Health Education in Germany * BRUNO GEBHARD, M.D. Deutsches Hygiene Museum, Dresden, Germany IT is a great honor for me to speak to and people from the Rhine, have dif- you about Health Education in ferent hereditary backgrounds. The Germany. If there is anything in greatest difference is in regard to the which you are specially interested, I population. The area of the States is hope that I may have an opportunity 18 times greater than that of Germany. to answer questions afterwards. It is better to say that the State of Texas I have no special personal philosophy is a little larger than all of Germany, regarding health; a man is healthy who but in Germany there are 66 million can perform all the duties required by people, as compared with 2 million in his nation, his profession, and his Texas. family. It is not enough only to be healthy. Those persons living only for WHAT IS THE AIM OF HEALTH EDUCA- their health, as they say (I call them TION IN GERMANY? health-hypochondriacs) have not a great I think there is a new idea of health interest for the health educator. Such education since the Great War in those persons have "eine falsche Gesund- countries which have suffered much heit" . . . they do not eat to be through the war and due to its conse- satisfied, but rather to obtain the proper quences. Millions of people have amount of calories and vitamins. learned, and have been led to appreciate One question for a health worker, who the value of life, and the value of does his work on a scientific basis is the health. following: What can be done by Health Education in Germany seeks education? What health factors are to teach the individual to value life, not determined by heredity, and what in- to throw it away-to regard it as a trust. fluence can social conditions have? If To us the aim of education for health health workers would obtain success is: the healthy man, the man physically they must, of course, give considera- and mentally well balanced, who knows tion to such factors, which I will not and perceives what is beneficial for him, take time to discuss here. who recognizes health as a most precious About Germany-There is one great gift of life, always worthy to be striven difference between this country and my for. home. Germany is an old country, If there is any right of health for nearly 2,000 years old in its history. every citizen there is also a duty for There are many different native racial each to strive for vigorous health. We tribes-Prussian and Bavarian, Silesian, say in Germany, " Der einselne ist nichts; die Volkgemeinschaft ist alles." * Red before the Health Officers Section of the To be healthy is nothing-to maintain Americ Public Health Association at the Sixty- yourself to work for the national wel- third IAua Meeting in Pasadena, Calif., September 3, 1934. fare, that is everything.  HEALTH EDUCATION IN GERMANY 1 149 The persons in Germany doing the family special instructions about the work of health education are, first, the sickness, how to cure it, and so forth. health officers. There are health officers Our new state laws provide a great op- of the State called " Kreisarzt," and portunity for personal work in health health officers of great towns, "Stadt- education, especially in eugenics-not artz." Some rural districts have also to forget the Health Insurance Insti- county health officers for preventive tutions and many private organiza- medicine and health work. The Reich tions dealing with alcoholism, tuber- recently adoted a new law " bringing all culosis, and venereal diseases. There health work under one sole direction." are also special institutions in Germany, Now there must be in each town and " Die Berufs Schule." These are of county a state health officer; formerlv great importance in our health educa- it could be, but it did not have to be. tion work. Boys and girls from 14 to In the Reichministerium of Interior 17 have to learn many things about there is a special department for health health; for example, the instruction service, including health education. given to girls, how to nurse the babies. The second chief-worker in health The German Arbeidtsdienst, similar to education is the teacher. I think in your CWA, is one of the best oppor- many cases the teachers are better tunities for adult education between 18 trained for health education than the and 25. They are given gymnasium doctors. In Germany the work in each morning, swimming, hiking, and health education in the school is done so forth, with instruction in first aid. by the teachers. There is another In Germany we have such organizations method in England by which the health for girls also, but they are voluntary. officer lectures in the school. I do The methods of Health Education not know how it is in this country. are, I think, quite the same in Ger- We should not forget the parents. many as in your country. More and More important than knowledge about more we prefer intensive work between health and hygiene is the education for individual and individual. We have also healthy habits, and that must be done extensive health campaigns-but we do by the parents in the first 5 years of not believe much in their success. You childhood. We have a German proverb, can give great figures of how many mil- which is, " Was Hanschen nicht lernt, lions of pamphlets you distributed and lernt Hans nimmermehr." " What little make a good impression on laymen, and Jackie does not learn-adult Jack would from time to time it is valuable to have never learn." We have so-called big exhibits. I must tell you a little " Mutterschulen " and there are special story. We had a great hygiene exhibit in evening classes where the fathers come Dresden, 1930-1931. Several days we also. Home nursing not only requires looked around with the well known Mr. a kind heart, but also a clever hand and and Mrs. Routzahn. One day he a clear head. People are seldom born asked: " Would it not be better to with these qualities, but with proper have a smaller exhibition than a big instruction they can easily be acquired one? " " Yes," I said, " but we had by most men and women. 10 small ones and no Mr. Routzahn We have in Germany a law which came from America to see them, but requires the registration of tuberculosis now we have the big one and Mr. and venereal diseases. If any person Routzahn has come to Germany." is ill of one of these, the doctor must The means of Health Education are give the patient's name to the health so many that it is not possible to speak officer who gives the sufferer and his now about them. The best is the 1150 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH spoken word-from individual to indi- brain, and so on are lighted up auto- vidual. Our medical practitioners have matically one after the other. The almost forgotten it. An old medical twenty museum-halls housed in two sage says: " You can cure a man by different floors, cover nearly 6,000 sq. remedy and by word." I think there m., or 7,500 sq. yds. The collections must be more educational work by the of the Museum deal with biological- medical practitioners. You cannot help hygienic instruction, the anatomical and a man alone by giving him a prescrip- physiological foundations of physical tion, or doing an operation. exercise, the care of mother and child. The printed word, pamphlets, books-- There is a special division for eugenics We need them but they have not so and for the problem of right nourish- great an influence. Better are pictures, ment. Industrial hygiene and the pro- lantern slides, films. We prefer lantern tection of workers have their places. slides for instruction, and films for Quite modern is the room Health and health propaganda. Sickness. The problem of modern biological science, as constitution, dis- THE WORK OF THE DEUTSCHES HYGIENE position, and the influence of surround- MUSEUM ings upon health are here demonstrated Our Museum was founded in 1912. in a most instructive manner. The year before the first International This is followed by the department of Hygiene Exhibition was opened at such infectious and contagious diseases Dresden. This exhibition was the as tuberculosis and venereal diseases. pioneer in giving hygienic instructions A special room deals with the problem to the masses of the people. In 4 of cancer. Two combined historical and months more than 5½2 million visitors ethnographical groups show the hygienic saw the exhibition. The greatest suc- and non-hygienic life in classical times cess was the department, Der Mensch and in the middle ages, and also those (Man). Since then the Museum has things which are interesting as hygienic steadily developed into a central insti- usages in the life of natives such as the tution for public health. The new negroes in Africa, the Indians, the home of the Deutsches Hygiene Museum Chinese people and so on. A special was opened in the year 1930. Its room is reserved for temporary exhibits, fundamental aim is laid down in a which are changed every month. memorial pamphlet by the founder, Dr. There are not only these exhibition Lingner, who said: rooms; there is also a school for ex- The Deutsches Hygiene Museum is to be pectant mothers, a cookery school a place of instruction for all, where everyone especially for special diets; there are may acquire instruction necessary for healthy rooms for classes in first aid, and for life. The exhibits are to be arranged in such evening classes; there is a gymnastic manner that laypeople may understand them room, and also a library with a large with the help of simple explanations. The construction of those models is a highly collection of 3,000 illustrated posters scientific work and a specalty of the scien- from all parts of the world. tific department. There is one unique characteristic of the work of the Deutsches Hygiene The focus of the Museum is the col- Museum. All the exhibits are made in lection, Der Mensch, with a separate our own special workshops, whether pic- room for the so-called " Transparent tures, placards, lantern-slides, models, Man." It is really a wonderful model, anatomical preparations (after Prof. made of a kind of celluloid, and the Spalteholz') wax models. There are inner organs such as the heart, lungs, new models of celluloid, unbreakable, HEALTH EDUCATION IN GERMANY 1151 not affected by heat or cold, much such requests were granted as in the lighter than wax, and cheaper by one- case of the museum at Klausenburg third. (Roumania). Also the Egyptian Another aspect of the Museum's Government commissioned the Museum work is of great interest for public to organize a museum in Cairo. It is health workers. After the war the the same with the Yugoslavian Govern- Museum sent out several itinerant ex- ment: we organized two museums there hibitions. In 1919-1920 people were at Belgrade, and one at Agram. The badly undernourished, and in conse- Hygiene-Section of the League of Na- quence many died of tuberculosis. The tions requested the Museum to arrange Museum started a special exhibition to material for medical education at War- teach people how to avoid tuberculosis, saw, Moscow, and Charkow. It may be and advised them to consult a doctor in known to you that there are many good time. It was also necessary to models of the Deutsches Hygiene have an exhibition enlightening people Museum in the scientific halls of the on venereal diseases. Since then there Centur.y of Progress Exposition in have been shown many traveling exhi- Chicago. bitions in most towns and villages of Nearly 700,000 lantern slides, 350,- the Reich. They are called: " Fight 000 illustrated posters, and many C a n c e r," "Right Nourishment," thousand casts and models from the "Healthy Women-Healthy Nation," Museum are used throughout the world. and so on. The Lantern Slide Service alone has There is also an automobile exhibit more than 100 series, and each has from with a special tent, serving as an ex- 50 to 60 slides concerning all branches hibition hall wherever the car stops. of public health. They are employed in Dr. W. W. Peter calls this automobile schools and for special lectures. One the " Healthmobile." It travels can hire or buy them, and they can be through the rural districts of Germany, used in any country no matter what its staying 2 to 3 days in each place to language. show the people of the district how to. These are some of the services which live healthily. Twenty million visitors it has been the privilege of the have seen our exhibits in Germany. Deutsches Hygiene Museum to perform The traveling exhibits are also taken in its homeland and abroad. The insti- abroad. The Museum has shown its tution is a tangible evidence of the exhibits in many towns of Switzerland, vision and faith of its founder in the Austria, Czechoslovakia, in Sweden, efficacy of visual methods in health Norway, Hungary. teaching. The fight against sickness The appreciation which the Museum's and unhygienic conditions knows no work has met, is further proved by territorial boundaries. In this work the several requests to organize new mu- Deutsches Hygiene Museum is glad to seums or to lend certain important ex- be associated with health educators in hibits to different countries. Many America and in other parts of the world.