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Parallel structure 2

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					                                       PARALLEL STRUCTURE

                             AND, BUT, OR, NOR (coordinating conjunctions)
N + AND + N                                       Laura has a car and a bicycle.
ADJ + AND + ADJ                                   Truc is a beautiful and nice girl.
ADV + AND + ADV                                   Mrs. Keith speaks slowly and clearly.
V + AND + V                                       We visited Las Vegas and bought a lot of souvenirs.
ADJ + BUT + ADJ                                   Your chair is new, but uncomfortable.
V + BUT + V                                       Sang called Tuan but couldn't reach him.
V + OR + V                                        Would you like to go shopping or (to) stay home?
V + NOR + V                                       I don't often drink coffee, *nor do I drink tea.
                                                      ̉      ̃
                                                  * đao ngư [NOR = phủ định]

                                       PAIRED CONJUNCTIONS
                                                  Either Uyen or Trang is here.
EITHER + N + OR + N                               Either Uyen or her friends are here.
                                                   Động từ chia theo số của chũ ngữ đứng sau OR.
                                                  Neither Jackie nor Pat is going to go to work
                                                  tomorrow.
NEITHER + N + NOR + N                             Neither Jackie nor the tutors are going to go to work
                                                  tomorrow.
                                                   Động từ chia theo số của chũ ngữ đứng sau NOR.
BOTH + N + AND + N                                Both my father and my mother are over 50 years old.
                                                   The verb is always plural.
                                                  Not only Mr. Park but also Huong was surprised.
                                                  Not only Mr. Park but also the students were
                                                  surprised.
                                                   Động từ chia theo số của chũ ngữ đứng sau BUT
                                                  ALSO.

               N                             N
               N phrase                      N phrase
NOT ONLY +     V          + BUT ALSO +       V
               ADJ                           ADJ
               ADV                           ADV



                  Paul Anka not only plays the piano but also composes music. (V | V)
                  She is not only beautiful but also intelligent. (Adj | Adj)
                  He writes not only correctly but also neatly. (Adv | Adv)
                  She excels not only in mathematics but also in sciences. (Np | Np)


                                                       Beth plays the guitar as well as the piano. (N | N)
        N                             N                She is beautiful as well as intelligent. (Adj | Adj)
        ADJ                           ADJ              He writes correctly as well as neatly. (Adv | Adv)
V+      ADV      + AS WELL AS +       ADV              She excels in mathematics as well as in sciences.
        N phrase                      N phrase                                                   (Np | Np)


                                                       The teacher, as well as his students, is going to the
                                                       concert.
                                                       My cousins, as well as Tim, have a test tomorrow.
S1 + , AS WELL AS + …, + V
                                                        The verb will agree with the principal subject, NOT
                                                       with the noun closest it. The phrase should be set off
                                                       by commas.




                                                   1
Parallel structure
I. Which of the following paired sentences are parallel?
1-a. She likes to listen to music and reading the latest novels.
   b. She likes listening to music and reading the latest novels.
2-a. He spent his time studying Spanish, working at the convenience store, and jogging every afternoon.
   b. He spent his time studying Spanish. working at the convenience store, and he jogged every afternoon
3-a. The dog was excited: running, barking, and chasing after the boys.
   b. The dog was excited: running, barking, and he chased after the boys.
4-a. The apartment was filled with old newspapers, broken bottles, and the ashtrays were overflowing.
   b. The apartment was filled with old newspapers, broken bottles, and overflowing ashtrays.

II. Make the following sentences parallel. Enter the correct version of the item in the series which does not match
the others.
1-a. Mary wanted to paint her office, to add some new draperies, and the carpet need cleaning.
   Mary wanted to paint her office, to add some new draperies, and to clean the carpet.
2-b. When Friday rolls around, do you go to the mall, head for a bar, or are you going to work?
   When Friday rolls around, do you go to the mall, head for a bar, or go to work?
3.c. Last year, my brother dropped out of school, was looking for work, and needed a place to stay.
   Last year, my brother dropped out of school, looked for work, and needed a place to stay.
4.d. He watched the latest version of King Lear, studied for his math test, and was talking on the phone.
   He watched the latest version of King Lear, studied for his math test, and talked on the phone.

III. Select the sentence that illustrates the use of proper parallel construction.
1-a. Phuong Tran has wit, charm, and she has an extremely pleasant personality.
   b. Phuong Tran has wit, charm, and a pleasing personality.
2-a. In English class, Tashonda learned to read poems critically and to appreciate good prose.
   b. In English class, Tashonda learned to read poems critically and she appreciated good prose.
3-a. Raoul's QPA is higher than Ralph.
   b. Raoul's QPA is higher than Ralph's.
4-a. He wanted three things out of college: to learn a skill, to make good friends, and to learn about life.
   b. He wanted three things out of college: to learn a skill, to make good friends, and learning about life.
5-a. Coach Espinoza was a brilliant strategist, a caring mentor, and a wise friend.
   b. Coach Espinoza was a brilliant strategist, a caring mentor, and friend.
6-a. We found the film repulsive, offensive, and we thought it was embarrassing.
   b. We found the film repulsive, offensive, and embarrassing.
7-a. Mr. Nguyen kept his store clean, neat, and he made it conveniently arranged.
   b. Mr. Nguyen kept his store clean, neat, and conveniently arranged.
8-a. Professor Ali rewarded his students for working hard on the final project and going beyond the call of duty.
   b. Professor Ali rewarded his students for their hard work on the final project and going beyond the call of duty.
9-a. There's nothing I like better than finding a good trout stream, setting up camp, and spending a couple of
days fishing.
  b. There's nothing I like better than finding a good trout stream, setting up camp, and to spend a couple of days
fishing.

IV. Related sentence parts, such as items in a series, must be presented in parallel form. Correct the nonparallel
elements in the following sentences.
1. She was healthy, wealthy, and a regular reader of my column.
 She was a healthy young woman, a wealthy person, and a regular reader of my column.
2. He was handsome, brave, and the sort of person who would do anything for you.
 He was handsome, brave, and accommodating.
3. The Budget Information System is a query system, the database is small, and we need to recognize the fact
that the response time is unacceptably long.
 The Budget Information System is a query system, the database is small, and the response time is
unacceptably long.
4. Declining trees have a higher probability of branch failures and of dying prematurely.
 Declining trees have a higher probability of branch failures and of premature death.
5. In the facility construction stage, trees are often wounded by trenching, blacktopping, changing the grade, and
heavy machinery.
 In the facility construction stage, trees are often wounded by trenching, blacktopping, changing the grade, and
bringing heavy machinery too close.

                                                          2
6. Recreation users inflict many wounds by pounding nails into trees, lantern burns, and damaging their roots
with vehicles and heavy equipment.
 Recreation users inflict many wounds by pounding nails into trees, burning them with lanterns, and damaging
their roots with vehicles and heavy equipment.
7. Declaring sustainability as a goal is one thing; putting it into operation has been an elusive goal.
 Declaring sustainability as a goal is one thing; putting it into operation is another.
8. The room was beautiful, the service impeccable, and I've never tasted better food in my entire life.
 The room was beautiful, the service impeccable, and the food delectable
9. You are not only responsible for organizing the conference, but we also want you to introduce the keynote
speaker.
 You are responsible not only for organizing the conference but also for introducing the keynote speaker
10. To assess your effectiveness as a writer, consider whether your writing:
a. Conveys your message with clarity, emphasis, precision, and style.
b. Uses variety in sentence structure for good stylistic effect.
c. Provides organized, coherent, logical, insightful development of the subject.
d. Supports your main points with specific, detailed, compelling examples and illustrations.
e. You commit no significant errors in grammar, usage, spelling, and punctuation.
 To assess your effectiveness as a writer, consider whether your writing:
a. Conveys your message with clarity, emphasis, precision, and style.
b. Uses variety in sentence structure for good stylistic effect.
c. Provides organized, coherent, logical, insightful development of the subject.
d. Supports your main points with specific, detailed, compelling examples and illustrations.
e. Commits no significant errors in grammar, usage, spelling, and punctuation.

V. Read the following sentences. If the sentence is correct, don't change anything. If the sentence is incorrect,
find the parallel structure problem and fix it.
1. The factory workers were ready, able, and were quite determined to do a great job.
2. The computer network is safer, stronger, and more secure.
3. We cannot be worried or terrified of difficulties in life.
4. The actor taught his student how to read, how to stand, how to cry, and to talk with fans.
5. The requirements for a chemistry degree are not as strict as a medical degree.
6. Either you can join the army or the navy.
7. The reorganization of the company is neither simple nor it will be cheap.
8. When I was in high school, I learned piano and how to play the guitar.
9. Fred supports the idea because, first, its simplicity; second, it is unique.
10. They are either our friends or they are not.

Answers
1. The factory workers were ready, able, and determined to do a great job.
2. The computer network is safer, stronger, and more secure.
NO CHANGE. This sentence is correct. All items in the list are comparative adjectives. Safer and stronger
use -er, but secure uses more.
3. We cannot be worried about or terrified of the difficulties in life.
4. The actor taught his student how to read, how to stand, how to cry, and how to talk with fans.
5. The requirements for a chemistry degree are not as strict as the requirements for a medical degree.
OR: The requirements for a chemistry degree are not as strict as those for a medical degree. (Those refers to
the requirements)
6. You can join either the army or the navy.
7. The reorganization of the company is neither simple nor cheap.
8. When I was in high school, I learned how to play the piano and guitar.
9. Fred supports the idea because, first, it is simple; second, it is unique.
10. They are either our friends or our enemies.

VI. The following are troubled sentences. Fix it.
1. She loves fruit and ate only apples.
2. The engineers have been and will continue to conduct their experiments despite the rain.
3. The benefits that the company and its subsidiaries give to the community are plentiful and include fostering
community interaction with local high schools, contributing to the local property tax coffers, educational facility
construction in otherwise impoverished neighborhoods, green market conscious raising group establishment,
and improving good will with contiguous communities.
4. Recognizing that deceptive ads cheat the public but they do not want to lose income, TV stations keep on
showing them.
                                                         3
5. To earn money, gain prestige, getting people to contribute their time and effort, and sales are the main aims of
advertisers.
6. She limped across the verandah and proceeds to weep.
7. This story tells of the adventures of a hypochondriac who has been bothered by a painful kneecap and had
attempted several miracle cures and takes matters into his own hands and performs an amputation.
8. Run while there is still time and then you can stop to catch your breath.

Answers
1. She loves fruit and eats only apples. (the verbs need to be in the same tense)
2. The engineers have been conducting and will continue to conduct their experiments despite the rain. (the
verbs need to be parallel)
3. The benefits that the company and its subsidiaries give to the community are plentiful and include fostering
community interaction with local high schools, contributing to the local property tax coffers, constructing
educational facilities in otherwise impoverished neighborhoods, establishing a green market conscious-raising
group, and improving good will with contiguous communities. (the list of items needs to begin with &endash;ing
words)
4. Recognizing that deceptive ads cheat the public but not wanting to lose income, TV stations keep on showing
them. (the words recognizing and wanting need to be in the same form)
5. To earn money, gain prestige, get people to contribute their time and effort, and increase sales are the main
aims of advertisers. (all items in the series need to begin with verbs)
6. She limped across the verandah and proceeded to weep. (both verbs need to be parallel)
7. This story tells of the adventures of a hypochondriac who had been bothered by a painful kneecap and had
attempted several miracle cures and then took matters into his own hands and performed an amputation. (all the
verbs need to be parallel: been and attempted need to in the past perfect tense and take and perform need to be
in the simple past tense).
7. Run while there is still time and then stop to catch your breath. (both parts of the sentence need to be in the
imperative voice)

VII. Correct any errors in parallel structure in the following sentences. Two of the sentences are correct.
1. David has neither done the dishes nor has he made his bed.
2. Janet hopes to finish college, get a job, and to find her own apartment.
3. To learn proper grammar and writing effectively are my goals.
4. I plan to travel this summer either in Europe or Central America.
5. The suspect has sold his house, packed his belongings, and has left town.
6. Greg can't decide whether to enroll in Social Services or to choose General Arts.
7. He is both tired from jet lag, and he is irritated by the long line-ups.
8. Mr. Ames will write the report, proofread it, and mail it before tomorrow.
9. That student is studying English, psychology, and is taking two computer courses as well.
10. Not only are we paying for our daughter's wedding but also for the honeymoon.

VIII. Correct any errors in parallel structure in the following sentences. Two sentences are correct.
Reading trashy novels, the soaps, and eating junk food are Karen's only vices.
Matt is either studying in the library, or he is working in the computer lab.
I know how to brainstorm, write a good thesis statement, and I can organize my ideas well, too.
Amanda has trouble with study skills, memory techniques, and managing her time.
This weekend, Jason will both research his essay topic on the Internet, and he will also write the first draft of his
essay.
The disk in the sky revolved rapidly, emitted a humming sound, and then it began to descend slowly towards the
surface of the earth.
Hoping to thumb a ride and cross the border, the escaped prisoner cautiously approached the highway.
Although we enjoyed the article on Seven Years in Tibet, we have neither seen the movie nor read the book.
The members of the tour group boarded the bus wearily, endured a two-hour drive to the resort, and then they
discovered that they had no reservations.
The rebels not only attacked the village, but they also took several hostages.

IX. Correct any errors in parallel structure in the following sentences. Two sentences are correct.
1. Reading trashy novels, the soaps, and eating junk food are Karen's only vices.
2. Matt is either studying in the library, or he is working in the computer lab.
3. I know how to brainstorm, write a good thesis statement, and I can organize my ideas well, too.
4. Amanda has trouble with study skills, memory techniques, and managing her time.
5. This weekend, Jason will both research his essay topic on the Internet, and he will also write the first draft of
his essay.
                                                             4
6. The disk in the sky revolved rapidly, emitted a humming sound, and then it began to descend slowly towards
the surface of the earth.
7. Hoping to thumb a ride and cross the border, the escaped prisoner cautiously approached the highway.
8. Although we enjoyed the article on Seven Years in Tibet, we have neither seen the movie nor read the book.
9. The members of the tour group boarded the bus wearily, endured a two-hour drive to the resort, and then they
discovered that they had no reservations.
10. The rebels not only attacked the village, but they also took several hostages.

Key
Exercise VIII
1. David has neither done the dishes nor made his bed.
      (Two main verbs done and made after the two parts of the correlative conjunction)
2. Janet hopes to finish college, get a job, and find her own apartment.
      (Three verbs sharing the word to - of course, you could also repeat to each time,
         but that would sound unnecessarily repetitious)
3. To learn proper grammar and write effectively / To learn proper grammar and to write effectively / Learning
proper grammar and writing effectively are my goals.
      (Two verbs sharing to, two infinitives, or two ing words)
4. I plan to travel this summer either in Europe or in Central America.
      (Two complete prepositional phrases after the two parts of the correlative conjunction)
5. The suspect has sold his house, packed his belongings, and left town.
      (Three main verbs sharing the helper has)
6. Greg can't decide whether to enroll in Social Services or to choose General Arts.
      (Correct: two infinitives after the two parts of the correlative conjunction)
7. He is both tired from jet lag and irritated by the long line-ups.
      (Two adjectives after the two parts of the correlative conjunction)
8. Mr. Ames will write the report, proofread it, and mail it before tomorrow.
      (Correct: three main verbs sharing the helper will)
9. That student is taking English, psychology, and two computer courses.
      (Three nouns acting as objects for the verb is taking)
10. We paying not only for our daughter's wedding but also for the honeymoon. / Not only are we paying for our
daughter's wedding, but we are also paying for the honeymoon.
      (Either two prepositional phrases or two independent clauses after the two parts of the correlative
conjunction - but not one clause and one phrase)

Exercise IX
1.Reading trashy novels, watching the soaps, and eating junk food are Karen's only vices.
2.Matt is either studying in the library or working in the computer lab.
3. I know how to brainstorm, how to write a good thesis statement, and how to organize my ideas well. / I know
how to brainstorm, write a good thesis statement, and organize my ideas well.
4. Amanda has trouble with study skills, memory techniques, and time management.
5. This weekend, Jason will both research his essay topic on the Internet and write the first draft of his essay.
6. The disk in the sky revolved rapidly, emitted a humming sound, and then began to descend slowly towards
the surface of the earth.
7. Hoping to thumb a ride and cross the border, the escaped prisoner cautiously approached the highway.
Correct
8. Although we enjoyed the article on Seven Years in Tibet, we have neither seen the movie nor read the book.
9. The members of the tour group boarded the bus wearily, endured a two-hour drive to the resort, and then
discovered that they had no reservations.
10. The rebels not only attacked the village but also took several hostages.




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