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					                  Objectives for Unit 4: Chapters 1, 22-24
                                 Additional Chapters referenced: 25,26

Understanding Selective Pressures: What drives natural selection?                             AP BIOLOGY
What selective pressures exist for humans? What pressures do not exist?
We (and everything on Earth) are all mutants.
Where does Creationism agree and disagree with the Theory of Evolution?
Nothing in biology makes sense, except in light of evolution.

Performances of Understanding
Lab Simulation – evolution of guppies
Webquest – Evidence for Evolution
Lab – Natural Selection: Candy analogy
Hardy-Weinberg Problem Set
Lab – Population Genetics
                                      After reading and studying the following chapters you should be able to:
Chapter 1 Review (pp 9-18)
1. Briefly describe how Charles Darwin’s ideas contributed to the conceptual framework of biology.
2. Outline the scientific method.
3. Distinguish between inductive and deductive reasoning.

Chapter 22
1. State the two major points Darwin made in The Origin of Species concerning the Earth’s biota.
2. Describe Carolus Linnaeus’ contribution to Darwin’s theory of evolution.
3. Describe Georges Cuvier’s contribution to paleontology.
4. Explain how Cuvier and his followers used the concept of catastrophism to oppose evolution.
5. Explain how the principle of gradualism and Charles Lyell’s theory of uniformitarianism influenced Darwin’s
    ideas about evolution.
6. Describe Jean Baptiste Lamarck’s model for how adaptations evolve.
7. Describe how Charles Darwin used his observations from the voyage of the HMS Beagle to formulate and
    support his theory of evolution.
8. Describe how Alfred Russel Wallace influenced Charles Darwin.
9. Explain what Darwin meant by the principle of common descent and “descent with modification”.
10. Explain what evidence convinced Darwin that species change over time.
11. State, in your own words, three inferences Darwin made from his observations, which led him to propose
    natural selection as mechanism for evolutionary change.
12. Explain why variation was so important to Darwin’s theory.
13. Explain how Reverend Thomas Malthus’ essay influenced Charles Darwin.
14. Distinguish between artificial selection and natural selection.
15. Explain why the population is the smallest unit that can evolve.
16. Using some contemporary examples, explain how natural selection results in evolutionary change.
17. Explain why the emergence of population genetics was an important turning point for evolutionary theory.
18. Describe the lines of evidence Charles Darwin used to support the principle of common descent.
19. Describe how molecular biology can be used to study the evolutionary relationships among organisms.
20. Explain the problem with the statement that Darwinism is “just a theory”.
21. Distinguish between the scientific and colloquial use of the work “theory”.

Chapter 23
1. Explain what is meant by the “modern synthesis”.
2. Explain how microevolutionary change can affect a gene pool.
3. In your own works, state the Hardy-Weinberg theorem.
4. Write the general Hardy-Weinberg equation and use it to calculate allele and genotype frequencies.
5. Explain the consequences of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium.
6. Demonstrate, with a simple example, that a disequilibrium population requires only one generation of random
    mating to establish Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium.
7. Describe the usefulness of the Hardy-Weinberg model to population geneticists.
8. List the conditions a population must meet in order to maintain Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium.
9. Explain how genetic drift, gene flow, mutation, nonrandom mating and natural selection can cause
10. Explain the role of population size in genetic drift.
11. Distinguish between the bottleneck effect and the founder effect.
12. Explain why mutation has little quantitative effect on a large population.
13. Describe how inbreeding and assortative mating affect a population’s allele frequencies and genotype
14. Explain, in your own words, what is meant by the statement that natural selection is the only agent of
    microevolution, which is adaptive.
15. Describe the technique of electrophoresis and explain how it has been used to measure genetic variation within
    and between populations.
16. List some factors that can produce geographical variation among closely related populations.
17. Explain why even though mutation can be a source of genetic variability, it contributes a negligible amount to
    genetic variation in a population.
18. Give the cause of nearly all genetic variation in a population.
19. Explain how genetic variation may be preserved in a natural population.
20. In your own words, briefly describe the neutral theory of molecular evolution and explain how changes in gene
    frequency may be nonadaptive.
21. Explain the concept of relative fitness and its role in adaptive evolution.
22. Explain why the rate of decline for a deleterious allele depends upon whether the allele is dominant or recessive
    to the more successful allele.
23. Describe what selection acts on and what factors contribute to the overall fitness of a genotype.
24. Give examples of how the environment may influence an organism’s phenotype.
25. Distinguish among stabilizing selection, directional selection and diversifying selection.
26. Define sexual dimorphism and explain how it can influence evolutionary change.
27. Give at least four reasons why natural selection cannot breed perfect organisms.

     Chapter 24                                                                     Test on Ch 22 and 23, 1
1.   Distinguish between anagenesis and cladogenesis.
2.   Define morphospecies and explain how this concept can be useful to biologists.
3.   Define biological species (E. Mayr).
4.   Describe some limitations of the biological species concept.
5.   Explain how gene flow between closely related species can be prevented.
6.   Distinguish between prezygotic and postzygotic isolating mechanisms.
7.   Describe five prezygotic isolating mechanisms and give an example of each.
8.   Explain why many hybrids ate sterile.
9.   Explain, in your own words, how hybrid breakdown maintains separate species even if gene flow occurs.

10. Distinguish between allopatric and sympatric speciation.
11. Explain, in your own words, the allopatric speciation model and describe the role of intraspecific variation and
    geographical isolation.
12. Explain why peripheral isolates are susceptible if geographic barriers arise.
13. Describe the adaptive radiation model and use it to describe how it might be possible to have many sympatric
    closely related species even if geographic isolation is necessary for them to evolve.
14. Define sympatric speciation and explain how polyploidy can cause reproductive isolation.
15. Distinguish between autopolyploidy and allopolyploidy.
16. List some points of agreement and disagreement between the two schools of thought about the tempo of
    speciation (gradualism vs. punctuated equilibrium).
                                                                                                  Quest on Ch 24

Chapter 25
1. Explain the importance of the fossil record to the study of evolution.
2. Describe how fossils form.
3. Distinguish between relative dating and absolute dating.
4. Explain how isotopes can be used in absolute dating.
5. Describe how radiation into new adaptive zones could result in macroevolutionary change.
6. Explain how mass extinctions could occur and affect evolution of surviving forms.
7. List the major taxonomic categories from the most to least inclusive.
8. Explain why it is important when constructing a phylogeny to distinguish between homologous and analogous
    character traits.
9. Distinguish between homologous and analogous structures.
10. Describe three techniques used in molecular systematics and explain what information each provides.
11. Distinguish between a monophyletic and a polyphyletic group.
12. Describe the contributions of phenetics and cladistics to phylogenetic systematics.

Chapter 26
1. Provide at least two lines of evidence for the antiquity of life.
2. Describe the contributions that A.I. Oparin, J.B.S. Haldane, Stanley Miller and Harold Urey made towards
   developing a model for abiotic synthesis of organic molecules.
3. Provide plausible evidence to support the hypothesis that chemical evolution resulting in life’s origin occurred
   in four stages:

    a.   Abiotic synthesis of organic monomers
    b.   Abiotic synthesis of polymers
    c.   Formation of protobionts
    d.   Origin of genetic information

4. Describe the basis for Whittaker’s five-kingdom system.
5. Describe three alternatives to the five-kingdom system and explain the rationale for each.

                                                                               Extra Credit Test on Ch 25 & 26