          133
               5.4 The cellular transcription machinery                              135
               5.5 Nuclear architecture                                              140
               5.6 Nuclear export                                                    143
               5.7 Evasion of innate antiviral responses                             147
               References                                                            148

          6 Positive-strand RNA Viruses and the Nucleus                              161
               Kurt E. Gustin and Peter Sarnow
               6.1  Introduction                                                     161
               6.2  Replication of positive-strand RNA viruses in enucleated cells   162
               6.3  Localization of viral proteins to the nucleus                    163
               6.4  Interaction of nuclear factors with viral proteins
                     and nucleic acids                                               165
               6.5 Cytoplasmic accumulation of nuclear proteins
                     during infection                                                168
               6.6 Disruption of nucleo-cytoplasmic trafficking
                     by positive-strand RNA viruses                                  169
               6.7 Advantages provided to the virus by inhibiting nuclear import     172
               6.8 Conclusions                                                       175
               References                                                            178

          7 Viruses and the Nucleolus                                                185
               David A. Matthews and Julian A. Hiscox
               7.1 Introduction                                                      185
               7.2 Techniques used to examine the nucleolus                          191
               7.3 Nucleolar localization signals (NoLS)                             191
               7.4 Viral interactions with the nucleolus                             192
               7.5 The nucleolus, viruses and autoimmunity                           201
               7.6 Summary                                                           202
               References                                                            202
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                                                       CONTENTS               vii

           8 Virus Interactions with PML Nuclear Bodies                      213
                Keith N. Leppard and John Dimmock
                8.1 Introduction                                             213
                8.2 ND10 in uninfected cells                                 213
                8.3 Functions of ND10                                        217
                8.4 ND10 and virus infection                                 219
                8.5 Why do viruses interact with and modify ND10?            232
                References                                                   235

           9 Viruses and the Cell Cycle                                      247
                Crisanto Gutierrez, Brian Dove and Julian A. Hiscox
                9.1 Introduction: an overview of the eukaryotic cell cycle   247
                9.2 DNA viruses and the cell cycle                           249
                9.3 Retroviruses and the cell cycle                          254
                9.4 RNA viruses and the cell cycle                           255
                9.5 Viruses, the nucleolus and cell cycle control            259
                9.6 Viral interaction with activator protein-1 (AP-1)        259
                9.7 Summary                                                  260
                References                                                   262

                Index                                                        271
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