HOW TO Install a pendant light by xpy36219


									HOW TO:                   Install a pendant light

                                                       This 'How to' explains the techniques involved in installing a new pendant
                                                       light. It shows how to identify the type of lighting circuit you'll be working
                                                       with, how to locate the circuit cables, and how to wire the switch cable and
                                                       the light fitting itself. You'll also find guidance on lifting floorboards and on
                                                       finishing off plaster surfaces and flooring.

                                                       The installation work isn't difficult, but you must observe all safety procedures.
                                                       If you're at all unsure about working with electrical wiring, use a professionally
                                                       qualified electrician.

                                                         X   Please note: safety disclaimer:
                                                        All diagrams relating to electrical wiring have been created in a colour format. If you are printing this
                                                        document in black and white, we advise you to follow these basic safety precautions:
                                                        1. Make a careful note of the colour diagrams as seen on your screen. Note the colour and
                                                           position of each wire in the diagram.
                                                        2. Follow all safety instructions provided by the manufacturer of the equipment you are using.
                                                        3. If in doubt, contact a qualified electrician.

What you’ll need
Materials                                              Tools & equipment
Abrasive paper – coarse and fine                       For installing wiring                                     Hard-point fine tooth handsaw
Ceiling rose                                           Ballpoint pen – for writing on masking tape               Junior hacksaw
Centre light fitting as alternative to ceiling rose    Block Surform                                             Masonry bits and 32mm flat bit
Conductor sleeving – red, green and yellow             Bradawl                                                   Pliers 150mm – insulated
Connector block 5 amp and 15 amp                       Brick laying bolster chisel –100mm                        Power tracer
Countersunk screws – 18mm x 4.7mm (No.8)               Cable/pipe finder                                         Screwdrivers
  woodchip, 45mm x 4.7mm (No.8) woodchip               Claw hammer                                                 • 4 x 100mm insulated
Insulation tape – black, red, green and yellow         Club hammer                                                 • 5 x 190mm insulated
Junction box 10 amp, 4 terminal                        Cold chisel – 25mm                                          • 8 x 150mm insulated
Lamp holder                                            Combination try square                                      • No.2 Pozi insulated
Light switch                                           Craft knife                                               Small file – 150mm flat tapered
1mm Lighting cable twin and earth                      Dustsheets                                                Stepladder
Lighting flex – 2 core for plastic, 3 core for metal   Electric drill with hammer facility plus                  Torch or portable light
  fittings                                               HSS drill bits                                          Tape measure
Masking tape                                           Electrician's draw tape (mole) or 4m x 1.5m               Wire cutters – insulated
Metal wall box for switch                              single core cable
                                                                                                                 Wire strippers – insulated
One coat plaster                                       Fibre pens – black, red, green, blue and brown
Oval plastic conduit for switch cable                  Floorboard saw                                            For information on plaster repairs, See
50mm Roundwire nails                                   Flooring or electrician's bolster chisel – 60mm           How to: Repair plaster walls and ceilings.
                                                       Hand-held circular saw

Before you begin
Identify your lighting circuit
For a description of loop-in and junction box systems, and guidance on identifying the
connections for both types of system, see How to: Remove a ceiling light.

Regulations govern the load a single lighting circuit may carry. These regulations allow
up to twelve 100 watt bulbs on a 5 amp re-wirable fuse or cartridge-fused circuit. A
6 amp miniature circuit breaker (MCB) may have up to 14 x 100 watt bulbs. As you
may use some bulbs with a higher wattage, it's good practice to restrict the circuit to
eight fittings.                                                                                                                                                      1
 HOW TO: Install a pendant light
 Before you begin (cont.)

 Isolate the circuit                                                                a
 Turn on all the house lights. At the consumer unit (fuse box), isolate
 each lighting circuit one at a time. Make a simple diagram showing
 which fuse operates the lights on each circuit. The lights will go out
 when that circuit is isolated.

 Wall lights might be fed from a ring main or power circuit via a fused             b
 spur point. see How to: Install wall lights and downlighters (fig. 6).

 If there's no ceiling light, an existing switch will operate wall lights or will
 have operated a light that has been removed. You need to trace the
 circuit that feeds this switch.

 Ensure good light
 Make sure you have adequate lighting. Try to work in daylight.
 Clear room
 Clear as much furniture from the room as possible, roll back the carpet
 and lay down dustsheets. Clear access to the area above the ceiling.

 Mark position of new light
 Carefully measure and mark on the ceiling the position for the new
 light. Transfer the position onto the floor above and take up that
 section of flooring.
                                                                                              figs. 1a, b, c

          Safety tip
      It's dangerous and against electrical regulations to have different circuits
      feeding into the same switch box.

 Finding cable runs
 See How to: Remove a ceiling light (figs. 1,2) for information about where to
 find circuit cables. If the cables are in a roof space, you should see them fairly easily.
 If they're in a floor space, remove the floorboards to locate them.

 If the cables are not immediately apparent, use a torch and mirror to locate them. With
 the power turned off, gently tug them to see how much play there is. If there's not
 enough to reach the intended position, take up another section of board to enable
 easy access.

 Use a power tester to check that the cable you've located is on the right circuit. Hold              fig. 2
 the tester on the cable and get a friend to turn that circuit on and off at the consumer
 unit or fused spur see above: ‘Isolate the circuit’.

 Ensure that the cable you're dealing with is a main feed cable and not a switch or
 lighting supply cable. See the circuits for wall lights (figs. 1a, 1b, 1c) .

 See How to: Install wall lights & downlighters (figs. 1, 5) .

                                                                                                      fig. 3                                                                                                 2
 HOW TO: Install a pendant light
 Finding cable runs (cont.)

 Lifting flooring
 Floorboards – square edge
 Remove any screws holding the boards down. Insert a flooring bolster between boards
 and lever back with your foot to prise the board up (fig. 2). If necessary use a flooring
 saw to cut the board across the centre line of the joists (fig. 3). If the board is nailed
 down, the nails will come up with the board.

          Safety tip
                                                                                              fig. 4
     Remove the nails from the lifted boards immediately.

 Floorboards – tongue-and-grooved
 Set a hand-held circular saw to 3mm less than the thickness of the boards – about
 19mm. Saw along the board joints to cut through the tongue (fig. 4). Continue as
 for square edge floorboards.

 Chipboard flooring – tongue-and-grooved
 Mark out an area approximately 600 x 600mm. Check over this area with a cable/pipe
 finder to ensure there are no hidden hazards. Use the circular saw, set to 19mm depth,
 to cut through the flooring (fig. 5) and remove the section.
                                                                                              fig. 5

 Running cables
 1. Install the switch cable
 Using an existing switch cable
 If there's an existing switch cable, which once served a centre light, you can reuse it
 provided it's twin & earth cable and not old. Wire it into a junction box or connector
 strips where the old light used to be.

          Safety tip
     If your cables don't have an earth wire, or if the covering is rubber or even
     lead, the wiring is very old, potentially dangerous and should be replaced.
                                                                                              fig. 6

 Installing a new switch cable
 If you need to install a switch cable, isolate the circuit at the consumer board then
 remove the switch plate. Check if any other switch cables are run in conduit or
 trunking, and if there's room to run an extra cable.

 Disconnect the switch plate from the cable. Connect the old cable firmly to an
 electrician's draw tape or other draw wire (fig. 6). With someone feeding it from
 below, pull the cable and draw tape up into the ceiling cavity.

 Strip 150mm off the outer cover off the new cable, attach this cable to the draw
 tape together with the old cable and, with someone feeding from the top, pull the
 old and new cables down into the switch box.

 Replace the switch plate with a 2 gang version and wire it as shown (fig. 7).                fig. 7                                                                                         3
 HOW TO: Install a pendant light
 Running cables (cont.)

 Run the new switch cable to the junction box position above the ceiling. The ceiling
 space cables may be run between the joists. If possible, clip the cables to the joists
 at 250mm intervals. If the cables have to cross joists, drill holes through the joists
 above the centre line, at least 50mm from the top. The line of holes should be at
 least 450mm from the end of the joists. Holes near the ends or at the centre of joists
 will weaken them.

 2. Reinforce the ceiling
 To ensure a strong fixing for the light, cut a piece of 18 to 25mm thick board to fit
 between the joists. Screw two pieces of batten 25 x 50mm to this board. Fix the board
                                                                                             fig. 8
 in place with 45mm x 4.7mm (No.8) screws or 50mm round wire nails (fig. 8).

 3. Wire the light fitting
 Run a cable from the pendant light position to the junction box position. From below,
 drill a 32mm hole up through the ceiling and wooden support.

 At the pendant light position, either wire the cable into a ceiling rose or use
 connector blocks to wire it to a light fitting. See How to: Remove a ceiling light
 (figs. 5,7).

 With the circuit still isolated (double check with the power tester), cut the feed cable
 and wire both cut ends with the switch and light supply cables into a 20 amp four-
 plate junction box. See How to: Remove a ceiling light (fig. 6).                            fig. 9

      Be generous with cable at terminations. Always allow an extra loop of 300mm.
      This allows for easier handling as well as changes at a later date.

 Fixing cables in masonry walls
 If you can't feed an extra cable into the switch box, you'll need to chase out the wall.

 First isolate the circuit at the consumer board.

 Then use a spirit level and pencil to mark a channel (chase) above the switch. Cut
 along both sides of the chase with a bolster chisel and club hammer. The chase must
 be deep and wide enough to take a length of 25mm wide oval plastic (conduit) tube,
 plus a 5mm covering of plaster (fig. 9).

 Feed the cables from the ceiling through the tube into the switch box. Press the
 tube into the chase (fig. 10) and, if necessary, hold it in position with large headed,
                                                                                            fig. 10
 galvanized clout nails either side of the tube and fixed into the mortar.

          Safety tip
     Wear heavy leather gloves and safety goggles when chasing out a wall.

                                                                                            fig. 11                                                                                        4
 HOW TO: Install a pendant light
 Feeding cables inside stud partition walls

 You may be able to feed cables through see above: ‘Installing a new switch cable'.
 If this isn't possible, cut a hole to suit a plasterboard box for the switch.

 Drill down from above the ceiling through the ceiling plate. If the ceiling plate runs
 parallel to and under a joist, you must angle the hole (fig. 11).

 If the wall is over 2.4m high, there may be a horizontal support, a 'noggin', between
 the studs. Cut away an area of plasterboard to reveal the noggin and either drill
 through it or cut a channel on its face (fig. 12).

 Some partition walls have a cardboard egg box structure within. The only way to          fig. 12
 overcome this is to drive a length of metal conduit down vertically from above.

 Finishing off
 Once you've completed and tested all the wiring, make good the walls and floors.
 See How to: Repair plaster walls and ceilings.

 Relay the flooring and screw it down using 38mm x 4.7mm (No.8)countersunk wood-
 chip screws. Take care not to penetrate any other cables or pipework. You may need to
 screw in battens to support boards that you've cut (fig. 13).

 Replace chipboard with new. Use pincers to remove the bottom section of the
 groove and attach extra support battens as necessary (fig. 14).   HB                     fig. 13

                                                                                          fig. 14                                                                                      5

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