July 2007 - Blacksmith Guild of Viriginia - Home by tyndale

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									                                                                                         July, 2007



      The Virginian
                                                                                         Volume 2, Issue 7




             Blacksmith Guild of Virginia, 309 Second Avenue, Farmville, Virginia 23901
                               http://www.blacksmithguildofva.com
                                        Sarah Tanner Anderson, Editor

                                                           drying time for their oil paints, so is available at
Preserving Our Pieces                                      many art supply stores. The beeswax can be
Waxes, Finishes, and Other Useful Concoctions              obtained from a local beekeeper, beekeeper supply
                                                           shops, or blacksmith supply companies.
 Submitted by you, our members
                                                                         Mixing the Ingredients
 Compiled by Sarah Tanner Anderson, Editor
                                                           Put all the ingredients into a glass quart jar; put the
In the June newsletter, I requested submissions for        lid on with the retaining ring very loose. A metal can
member’s favorite tried-and-true concoctions –             may be used, but it needs a tightly fitting cover.
from waxes to fluxes and everything in between.            Either set up a double boiler or set next to your
With overwhelming responses, I must thank                  forge to get the mixture to melt. Do not put directly
everyone who contributed to make this a                    on the heat source and watch out for open flames.
                                                           Once the ingredients are melted, tighten the lid ring
successful and informative newsletter. Enjoy
                                                           and shake like crazy until all the wax is dissolved
these tips from your fellow smiths, and then get           and is a homogenous mix. As it cools, it will become
out to your forges and try ‘em out!                        a soft paste. Keep the lid on when not in use.
 Doug Merkel: Wax for All Seasons                                           Metal Preparation
 A significant portion of my work deals with the           Remove all scale with a power wire brush or by
 repairs and reproduction of antique ironwork. Most        hand. If you want a dark finish, remove the scale at
 of my customers want a natural finish that looks old,     a dull red and let the metal air cool until you can
 protects the metal and can be touched up if needed        just handle it with your bare hands. For a brighter
 without lots of work or fancy chemicals. To meet          finish, use a power wire brush and remove all the
 their needs, I have modified a few formulas that          scale while the metal is cold, then apply enough
 have been around for sometime into one that works         heat until you can just hold it in your hand.
 for me and my customers. For some of the larger                                Application
 jobs, I leave a small container of the wax for use by     Apply the mixture with a brush, your fingers, or with
 the customer. It wears well inside and does quite         a small rag. The heat will melt the mix and it will
 well outside, if applied correctly. I have a piece of     run into every nook and cranny. Let it cool and buff
 ironwork with this finish that has been out in the        out with a rag. If you let the excess mix stay on the
 elements for over a year without rusting.                 iron, it will eventually harden, but every place that
          1 cup Johnson's Paste Wax                        has excess will show up as a bright spot. A second
          1 cup Boiled Linseed Oil                         coat can be added to heighten the luster while the
          1 cup Turpentine                                 metal is cold. Just remember to buff off the excess
          1/2 cup Shaved/pieces of Beeswax                 with a cloth.
          2 tbsp. Japan Dryer
 The first three ingredients can be obtained at most              First appeared in the March 1996 Appalachian
 any hardware store, such as Lowe’s, Home Depot,                  Area Blacksmith Assn. Newsletter.
 etc. The Japan Dryer is used by artists to speed the
                                                                  http://www.appaltree.net/aba/education/techni
                                    (Continued       )            cal/finishes/wax%20finish.htm
   Blacksmith Guild of Virginia                                                                Page 2

       Brian Gilbert: Renaissance Wax                  Molly Schaffnit & George Monk:
                                                       Wax Finish for Ironwork
                                                       (http://members.citynet.net/sootypaws/)

                                                       The following articles appeared in the June 2003
                                                       issue of the Appalachian Blacksmiths Association
                                                       newsletter.

                                                       Wax Finish, By Molly Schaffnit
                                                       Our finish recipe is derived from the one in
                                                       Andrew's Edge of the Anvil:
                                                               3 or 4 oz. by weight of beeswax plus
                                                               8 oz. by volume of raw linseed oil.
The wax is easy.... just remember 3 to 1... that's             Johnson's paste wax is used for the final
three parts microcrystalline wax to one part poly              waxing.
AC (or "polythene A," if you get it from a
                                                       Since we apply our finish hot, we use raw
conservator's supply place). Melt together
OUTDOORS using a hot plate... Don't use an open        linseed oil. Boiled linseed oil uses heavy metal
flame; it's very flammable when melted. Add            driers. We prefer not to breathe those fumes.
"white spirit" to the melted mix and stir to get       The piece is heated (just warm, not too hot) and
the consistency desired. Odorless mineral spirits      the wax is applied with a mop (made of a piece
is a close substitute for white spirit... it's a       of rag wrapped around a stick and held with
higher-grade than plain paint thinner. I bought        wire) or the piece is just dipped in.
my wax from a company called Genwax, but be            After cooling the piece is wiped off and set
sure to co-op with other blacksmiths to split an       aside for two days or so. After the finish is fairly
order...                                               dry we apply a final waxing with Johnson's paste
I've got more than I'll ever need (the micro wax       wax. The solvents in the paste wax dissolve any
comes in a 10-lb slab...I've had the best luck
                                                       clumps of beeswax and the final finish is smooth
cutting it with a sharp, clean wood chisel). This
finish might not be an exact duplicate of              and attractive after buffing.
renaissance wax, but it's pretty close. It can be      This is a very durable finish for indoor use. It
applied hot or cold... museum conservators like        will stand for a year or more exposure in a
it because it's PH- neutral, unlike beeswax. It        protected area like a porch outdoors.
also seems to cure out to a harder finish... it has
a less "sticky" feeling than a beeswax finish. I've
                                                        Randy Cox: Colorful Finish for Copper Pieces
even experimented with it on paper... it goes on
with minimal discoloration. Try it – it's fun stuff.               (used at his demo at
                                                            Yesteryear Forge Hammer-In 2006)
                                                                                I use about a cup of
Lance Davis: Welding Flux                                                       twenty mule team to
                                                                                two gallons of water.
As for welding flux, here is my story. I took                                   Heat the copper to
a class a couple years ago with Roberta                                         cherry red and
Elliott at John C Campbell Folk School. She                                     instantly dip into the
instructed the class that she would teach us                                    borax mixture. By
how to make a forge weld before everyone                                        altering the level of
else told us how hard it is and you can't do                                    heat, you can change
it. She used Boric acid (roach powder) and                                      the intensity of the
Red Iron Oxide (rust) 50/50 mix and                                             red color that you
everyone did a successful forge weld.                                           get.
   Blacksmith Guild of Virginia                                                         Page 3

Robb Gunter: "Super Quench"                                  Bob Rowe: Satin Finish
5 gal water
5 lb Salt
32 oz Dawn (blue) dishwashing liquid (28 oz
if it says "concentrated" on the label)
8oz Shaklee Basic I* or 7oz UNSCENTED Jet-
Dry or other surfactant (like Simple Green)
of appropriate quantity for 5 gal mix
(wetting agents)

The Jet-Dry (or whatever you use for a
rinse agent) does something chemically to
the surface of the steel. It allows the salt
in the mix to start attacking it as soon as it
hits the air - make sure you have a LOT of
clear water to rinse in ready at hand.
These surfactants are wetting agents. They       Here is a technique I use for leaving a satin
break down the surface tension of water          finish on iron or steel. I place the items in a
allowing it to make contact with a               small cement mixer inside a 5 gallon bucket
material. We've all dipped a cold piece of       with a lid securely in place. Along with the
metal in water and seen a bubble-like            items in the bucket you need to put in case
"skin" form with dry metal under it. This is     harden nails (cut concrete type). Tumble the
surface tension trapping a layer of air; it      items until fire scale is removed (about 15 or
makes a fair heat shield. In a quench,           20 minutes). The next step is to have another
steam will form a similar surface "skin" and     5 gal bucket with Sphagnum moss (used to
prevent full contact with the water,             absorbed oil spills). This when tumbled with
insulating the steel from a proper chill.        the iron or steel items encapsulates the scale
Wetting agents prevent the "skin" from           dust leaving them with a great satin finish.
forming. Detergents do a somewhat similar        Dust free.
job; they're emulsifiers allowing oils and
water to mix. This prevents any oily
residues from the fire from forming a "heat      Mike Gillespie: Rust Finish
shield" surface layer. The salt in the water
raises the specific heat of the water and        If you want an almost "instant" rust effect, Jax
draws the heat from the steel faster.            Chemical Company sells a product called
                                                 Antique Rust (http://www.Jaxchemical.com). It
Stir it up to get it moving before you           is made of Ammonium Chloride. You can see it
quench. Don't quench anything with more          take effect on clean metal almost overnight,
than 45- 50 points of carbon. Will harden        but a few extra days is even better.
mild steel to Rockwell 42-45 (in spite of
common wisdom that says you can't harden         They also have other finishes and products
mild steel).                                     available for different metals. I've used the
                                                 green patina on copper and it works best if
It's color coded - when you've exhausted         you sand blast the copper first.
the usefulness of the quench, it'll shift
color from blue to green.
      Blacksmith Guild of Virginia                                                            Page 4

   Peyton Anderson: Cheap Alternatives                                I was getting close to finishing the
      1. Wal-Mart .96 cent flat black and satin clear         blower up when I noticed I missed a spot
         spray paint                                          where the fan housing meets the gear box
      2. Power wire brush at a gray heat to achieve a         (Champion hand cranked blower). I had
         blue-black finish then spray on a clear coat of      squeezed the brush down into the corner
         paint.                                               to clean it out when the wire brush had
      3. Use a brass brush made for cleaning grills to        enough – it decided to leave my hands and
         put a slight brass patina on a piece. Brush at a     try to take a break on the ground.
         gray heat. The more you brush the “brassier”         Unfortunately I was between it and the
         it gets.                                             ground. In a heartbeat, I had a very
                                                              powerful power wire brush mangled and
      4. Throw some green coal on the fire and allow
                                                              tangled in my shirt, dead-center in the
         the piece to be consumed in the smoke. Roll it
                                                              middle of my chest. I was surprised to say
         around and cover the whole thing is soot. Then       the least. I have had wire brushes hop and
         apply your sealer coat of wax or paint.              bump around while working but this was
                                                              the first time it actually left my hands.
   I know we missed a few things that you use. Let us         This was also the first time I did not wear
   know what we left out and we can add it to the             my full front apron. Luckily I had two shirts
   formula sheet to come out in a later issue of the          on. My top shirt had a hole in the front big
   newsletter.                                                enough to stick my head through. I went
                                                              and got my apron and finished the job.
                                                                      I am always hearing about safety
                                                              from things I am reading in books and on
 President’s Corner                                           internet forums. I also hear a lot from the
                                                              blacksmiths I have seen demo and in class I
By Peyton Anderson, President                                 have taken. Some of it I think is over kill
                                                              but there are some basics that we can all
 When Power Wire Brushes Attack!                              use to keep us safe. The two big ones are
                                                              safety glasses and wearing the right
 I recently switched out blowers on my forge. The new         clothing for the job. Whether that means
 blower was bought at Quad State last year and was near       wearing steel toed shoes, aprons, or work
 perfect except for all the years of rust and crud. I         gloves. Anything has the potential to harm
 decided to pull out the power wire brush and clean her       you if used in the wrong way or if laziness
 up to get ready for the installation and a new coat of       gets in the way. I was lazy. I knew what
 paint.                                                       could happen, and knew what I should
                                                              have been wearing but failed. It brought
 Maybe now is a good time to add that this was not my         something to my attention about general
 first time wire brushing. One of my main responsibilities    safety rules and advice. The things we are
 is wire brushing, and I actually enjoy it.                   hearing about are not due to the everyday
                                                              injuries of people doing the job and having
 Back to the story… I pulled out the saw horses and a short   freak accidents. We are hearing about
 sheet of plywood and made a table outside. There was a       people who knew better or were too lazy
 breeze blowing, and I wanted to use that to carry away       to take the proper steps to avoid an
 the dust and debris I was about to create. I also grabbed    accident. Laziness is much more dangerous
 my safety glasses off the desk. I plugged everything in,     than ignorance. Lets all persevere to keep
 slapped on my safety glasses, and got down to work.          both out of our shops by knowing the
                                                              equipment and taking the time needed to
                                      (Continued      )       be safe.
    Blacksmith Guild of Virginia                                                                  Page 5


July Spotlight: Dick Nietfeld, Shady Grove
Blacksmith Shop
By Sarah Tanner Anderson, Editor

This month, we would like to recognize Dick Nietfeld, our August
demonstrator. He will be demonstrating, as well as representing
Refflinghaus anvils at Yesteryear Forge on August 18th.


 I began metal and woodworking in my fathers shop as a youngster, but not forging. I began electric
 and acetylene welding in approximately 1980. At that time, my first passion was woodworking with
 hand tools. I collected a few antique woodworking tools and noticed that many plane blades and
 chisels were made by blacksmiths or at least by blacksmith methods. Therefore, in about 1990, I
 borrowed a rivet forge to try my luck at fixing some of those old tools. In 1992, I attended the BAM
 Ozark Conference and became hooked on blacksmithing. I took the first class Uri Hofi held in the USA
 which gave me much needed basics. I attended classes with instructors such as Peter Ross, Bob
 Patrick, Tom Ryan, Frank Turley and others. I also watched hundreds of demonstrations by
 blacksmiths all over the world. I blacksmith one or two days a week, making items of all kinds as
 requested by customers who have found my web page– www.blksmth.com. As of last August, I began
 selling the Ernst Refflinghaus premium line of anvils primarily as a service to blacksmiths in the USA,
 but also to keep in touch with the blacksmith community and hopefully make a little money. I was
 and am a believer that no other anvils live up to the quality of the Refflinghaus.

 Blacksmithing Opportunities:                                August 11th: The Old Dominion Horse Show,
                                                             sponsored by the Virginia Draft Horse and
 Bent Oaks (created by JoAnn Bentley and Lance               Mule Association, will be held August 11,
 Davis) have been purveyors of fine junk for over 15         2007 in Warrenton, VA. We anticipate more
 years. As members of many blacksmith guilds on the          than 100 entries and 1000 spectators at our
 East Coast, Bent Oaks is expanding to offer the             show. If there is a craftsman interested in
 public the unique items that only a Blacksmith
                                                             selling their products at our show, please
 Craftsman can create.
          Bent Oaks Blacksmith Shoppe opened its
                                                             contact Deb Cooper - 703-249-0068 or
 doors April 2, 2007 at 135 East Main Street in              Woida@aol.com. For more information,
 Jonesborough, TN. Dedicated to preserving the craft         here's the link-
 of the Blacksmith, Bent Oaks will offer to the public,      http://www.vdhma.org/OldDominionShow.h
 quality hand-crafted metal products created by our          tml.
 local, state and regional Blacksmiths.
          We are actively seeking your original,
 creative designs to display (and sell) at our historic      August 11th: Jamestown Celebration in
 storefront. There are no fees or commission charges         Buckingham, VA.
 associated with this service, but we will add a
 percentage to cover our overhead .We now have
 blacksmiths from 5 states displaying and selling their
 works at our Blacksmith Shoppe.
        If you are interested in publicizing your works,
 please contact us at Sales@bentoaks.org or 423-913-
 1015. - Lance Davis                                         The Blacksmith Guild of Virginia is participating
                                                             in America’s 400th Anniversary Celebration –
                                                             more information on page 6!
Blacksmith Guild of Virginia                                                                 Page 6


    August 11th: Jamestown Celebration in Buckingham, VA.
                                  We are still looking for 1-2 blacksmiths who are willing
                                  to spend the day in Buckingham's Historic Village to
                                  represent the Guild and spread the awareness for this
                                  wonderful craft. We can all share a forge or you can
                                  bring your own; it is up to you. The forges MUST be hand
                                  cranked. The guild will provide an EZ-Up tent, table, a
                                  couple of chairs, and a cooler of waters and sodas. This
                                  is a wonderful opportunity to get out and have some fun
                                  with other smiths while demonstrating and representing
                                  the Guild. Contact Peyton Anderson at 434-390-6203 or
                                  president@blacksmithguildofva.com He is heading up
    this event and will be demonstrating along with Vice President John Riddle. Come and
    enjoy the day with us and maybe hit something hot for some passing kids.

    Powhatan County is looking for a few blacksmiths in the area to demonstrate at some
    point during their County Fair August 15-19. There is a forge onsite that was built
    years ago with bellows. There is a small farrier’s anvil on site also. There has not been
    a fire in the forge in a good long while, but if you are interested, the Guild will ensure
    the forge is usable before the demo date. They are also trying to make it possible for a
    blacksmith to be on hand from time to time to demo for school groups and tours.
    Please contact me if you are interested. Peyton Anderson 434-390-6203 or
    president@blacksmithguildofva.com


    The Blacksmith Guild of Virginia is now a proud member of The Artist
    Blacksmith Association of North America. With so much going on in the Guild
    recently, it is important we show our support to our national father-figure, so
    to speak, ABANA. The Artist Blacksmith Association of North America, as
    detailed on the organization’s web site:
                           ABANA is a non-profit organization directed by a board of
                           15 members who serve voluntarily as officers and on
                           committees. The resolutions by the board determine the
                           services to be provided within an annual budget. The
                           operations and publications staff of ABANA delivers
  THE BLACKSMITH
                           services as contractors or employees. Thirty years ago,
 GUILD OF VIRGINIA IS
    NOW A PROUD
                           the Artist-Blacksmith's Association of North America, Inc.
   MEMBER OF THE           began with only twenty blacksmiths who had a vision.
 ARTIST BLACKSMITH         Their vision has unfolded with a membership that has
  ASSOCIATION OF           grown to over 5,000 strong. The resurgence of the "lost"
  NORTH AMERICA!           art of blacksmithing is unmistakably evident.
                           (http://www.abana.org/business/about_abana.shtml)

    As a Guild, it is important to be advocates for our trade. We encourage you
    to join ABANA.                                - Sarah Tanner Anderson, Editor

                    To find out how to join ABANA, visit
                    http://www.abana.org/membership/index.shtml.
    Blacksmith Guild of Virginia                                                            Page 7

The Slacktub (Upcoming Events)
By Sarah Tanner Anderson, Editor

 August Meeting
                                                   DON'T FORGET SOMETHING FOR IRON IN THE
 Date:                             th
                       August 18 , 2007            HAT and a chair!

 Time:                 10:00 am to 3:00 pm         Directions:
                       Lunch provided                   From 360 east or west turn across from
                                                        Goodman Truck & Tractor onto
 Location:             Yesteryear Forge                 business 360. Go to the first road on
                       15421 Five Forks Road            your right and turn right. Continue to
                       Amelia, Virginia 23002           the stop sign and STOP. Then go
                                                        straight through the intersection and
 Demonstrator:         Dick Neitfeld,
                                                        proceed approximately 2 miles.
                       Shady Grove Blacksmith
                       Shop
                                                        Yesteryear Forge is on the right up on
                                                        a hill – look for a brick house and a
 Dick Nietfeld will be delivering Mike Tanner’s         black anvil sign in the front yard.
 new anvil which is over 1200lbs. of cast tool
 steel! Dick is also a master at making jigs and   ***Be careful with directions from MapQuest – they
 fixtures and will be discussing his shovel        will send you through the town of Amelia, which
 mold jig along with other great ideas and         is extremely confusing! ***
 projects. His wife will also be there selling
 her handmade brooms. This is one meeting
                                                   Please RSVP as soon as possible so that
 you shouldn’t miss! For such a high-caliber       the Tanners may purchase enough food
 blacksmith sharing his ideas and secrets and      for all! 
 to see the one of the largest cast steel anvils
 in The United States – we hope to see you         Reminders: IRON IN THE HAT!!! Make sure you bring
 there!                                            something for IITH and money for tickets. The Guild
                                                   will provide coffee, pastries, and drinks at EVERY
 Dick will be bringing along a few anvils for      event with a donation jar, please donate if you
                                                   partake! The IITH and Donation Jar will help raise the
 sale as well. If you have been waiting for
                                                   money needed for demonstrators and future
 the chance to buy a top-notch anvil, this is      scholarships.
 the time to do so!




    Ernst Refflinghaus                                  Face Guaranteed Hard @ HRC 59*
          Anvils                                          Hard to a depth of over 1 inch
                                                        Tough Steel** Consistent Quality
          Ennepetal-Milspe, Germany                         Designs Proven Over Time
                                                          Fine Finish on Face and Horns
 http://www.ernst-refflinghaus.de/index.html
                                                          For more information, check out
         ---Quality Anvils Since 1886---
                                                                    pages 8-10!
Blacksmith Guild of Virginia                                                               Page 8

                                          Anvil Styles:




   Anvil      Face       Total               Foot     Hardy     Pritchel
                                  Height                                   #58 Price  #57
  Weight     Width      Length              Length     Hole       Hole
                                  Inches                                       $     Price $
  Pounds     Inches     Inches              Inches    Inches     Inches
  185/165     5.00       27.00    10.00      10.00     1.00       3/4        1,275      1,075
    220       5.00      29 1/2    11.00      11.00     1.00       3/4        1,600      1,400
    275       4 1/2     33 1/2    13.00      14.00     1.00       3/4        2,025      1,725
    330       5 1/2      32.25    12.25      13.75     1.00       7/8        2,425      2,100
    385       4 3/4     37 1/2    14.00      16.00     1.00       7/8        2,800      2,425
    465       5.00      40 1/2    14 1/2     16.50    1 1/4           1      3,250      2,800
    550       5.00       44.00    16.00      18.50    1 1/4           1      4,025      3,475




   Anvil      Face       Face                         Foot     Hardy       Pritchel
                                   Total Height
  Weight     Width      Length                       Length     Hole         Hole     #9 Price $
                                  Length Inches
  Pounds     Inches     Inches                       Inches    Inches       Inches
   165         5.00      10.00     27.00     10.00   10.00        1          3/4        1,075
   220         5.00      12 1/2    29 1/2 11.00      11.00        1          3/4        1,400
   330        5 1/2      14.00     32.00     12.00   14.00        1          7/8        2,100
    385       5 3/4      16.00     36 1/2 12 1/2     15 1/2       1          7/8        2,425
   455       6 3/16      17.00       38      14.00     16       1 1/4         1         2,775
    550       6 1/2      17 1/2    39 1/2 14 1/2     16 1/2     1 3/8         1         3,475
    660        7.00      19.00     42 1/2 16.00      18.00      1 3/8         1         4,175
   1035        8.00      21 1/2    48.00 17 1/2      22.00      1 3/8         1         6,075
   1215       8 1/2      23 1/2    49 1/2 19.00      23 1/2    1 3/8"         1         8,200
  #9 Anvils can be special ordered with a side shelf: which adds approx.20% to the price above.
Blacksmith Guild of Virginia                                                        Page 9




     The Pattern No. 11 Anvil is hardened to HRC59 from the tip of the horn to the
       heel. The step is not soft for chisel use as is typical in older wrought iron
    anvils. Unlike the typical perfectly flat American anvil, the face has an approx.
                    1/4 inch convex curve from the horn to the heel.

   Anvil     Face      Face   Total         Foot           Hardy     Pritchel
                                    Height                                       #11
  Weight    Width     Length Length        Length           Hole       Hole
                                    Inches                                      Price $
  Pounds    Inches    Inches Inches        Inches          Inches     Inches
   165      4 1/2      16.00    25 1/2 10.00     12.00       7/8       1/2        1,075
   330      5 1/2      20.00    32.00   14.00    14.00       1+        7/8        2,100

                        Production Process and History:




    The elaborate hand forged double horned anvil is efficient for the blacksmith
    and is in itself an artform. In the middle ages a simple steel block was the
    typical anvil.

    With the development of more artistic blacksmithing in each village, a more
    efficient and better quality anvil was required.

    Many attempts were made to make anvils from cast iron and steel. These early
    attempts failed due to poor quality of the castings.
Blacksmith Guild of Virginia                                                          Page 10

    Up until 1956 the blacksmith anvil was made of many parts forged and fire
    welded together.

    The various individual parts comprising the horns (2), the feet (3), the side
    shelf (4), and the heel (5) were all fire welded to the main body called the
    Luppe (1). For example, the Luppe was heated in a main coal fire and the foot
    was heated in a separate fire used just for individual parts. After both reached
    welding temperature the pieces were put together and forge welded by the
    sledge hammers of 4 to 6 blacksmiths.

    Up to this point, the anvil was made of iron which could not be hardened and
    was called “puddeleisen” ,puddled iron, or wrought iron.

    Now came the most importand and heaviest part of the forging work, the forge
    welding of the steel plate (the anvil face (6)). This work was done by 6 to 8
    anvil smiths each with heavy sledge hammers hitting around the plate in turn.
    The plate had to be welded without stop in 15 minutes. It was better to have 8
    men as then each man had a little longer to rest between blows. After
    completion of the face welding, the men flattened and straightened the anvil
    with their hammers.

    The last shaping step was the filing of the round horn with a 2 meter (6 foot)
    long file. This was held by two men. All this was done hot as it was easier than
    if it were cold.

    The next major step was to plane/polish the anvil face. This was done on a
    stone wheel 6 feet in diameter.

    For all this work the machinery was powered by waterwheels. One waterwheel
    ran the drop hammer used to forge the various parts, one waterwheel ran the
    stone wheel, and one waterwheel ran the blower for the fires.

    The last part of the work was to harden the anvil-face by cooling the hot anvil
    in water. 20 tons of coal were used every month for their daily forgings. Using
    these methods and factory, they made anvils up to 550 kg. or 1215 lb. The only
    devices the men used to manhandle the big anvils were iron rods used as
    levers. They also utilized leather rags to keep the heat from their bodies.

    Due to improvements in casting iron, since 1956 the old forged anvil body was
    replaced by a one piece cast iron forging. The casting was still faced by the fire
    welding of a top plate using the traditional method. Since 1975, technology
    improvements have allowed anvils to be made entirely of cast steel. The face is
    still hardened in the traditional mannerie, heated in a coal forge, and
    quenched in water. This process allows for an anvil of a consistent quality that
    is superior to previous anvils. It also results in a face that is as hard as the fire
    welded plate, but hard to a much greater depth.
     Blacksmith Guild of Virginia                                                               Page 11


                                                                 Reflections from the Forge
     Other Events Coming Up:
                                                    I sometimes admire God's handiwork. We have
            The Central Virginia Blacksmith        certainly been blessed in this land we call America.
             Guild will be at Yesteryear Forge      The bible tells us God created all things. (Colossians
             on October 13th. Mike Tanner
                                                    1:16) This in itself is inspiring and encouraging. I
             will be leading a striker
             demonstration assisted by his          have also been encouraged by other people’s
             apprentice Peyton Anderson.            ironwork. How did they do that? Yes, challenged too.
             CVBG President and member              But through all the trials and error at the forge, we do
             George Smart wants to give an          get better and that is satisfying. Everyone's work is
             invitation to everyone in the BGV      different and unique. It is really satisfying to me to
             to come and enjoy the day with         master a technique or process that has been a real
             them.                                  problem. It is also satisfying to see others improving
                                                    their skills. So be encouraged and create your own
            MASA METALSMITHING                     masterpiece.
             CONFERENCE: see flyer in
             newsletter for details.                Thanks and God Bless –
                                                    L.T. Skinnell

            Euro-anvil Raffle:
            We are giving away a 500lb. Euro-anvil and a two-hour one-on-one session with
            Bill Epps. Tickets are only $1.00 a piece and can be purchased at any of our
                                              meetings. Just see treasurer/secretary Linda
                                              Tanner at the sign in table to purchase your
                                              tickets! We will draw the winning ticket at our
                                              November meeting on November 17th after
                                              the Iron in the Hat. The two-hour session with
                                              Bill Epps will be the following day, November
                                              18th. This is a rare opportunity to take a
                                              chance at winning a quality 500lb. anvil and
                                              two hours with one of the top professional
                                              smiths in the United States. YOU MUST BE
                                              PRESENT TO WIN!!!


              Silent Auction Oct. 20th 2007:               Auction Items so far:
There will be a Silent Auction on October 20th at The      Lot 1: Wrought Iron Tomahawk heads (2),
Second Annual Yesteryear Forge Hammer In. All items               Wrought Iron Drift, Wrought Iron and
demonstrators make up to that date will be put into the           tool steel Tomahawk Kit by Bob Rowe
Silent Auction. We are also open to donations from                and Carl Hirner
members. These items can be hand forged, tools, etc. –     Lot 2: Wine Rack by Brian Gilbert
anything blacksmith related is welcome. Contact Peyton     Lot 3: Trillium Candle Holder by Brian Gilbert
Anderson if you would like to make a donation at           Lot 4: Renaissance Wax by Brian Gilbert
434.390.6203 or president@blacksmithguildofva.com. All     Lot 5: Renaissance Wax by Brian Gilbert
proceeds will go towards funding next year’s               Lot 6: Damascus Billet by Brian Gilbert
demonstrations.
       Blacksmith Guild of Virginia                                                              Page 12


                                                               2007 Meeting Calendar:
Newsletter submissions
                                                 Jan. 20th:     Demonstrator Mike Tanner at Yesteryear
If you would like to submit an article for the                  Forge, Amelia, Virginia
monthly newsletter, submissions are due no
later than the 15th of each month.               Feb. 17th:     Demonstrator John Riddle at LT Skinnell's
Newsletters will be posted in the last week of                  Otter Creek Forge, Bedford, Virginia
each month, so submissions received later
than the 15th will be printed in the following   March 17th:    Bob Rowe & Carl Hirner (from historic
month.                                                          Williamsburg) at Yesteryear Forge,
                                                                Amelia, Virginia
To truly express the unique and varied voices
                                                 April 21st:    Jack Chaffee at Brown's Forge, Lexington,
of our organization, we’d love to hear from                     Virginia
you. Events, trade tips, or anything else
related to blacksmithing is welcomed and         May 19th:      Brian Gilbert, Editor of ABANA’s The
encouraged!                                                     Hammer’s Blow
                                                                Yesteryear Forge, Amelia, Virginia
Email articles to                                June 23rd:     Build your own portable forge!
editor@blacksmithguildofva.com.
                                                 July:          NO MEETING
I look forward to hearing from you!
Sarah Tanner Anderson, editor                    Aug. 11th:     Jamestown 400th Celebration,
                                                                Buckingham, Virginia

                                                 Aug. 18th:     Dick Neitfeld at Yesteryear Forge,
      Blacksmith Guild of Virginia                              Amelia, Virginia
          309 Second Avenue
       Farmville, Virginia 23091                 Sept. 15th:    Doug Merkel at Yesteryear Forge, Amelia,
     www.blacksmithguildofva.com                                Virginia
            434.390.6203
                                                 Oct. 20th:     2nd Annual Yesteryear Forge Hammer In.,
                                                                Amelia Virginia. Demonstrator: RANDY
     Blacksmith Guild of Virginia Officers                      MCDANIEL AUTHOR OF "A Blacksmithing
         Peyton Anderson, President                             Primer: A Course in Basic and
         John Riddle, Vice President                            Intermediate Blacksmithing"
      Linda Tanner, Secretary/Treasurer
        Sarah Tanner Anderson, Editor




                                                 Nov. 17th      Bill Epps at Yesteryear Forge, Amelia,
                                                 and 18th:      Virginia
Blacksmith Guild of Virginia                                                       Page 13


             Mid-Atlantic Smith Association
                 MASA METALSMITHING CONFERENCE
                                September 8-9 2007

    TUCKAHOE Steam and Gas Show Grounds on Route 50 east of Easton Maryland
    Demonstrators are Steve Joslyn from New York and Steve Williamson from
    Tennessee.

    Cost $45.00 per person, $35.00 before August 31. Non-blacksmithing spouses
    and children under 10 free.

    Breakfast and Lunch available for purchase at the show grounds. Dinner
    Saturday will be catered and cost $12.00 per person.

    Camping is available on Friday and Saturday nights. Plenty of room for
    Tailgating and CAMS will be having a Yard Sale on Saturday.


    Send Registration To JoAnn Bentley 259 Muddy Fork Road Jonesborough, TN
    37695. Make Check Payable to MASA.


    Name_______________________________________ Phone____________

    Address_______________________________________________________

    Others in party (please list names of all who will accompany you, paying or not)

    ____________________________________________________________________

    Cost $45.00 person, $35.00 Before August 31
    Non-smithing family/ friends and children free
    Registration $ for____ people =_______
    Saturday dinner, $12.00/ Person             Dinner for ____people = _______

    Check payable to MASA                              TOTAL Enclosed_______
    MASA member_______________
    Registration Confirmation by email: email address_____________________
    Are you a member of MASA ________
    I/we plan to camp______
    I am willing to help with iron-in-the-hat ________: auction_______ : writing
    about conference for newsletter________: help doing anything needed______
Blacksmith Guild of Virginia
309 Second Avenue
Farmville, Virginia 23901




                                 Blacksmith Guild of Virginia
                                         Application for Membership

Name:                                                               Telephone:

Address:                                                            Email:



What are your blacksmithing interests (knife making, traditional, reenacting, artist, etc.) and how long
have you been blacksmithing?




Any additional comments:



Disclaimer: I acknowledge that the activities involved in blacksmithing are potentially dangerous, and I voluntarily
accept any risks involved. I absolve the Blacksmith Guild of Virginia, its officers, members, guests, demonstrators,
and hosts of liability for any accident that may occur at any of its meetings/demonstrations. I take full
responsibility for my safety and the safety of any guest that I will bring to any meeting/demonstration.

                                  Mail completed membership applications to:
                  Blacksmith Guild of Virginia •309 Second Avenue • Farmville, Virginia 23901

								
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