Genetic Engineering-Chp by fop21123


									CP Biology—Pratt
                             Genetic Engineering Test Review (Chp. 9)

Test Information
      50 questions worth ______ pts
      Diagrams: cloning, Recombinant DNA technology, gel electrophoresis, DNA fingerprinting
       patterns, mitosis and/or meiosis

Section 9.1 & 9.3
   1. What is a function of gel electrophoresis?
   2. What does analyzing DNA by gel electrophoresis allow
       scientist to do?
   3. Enzymes that cut DNA into fragments also create exposed
       nucleotides in the DNA fragment called
   4. Why does DNA finger printing work and why is used in
   5. If two DNA samples showed an identical pattern and thickness of bands produced by gel electrophoresis, what
       does this tell you about the samples?
   6. Study the process of producing a DNA fingerprint. Analyze the diagram below. What is occurring in each
       lettered phase and what is each phase called is applicable?
   7. What do the bands in letter B consist of?
   8. Why are the bands moving toward the positive side of the gel?
   9. On an electrophoresis gel, band B is closer to the positive end of the gel than is band A. What does that mean
       about the 2 samples? How are they different?
   10. Explain the size/mass of the DNA fragments in “C”
   11. Explain the size/mass of the DNA fragments in “D” and how compare/contrast with “C”
   12. Be able to read a fingerprint and example the differences in the bands (i.e. size, mass of the fragments, etc.)

   Section 9.2
   13. What is PCR? What does it stand for, and how is it used and why?
   14. How much DNA is needed to perform PCR?
   15. How is PCR like the “S” phase of Interphase or DNA synthesis?
   16. List the following ingredients that are needed in PCR techniques:

   Section 9.4
   17. The process of making changes in the DNA code of living organisms is
       called ______________________ (2 words)
   18. A DNA molecule produced by combining DNA from different sources is
       known as ________________________
   19. Enzymes that cut DNA into fragments also create exposed nucleotides in the
       DNA fragment called ___________________
   20. Bacteria often contain small circular molecules known as ___________
   21. What are sticky ends? How are they created?
   22. Discuss how these terms are related to one another and which one does not
       belong? (plasmid, transformed bacterium, foreign gene, recombinant DNA)
   23. What is a transgenic organism?
   24. Study the diagram of recombinant technology on the right. Discuss what is
       occurring in each numbered event (1-5):…see warm-up

CP Biology—Pratt
   25. Study the diagram: When is restriction enzyme used? Which step produces a recombinant plasmid? When
       does transformation occur?
   26. A gene that makes it possible to distinguish bacteria that carry a plasmid containing foreign DNA from those that
       don’t is called a(an) ____________________________
   27. What is a plasmid?
   28. What is recombinant DNA?
   29. List some uses of genetic engineering:
   30. What does it involve??
   31. What have been some advantages of using genetic engineering in agriculture?
   32. What have been some advantages of using genetic engineering in livestock?
   33. What have been some advantages of using genetic engineering in microorganisms?
   34. What is an advantage of using transgenic bacteria to produce human proteins such as insulin and Human Growth
   35. Who is Ian Wilmut and what did he do?
   36. Explain why Dolly was a clone?
   37. What kind of techniques do scientists use to make
       transgenic organisms?
   38. List the steps taken to produce transgenic bacteria that
       produce human insulin:
   39. Study the cloning diagram to the right. Be able to
       identify each event and the final results. Which sheep
       are identical? Which one is the clone? Etc.

Section 9.5 & 9.6
   40.   What is the purpose of gene therapy?
   41.   What is a genome?
   42.   What are the goals of the Human Genome Project?
   43.   How many of these goals have been completed?
   44.   What is genetic screening and what is the purpose
   45.   Be able to read a DNA profile of a child and determine which DNA sample comes from his parents. (50/50
         banding patterns)…1/2 of the child’s bands must come from mom and the other bands must come from dad.

Review Material:
   46. Monhybrid genetics crosses
   47. Draw a cell in prophase. Metaphase, anaphase and telophase
   48. What is the function of the nucleus?
   49. A germ cell contains 4 chromosomes, how many cells would the gamete contain?
   50. Which organelle converts sugars into energy?
   51. Living cells are continuously making a variety of proteins. This process occurs on what organelle?
   52. A plant cell is placed in a hypotonic solution. What will happen to the plant cell?
   53. Review the differences and similarities between mitosis and meiosis?
   54. Explain the structure of DNA…What is on the outside, and what is found on the inside?


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