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					Ch. 22 Descent w/Modification    Name________________________________

   1. Which of the following would be a statement most likely supported by
      Lamarck?
        a. Four out of five hyena pups die because of a lack of resources in
            the environment.
        b. The occurrence of new forms is a random even produced by a
            change in heritable factors.
        c. The wings of a butterfly and the wings of a bat are analogous
            structures.
        d. The long neck of a giraffe is a result of its ancestors continually
            trying to reach higher branches.
        e. A species is a population of individuals that are reproductively
            isolated from other individuals in an area.

   2. All of the following provide evidence for evolution EXCEPT which?
          a. The fossil record
          b. Comparative anatomy
          c. Embryology
          d. Food webs
          e. Molecular biology

   3. All of the following pairs of structures are homologous EXCEPT which?
          a. The wings of a bat and the wing of a bird
          b. The leg of a human and a leg of a centipede
          c. The scales on a bird’s legs and the scales on a lizard
          d. The shell of a clam and the shell of a snail
          e. The pouch of a female opossum and the pouch of a female
              kangaroo

   4. Who was the author and naturalist who developed a theory of natural
      selection independently of Darwin and who is often credited along with
      Darwin for the theory we accept today?
         a. Linnaeus
         b. Cuvier
         c. Lyell
         d. Wallace
         e. Lamarck

   5. At the end of the Paleozoic era, plate movements joined all the
      landmasses of Earth and a giant supercontinent was formed called
          a. Eurasia
          b. Pangaea
          c. Laurasia
          d. Gondwana
          e. Cambria
Questions 6-10 refer to the fields of study listed below. Choose the one that has
provided each of the following pieces of evidence that biological evolution has
occurred.
          a. Comparative biochemistry
          b. Comparative anatomy
          c. Comparative embryology
          d. Geographic distribution
          e. Paleontology
   6. _____Giraffes have the same number of vertebrae in the neck as do
       humans.
   7. _____Kangaroos are found only in Australia.
   8. _____Human embryos have tails.
   9. _____Humans and sea stars both have radial cleavage in early embryonic
       development.
   10. _____Humans can be made temporarily immune to various human
       diseases by receiving antibodies against those diseases from horses.

   11. The wing of the bat and a human’s arm have different functions and
       appear very different. Yet, the underlying anatomy is basically the same.
       Therefore, these structures are examples of
          a. Geographic isolation
          b. Analogous structures
          c. Homology
          d. Reproductive isolation
          e. Balanced polymorphism

   12. The flipper of a whale is homologous to all of the following structures
       EXCEPT
          a. The wing of a bat
          b. The front leg of a frog
          c. The front leg of a grasshopper
          d. The arm of a human
          e. The wing of a bird

   13. Which of the following principles is NOT part of Darwin’s theory of
       evolution?
          a. Evolution is a gradual process that occurs over a long period of
              time.
          b. Variation occurs among individuals in a population.
          c. Individuals possessing the most favorable traits have the best
              chance to survive and to pass their traits to offspring.
          d. Organisms tend to overpopulate.
          e. Mutations are the main source of all variations in any population.
14. Traits that are similar between organisms that arose from a common
    ancestor are known as
       a. Convergent characters
       b. Homologous characters
       c. Vestigial characters
       d. Stabilizing characters
       e. Divergent characters

15. Which tenet of the theory of evolution was the weakest because Darwin
    was unable to explain it fully?
      a. Evolution occurs as advantageous traits accumulate in a
          population.
      b. In any population, there is variation and an unequal ability of
          individuals to survive and reproduce.
      c. Only the best-fit individuals survive and get to pass their traits to
          offspring.
      d. Populations tend to grow exponentially, overpopulation, and exceed
          their resources.
      e. Overpopulation results in competition and a struggle for existence.

16. Which of the following is not a requirement for natural selection to occur?
      a. Variation between individuals
      b. Heritability of the trait being selected
      c. Sexual reproduction
      d. Differences in reproductive success among individuals
      e. Survival of the fittest

17. Which part of the theory of evolution did Darwin develop after reading
    Thomas Malthus?
       a. Evolution occurs as advantageous traits accumulate in a
          population.
       b. In any population, there is variation and an unequal ability of
          individuals to survive and reproduce.
       c. Only the best-fit individuals survive and get to pass their traits to
          offspring.
       d. Populations tend to grow exponentially, overpopulation, and exceed
          their resources.
       e. Overpopulation results in competition and a struggle for existence.

18. All of the following provide evidence for evolution except
        a. Vestigial characters
        b. Darwin’s finches
        c. Homologous characters
        d. Embryology
        e. Mutations
19. Which of the following is not a part of natural selection?
      a. A population must have genetic variation.
      b. A heritable variation is expressed in the phenotype.
      c. Some phenotypes associated with heritable variation survive and
          reproduce differently.
      d. Adaptations are the best possible responses to evolutionary
          pressure.
      e. Natural selection can occur indirectly through actions of genetically
          related social organisms.

20. Darwin’s theory of natural selection include all of the following stipulations
    EXCEPT
       a. Every organism produces more organisms that can survive
       b. Due to competition, not all organisms survive
       c. Some organisms are more fit, i.e., they are able to survive better in
          the environment
       d. The difference in survivability is due to variations between
          organisms
       e. Variation is due, at least in part, to mutations

21. All of the following are homologous structures EXCEPT
        a. A bat wing
        b. A bird wing
        c. A butterfly wing
        d. A human arm
        e. A penguin flipper

22. Darwin’s important observation pertaining to the birds of the Galapagos
    Islands was that
        a. There were many different finches, each with specially adapted
           wings for flight
        b. There were many different finches on the island, each with specially
           adapted beaks for feeding
        c. All the finches on the various islands have the same beak and are
           the same species
        d. All the finches on the various islands had the same wing structure
           and are of the same species
        e. Finches eat various different types of food, such as seeds, insects
           or fruit, and thus must be of different species
23. Homologous structures are often cited as evidence for the process of
    natural selection. All of the following are examples of homologous
    structures EXCEPT
        a. The wings of a birds and the wings of a bat
        b. The flippers of a whale and the arms of a man
        c. The pectoral fins of a porpoise and the flippers of a seal
        d. The forelegs of an insect and the forelimbs of a dog
        e. The hind legs of a lizard and the legs of a chicken

24. The similarities between the arm of a human, the fin of a whale, the
    foreleg of a dog, and the wing of a bird provide support for the concept of
        a. Survival of the fittest
        b. Acquired characteristics
        c. Common ancestry
        d. Reproductive isolation
        e. Convergence

25. The sequence of amino acids in hemoglobin molecules of humans is more
    similar to the hemoglobin of chimpanzees than it is to the hemoglobin of
    dogs. This similarity suggests that
       a. Humans and dogs are more closely related than humans and
           chimpanzees
       b. Humans and chimpanzees are more closely related than humans
           and dogs
       c. Humans are related to chimpanzees but not to dogs
       d. Humans and chimpanzees are closely analogous
       e. The hemoglobin molecule of all three organisms did not have
           intervening sequences

26. Evidence of evolution may be based on information obtained from fossils,
    geological records, studies in comparative biochemistry, and comparative
    embryology. The example below that would be classified as biochemical
    evidence is
       a. Similar structures between the flipper of a whale and the arm of a
          human
       b. Imprint of a footprint
       c. Similarity of the DNA molecules of two mammals
       d. Radioactive dating of a rock sample
       e. Wing of an insect and wing of a bird

27. Which of the following is a key component of Darwin’s principles?
      a. Abundance of resources is available for organisms.
      b. More population members are produced than can survive.
      c. Organisms in a population are uniform.
      d. Population members contribute equally to a gene pool.
      e. Survival rates do not vary among a population’s members.
   28. Acquired characteristics
          a. Refer to traits inherited as genes
          b. Are not transmitted to the next generation
          c. Are the basis of Darwin’s theory of natural selection
          d. Are exemplified by the lengthening of the giraffe’s neck over
             evolutionary time due to stretching toward trees
          e. Can, for instance, explain the lack of pigment in an albino

Questions 43-46
      a. Use and disuse
      b. Natural selection
      c. Comparative anatomy
      d. Biogeography
      e. Paleontology
  29. _____A body builder develops large muscles
  30. _____The appearance of strains of bacteria that are no longer affected by
      certain antibiotics
  31. _____The study of the past and present distribution of species
  32. _____The fossil of an ancient horse, Hyracotherium, reveals two splints
      on either side of the large toe, indicating that it was a progenitor of the
      modern horse

				
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