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VIEWS: 72 PAGES: 11

									                                     FINAL EXAM KEY

                    BIOL 100 – CONCEPTS OF BIOLOGY



1. The scientific process involves


     rejection of hypotheses that are inconsistent with experimental
     results

2. All living organisms share all of the following features in common except

     can locomote

3. The largest, most inclusive grouping in the classification scheme is


    class


4. Pinus in the scientific name Pinus ponderosa is the


    genus


5. Thomas Malthus in 1798 proposed that populations of animals, including humans,

     increase geometrically while nutrients/food increase linearly


6. Hierarchical organization in living organisms goes from lowest to highest in which of the
     following statements.


     molecule; cell; organ; population; community

                                                   1
7. Water molecules are polar with ends that exhibit partial positive and negative charges. Such
    opposite charges make water molecules attract each other through bonds called


     hydrogen bonds

8. When water ionizes, it produces equal amounts of hydrogen and hydroxide ions, which can
    reassociate with each other. Water is thus


     a base and an acid


9. Compared with a pH of 7, a solution of pH 5 has


     100 times the hydrogen concentration

10. A scientist conducts a procedure that causes nitrogen atoms to gain neutrons. The resulting
     atoms will


     be isotopes of nitrogen

11. Macromolecules are disassembled in


     hydrolysis reactions

12. Carbohydrates are polymers formed of structural units called

     monosaccharides

13. The nitrogen base not found in DNA is called

     uracil




                                                   2
14. It has recently been discovered that enzyme-like catalysis can be carried out not only by
      enzymes but also by
         ribosomes

15. Schlieden and Schwann stated the “cell theory,” which in its modern form includes all of the
following postulates except


     All cells need oxygen.

16. In eukaryotes, mitochondria are the organelles primarily involved in


     energy release/capture

17. A type of transport of a solute across a membrane, up its concentration gradient, using
     protein carriers driven by the expenditure of chemical energy is known as

     active transport


18. As a scientist you perform an experiment in which you create an artificial cell with a
     selectively permeable membrane through which only water can pass. You put a 5M
     solution of glucose into the cell and you place that into a beaker of water. What
     observations do you expect to see?


     Water moves into the cell.




                                                   3
19. A molecule that stores energy by linking charged phosphate groups near each other is called


     ATP

20. In eukaryotes, the glycolytic reactions take place in the


     cytoplasm of the cell

21. Chemiosmotic generation of ATP in cellular respiration is driven by


     a difference in H+ concentration on the two sides of the
     mitochondrial membrane

22. The energy released in the mitochondrial electron transport chain is used to transport protons
     into the

     inter-membrane space of mitochondria

23. Flattened sacs of internal membranes which have proteins embedded and are associated with
     photosynthesis are called


     thylakoids


24. In green plant photosynthesis, the electron donor for the light dependent reaction is


     water




                                                    4
25. Photosystem II differs from photosystem I in that the following molecule is not made
     directly from the process


     NADPH

26. The dark reactions of photosynthesis are those that


     convert CO2 into reduced molecules (sugars)


27. What products of light reactions of photosynthesis are used in the Calvin cycle?

   ATP and NADPH


28. Which one of the following represents the interphase?


     G1 + G2 + S


29. The zygote has


     two copies of each chromosome

30. At the end of telophase II of meiosis, each of the four resulting cells contains


     one full set of chromosomes, each a single chromatid




                                                    5
31. A diploid organism that has two identical alleles for the same trait is called _______ for that
     particular trait.


     homozygous

32. An allele that is present but unexpressed is


     recessive

33. Yellow-seeded plants might be homozygous or heterozygous. We could find out which by
     crossing these plants with

     true breeding green-seeded plants

34. Let P = purple flowers and p = white, and T = tall plants and t = dwarf. What combinations
     of gametes could be produced by a heterozygote for both the traits?

       PT, Pt, pT, pt

35. One of the main reasons genes assort independent of one another is that


     they are on different chromosomes




                                                    6
36. Occasionally, chromosomes fail to separate during meiosis, leading to a condition in which
     the diploid number is not normal. This phenomenon is called


     nondisjunction


37. Irene and William are having their first child. Irene knows her blood type is A, but William
      does not know his blood type. However, William knows that his mother and father were B.
      Their first child is a boy named Gregory. Gregory has type O blood. Of course, Irene and
      William do not understand how this happened. You could explain this to them using which
      of the following choices?

     Irene’s genotype is AO, and William’s genotype is OO; thus,
     Gregory expresses the phenotype of O.

38. A person who has lost a large amount of blood but is still alive is found in a wrecked
     automobile under a highway bridge. Several people are helping the paramedics load the
     victim into the ambulance. After the ambulance has departed for the hospital, you overhear
     the following conversation from the persons who helped the paramedics. “I am certain that
     when that guy gets to the hospital, they will transfuse him with any blood that they have in
     the blood bank since he has lost so much blood." The other person says, "Yeah, I bet you're
     right!” Having had a biology course, you know which blood could be safely given to
     anyone. Select it below.

     O negative

39. DNA consists of two antiparallel strands of nucleotide chains held together by

     hydrogen bonds

40. The “one gene-one enzyme” hypothesis was proposed by

     Beadle and Tatum




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41. Fourteen percent of the DNA nucleotides from a certain organism contain T. What amounts
     of the other bases would you expect to be present in this particular DNA?

     14 % A, 36 % C, 36 % G

42. If a short sequence of DNA is AATTGCCGT, its complement is

    TTAACGGCA

43. The polypeptide making organelles residing in the cytoplasm are themselves large protein
     aggregates. These are called


     ribosomes

44. The nucleotide sequence of a mRNA codon is composed of how many bases?

      three

45. Eukaryotic mRNA molecules are occasionally interspersed with non-coding sequences that
     must be removed before protein synthesis. These are called

     introns

46. The Central Dogma of biology is stated as

     DNA RNA proteins

47. In small populations, frequencies of certain alleles may change by chance alone. Such
random change in the frequency of alleles is called

     genetic drift




                                                  8
48. In directional selection, over time


     the population is strongly selected for in one direction (e.g.,
     larger beak size)


49. Physical or morphological structures which resemble each other and share a similar function
     are called:

     homologous structures

50. Which of the following is least likely to be classified a vestigial trait in humans?

     fingers

51. A relationship which occurs when one member of the relationship is neither helped nor
     harmed and the other member derives some benefit is called


     commensalism

52. The actual niche the organism is able to occupy in the presence of competitors is called its


     realized niche

53. If two species attempt to occupy the exact same niche, with limited resources, one of them is
      likely to become

     extinct

54. A friend asks you for a definition of endemic because she is writing a history paper and this
     word keeps occurring in the literature in reference to bison on the Great Plains of the
     United States. Your response is that the word endemic means

     a species that lives in only one area of the Earth



                                                    9
55. Sea otters have been used as an example of the “Keystone Species” concept. This means that
     sea otters
      exert a particularly strong influence on the structure & function
      of their community


56. Economists have been comparing the monetary value of intact habitats with the value of
     using (destroying) those habitats (such as for logging or farming). They find

      Not relevant (question eliminated from exam)

57. Which of the following would be the best management strategy to avoid genetic drift in a
    small, isolated population?


   Translocation


58. The per captia intrinsic growth rate for a population of groundhogs, under optimal
    conditions (rmax) is 0.15 groundhogs /day. What is the approximate rate of population growth
    when this population equals 150 groundhogs (assume explosive growth to solve this
    problem)?

   23 mice/day (= 23 groundhogs/day!)

59. What is the approximate growth rate when the population of groundhogs consists of 150
    individuals and the environmental carrying capacity of the population is 250? Assume r is
    still 0.15 groundhogs/day.

   10 mice/day (= 9 groundhogs/day!)

Please use the lifetable pictured below to answer questions #60-62.

Age    m(x)   l(x)    l(x)m(x)
0      0      1       0
1      2      0.9     1.8
2      5      0.8     4.0
3      4      0.6     2.4
4      2      0.5     1.0
5      0      0.3     0
                                                  10
60. What is the probablility (in %) that an individual will survive to age 4?

    50 %


61. What is the probability (in %) that an individual will survive from age 2 to age 4?

    63 %

62. In what age category are individuals most “fit” (using Darwin’s definition of fitness)?

    Age 2


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