Project Management Training Material by ocak

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									       An Introduction to

Project Management

      Training Event
      for Managers

                     Project Management ProgrammeNotes for Participants

                  An Introduction to Project Management
                               for Managers

About the Course:

This course is designed for those people who have a requirement to be Managers of
Projects as part of their organisational roles.

No prior knowledge of project management is required to take part in the course. As the
course is being delivered on a practical experiential basis where participants will be
asked to consider the live projects on which they are working during the course of the
session some spread of knowledge and experience is not unwelcome.

The course notes have been designed to provide a portfolio of practical techniques and
guidance points which can be used in any future projects in which participants are
engaged. Please make any additional notes on them that you wish. Space has been
provided for you to do this.

Aims of the Course:

1. Appreciate and be familiar with basic concepts of Project Management

2. To evaluate the appropriateness of a project management approach to specific
   activities, and then use that project management approach where it is appropriate

3. Learn and implement Project Management methodologies

Objectives of the Course:

By the end of the course you will be able to:

1. Use 20 specific tools and techniques to improve control of projects and achievement
   of project objectives

2. Be able to evaluate the appropriateness of specific tools for improving project

3. Use the material within this workbook as evidence of underpinning knowledge for
   appropriate vocational qualifications

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                                 Workbook Contents

   Project Tool                              Subject                           Page No.

                          Course Aims                                              1
                          Programme Outline                                        3
         *1               Project Definitions                                      4
                          Project Life Cycle                                       6
                          Commissioning Process                                    7
         2                The Successful Project                                   8
         *3               The Business Case                                        10
         *4               The Project Mandate                                      11
         *5               Triple Constraints                                       13
        *6-8              Project Initiation                                       22
         *9               Work Breakdown Structure                                 25
        *10               Dependency                                               26
         11               Project Block Template                                   27
        *12               Gantt Charts                                             28
         13               “Crashing”                                               30
         14               Control Charts                                           31
        *15               Milestones                                               34
        *16               “What If........”                                        35
         17               Directing a Project                                      40
        *18               Closing a Project                                        44
        *19               Project Pitfalls, stumbling blocks, cures                45
                          Further Reading                                          50
                          Glossary of Terms                                        51

Tools which are starred are those which will be focussed in on during the session.
Others will either be referred to or will be covered if there is a specific participant
requirement to do so in the time available.

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                                  Outline Programme

                                  Notes for participants


Start Time:


                                  “I hear and I forget,
                                I see and I remember,
                                    I do and I learn.”

The programme will be highly participative. You will be asked to work on live current (or
anticipated) projects within small groups. The programme will therefore be built around a
number of short presentations on the subjects above following which you will be asked
to apply what you have heard to your live material.

The specific time allocation will be flexible to provide sufficient opportunity for you to
apply learning directly to the work you are engaged in.

There will be breaks in the morning and afternoon for teas/coffee and a break at lunch.

As it is a participative programme applying learning to your own work, please be
prepared briefly to discuss a current or anticipated „project‟ in which you are involved. Do
not feel concerned if you are not sure whether or not that piece of work constitutes a
project as this will be the starting point for debate.

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                             The Times They are a Changin‟
                                   Robert Zimmerman

What is a Project?

Some definitions:

“.....a complex effort to achieve a specific objective within a schedule and budget target,
which typically cuts across organisational lines, is unique and is usually not repetitive
within the organisation.”      (Cleland and King; cited -Institute of Management)

“..A human endeavour which creates change; is limited in time and scope; has mixed
goals and objectives; involves a variety of resources; and is unique.”
(Anderson, Grude, Haug and Turner. Op cit.)

“A project is goal orientated. It consists of connected and interrelated tasks and
activities, which typically have some elements of dependency between them. A project
has limited duration with a fixed start and end point and has some elements of
(Fred Pryor)

“a management environment that is created for the purpose of delivering one or more
business products according to a specified business case…a temporary organisation
that is needed to produce a unique and pre-defined outcome or result at a pre-specified
time using pre-determined resources”            (Prince2)

“A project is a fractal process in which each component is an exact image on a
smaller scale of a larger component.” (Beeching and Jones 1996)

It is important to recognise however that project tools represent a general approach to
work not just to specifically identified projects. So:

Project Tool 1: Project Definition

Questions to ask:

1. Does our activity have a specific, measurable goal or goals?

2. Does our activity contain connected or related tasks?

3. Does it have an identifiable start and end point?

4. Does it contain elements of uniqueness?

5. Or if it doesn‟t can it be made to do so?

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                     Project Management ProgrammeNotes for Participants

Why Projects at all?

Consider the following from Management Guru Tom Peters:

The Professional Service organisation – whether it has 2 or 22,222 employees – has an
invariant common denominator: the Project. Projects – with beginnings and ends and
clients and products – are what professional service firms do. Full stop. Join one, and you‟ll
find yourself on a project team by noon of your first day at work; and you‟ll be on a project
team for good…

The high-impact project is the gem..the nugget..the fundamental atomic particle from which
the new white collar world will be constructed and/or reconstructed.

Or this from equally renowned Leadership thinker Warren Bennis:

The bureaucratic organisation is becoming less and less effective…It is hopelessly out of
joint with contemporary realities, shapes, patterns, and models are emerging
which promise drastic change in the conduct of organisations and in managerial practices
in general. So within the next twenty five years we should all witness, participate in and
actively work towards the end of bureaucracy and the rise of new social systems better
able to cope with 21st century demands.

The National Programme for IT in the NHS: NAO Summary Report June 2006

„The Department, NHS organisations and NHS Connecting for Health should put in place
training and development programmes to strengthen capability, including project
management and IT skills available to the wider NHS, continuing its work with the Office of
Government Commerce. The shortage of such skills is an immediate risk to the timely
implementation of the Programme, and strengthening capacity in these areas will be a long-
term asset for the NHS‟


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The Project Life Cycle

                                 the Project

                                  the Project


     Monitor                                                     Adjust




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The Commissioning Process

            Problem /

        Prioritisation and                         Outline Business
        Definition process                          case analysis

                               Project Mandate

                                Project                   Selection:    Project
                             Commencement                 Manager,      Project

                                                              Project Brief

                                                             Project Board

                                                              Project Team

                             Project Initiation              Project Initiation
                                                            Document Agreed

         Project Implemented                      Meeting Cycles
              & Managed                              (Board)

                                                         Celebration - Summary
                             Project Closed                   of Learning &
                                                            incorporation of
                                                         Organisational Learning

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                                 Beginnings are dangerous times
                                      Mentat Thufir Hawat

Project Tool 2: The Successful Project

Are these ingredients in place?
All successful IT projects contain 15 ingredients:

1. An internal senior management sponsor who is committed to the project

2. A clear connection exists between the organisation‟s strategy and the project

3. A realistic budget & schedule are in place

4. One person manages the budget, scope and resources

5. Expectations are properly set

6. Scope is well designed and constrained

7. The need to develop the project over several generations is accepted

8. Users are involved early on in the design of the project

9. There is the sophistication to understand that there are always choices in technology and

10. Analysis is done of the effects of the project on other key systems in the organisation

11. There is a desire on the part of users to work with and help the developers and vice versa

12. Everyone is aware the clock is ticking

13. Issues are dealt with as quickly as they arise

14. All dealings are open and frank

15. The project‟s impact is measured, so that everyone can learn lessons from both success and

Again many of these issues will also need to be addressed within non-IT. Projects


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                   PMI Survey of ten top challenges facing Project Managers

                                                         2002        2001        change
Challenge                                                results     results

Shifting organisational priorities                       50%         43%         +7
Lack of clarity in the Scope of the Project              49%         50%         -1
Project Changes not well managed                         40%         35%         +5
Project Risk not Assessed or Managed                     36%         37%         -1
Lack of Project Management Skills                        33%         34%         -1
Loss of Control Due to Lack of Detail in Project Plans   22%         21%         +1
Project does not include all Stakeholder Needs           22%         21%         +1
Project not Linked to Organisational Goals               21%         20%         -1
Conflict Among Project Team Members                      17%         17%         0
Lack of Senior Management Support/Buy in                 10%         11%         -1


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A key tool at this stage is the Business Case

What is the Business Case?

The Business Case can be defined as:

The justification for the undertaking of a project based on the estimated cost of
development and the anticipated business benefits to be gained.

The Business Case is used to say why the forecast effort and time will be worth the
expenditure. The on-going viability of the project will be monitored by the Project Board
against the Business Case. (See below)

Evaluating the business case is clearly a critical dimension in the establishing of a
project. It both enhances the commissioning process and forces a comprehensive
analysis of the validity in the activity – ensuring a focus on „results‟ rather than activities.

The strategic focus and required „PEST‟ research through analysing of the business
case can additionally provide further insight into the area of Project sponsorship and
political ownership. Where a Project is part of a wider Programme the initial Business
Case for the Project may have already been developed on behalf of the Programme

Project Tool 3: Business Case

 Composition:

   reasons
   benefits
   benefits realisation
   cost and timescale
   Cost/Benefit Analysis

One of the more neglected aspects of the Business Case is the third component:
Benefits Realisation. It is widely recognised (through bitter experience) that the benefits
promised from a project don‟t just happen. They have to be made to happen.

A classic example is a new IT system installation. Simply installing the hardware and
software (and even training staff to use the system) are not sufficient (although given the
number of IT projects where that is all that has happened you might think that it was). It
is vitally important to devise some measures of what will constitute success and a
strategy for ensuring they are implemented. For example if it is stated in the Business
Case that a new IT system will reduce the amount of time front line staff spend on non
essential tasks so using their time more productively then a measure needs to be
devised: 5%? 10%? Over what timescale? A month? Two years? Someone also needs
to check that this is actually happening. Ensuring a Benefits Realisation work stream is
devised and implemented is a key Project Board role.

Having determined there is a Business Case for the Project; we are clear a Project
approach is appropriate and that the organisational priority of the project is sufficient to

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                      Project Management ProgrammeNotes for Participants

merit the investment of resources we now need formally to approve the activity.

Project Mandate

Why do we need a formal mandate and how does it differ from the Business Case?

Essentially the Business Case is what has persuaded us to go ahead; the Mandate is
the formal approval to do so. It shows there is an organisational legitimacy and status to
what is being proposed and forces clarity on our thinking.

It also provides an explicit link between the pre project planning and the formal planning
of the project itself. Where a Project is part of a wider Programme a Project Mandate for
that Project is likely to have been developed for the Programme Board.

The establishing of a project‟s status and scope are critical to its success (not least
because they will help to define what success is).

If there is a lack of clarity at start up it is unlikely matters will become clearer as they go

Once the Mandate has been approved thinking and planning can start regarding Starting
up the Project and can form the basis of negotiation and clarification with the Project
Manager regarding what the tasks are they are being asked to achieve and what their
role will be in achieving those tasks.

Project Tool 4: Example Mandate

The actual composition of a Project Mandate will vary according to the type and size of
project and also the environment in which the mandate is generated. The project may be
a completely new piece of work which has just arisen, it may be the outcome of an
earlier investigation or it may be part of a larger programme.

The following list contains suggested contents, and should be tailored to suit the specific

   Authority responsible
   Background
   Project objectives
   Scope
   Constraints
   Interfaces
   Quality expectations
   Outline Business Case (reasons)
   Reference to any associated documents or products
   An indication of who are to be the Executive of the Project Board and Project
   The customer(s), user(s) and any other known interested parties who might form
    part of the Project Board.

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Clarifying the Commission:

“..If the question is wrong in the first place, all you can ever hope to achieve,
 irrespective of the effort, the best of a number of wrong answers” (Jones 95)

The first and most critical part of a project „life span‟ is negotiating the commission.
Whilst on the surface this may appear a simple issue of asking what‟s wanted, proper
clarification of commission is a subtle and complex process. Consider this scenario
and see how often it has applied to your activities:

     You are asked to undertake a piece of work / project (usually on top of your
     „ordinary‟ workload). You industriously work away to achieve clear and concrete
     outcomes. You take these outcomes back to the „commissioner‟ only then to
     discover that what you have doesn‟t actually match what they believe they asked
     for. And that in fact the „problem‟ is not only still there anyway, but that your efforts
     are exacerbating it!

A number of important questions arise:

         Who are the key stakeholders?
Is the immediate „commissioner‟ the main stakeholder? Does the person doing the
commission have full authority over the outcome?

        What problem is this a solution to?
How clear are they that the outcome they are asking for will resolve the issue - i.e. are
they presenting you with a solution or a problem?........ Will the intended outcome in fact
merely replace one problem with another - or worse, amplify existing ones!?

       What is being said about the role you are seen as taking?
How explicit is the authority that you will have? Are you being seen as „project manager?
Leader? Administrator? In what way do you see your role differently?

And finally,......

       What motivates them?
Nothing should be assumed!

Project Tool 5 (following) begins to help with these issues.


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                     Project Management ProgrammeNotes for Participants

Fast, Good, Cheap……You can have any two!
The Driver Triangle:

Project Tool 5:

The Triple Constraints:

1. Time Constraint:      When is the outcome required?
2. Budget Constraint:    What resources do we have available?
3. Performance Criteria: What are the quality issues?

These constraints determine the Project Scope. It is vital that we determine at the outset
which of these is the Driver Constraint for our sponsors i.e. which of these is the most
important to them, and which is the Least Constraint, i.e. which of these is the least
important to them. This is so we know when we have to modify our project plan as we
proceed, as we will, which drivers are negotiable and which not, which drivers can we
trade on, which drivers must we not allow any slippage on.

It is the sponsors‟ driver which is the key not yours.

Never assume!

The key tool here is the “what if....” question. The use of hypothetical questions to
determine the driver.
       E.g. “What would your reaction be if in order to complete on time, we had to add
additional staff?”

The Triple Constraints:


                                         “M ust be
                                      done yesterday”

                      “50 quid &                            “Perfection
                   no more!”                              is minimum acceptable”

Cost                                                                             Quality


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The Project Brief (see below) may well form the outcome of these discussions which
could be one to one between Project Executive and Project Manager with the Project
Mandate as the starting point.

Starting up a Project

Now that we have defined our commission and obtained a mutually clear understanding
of the direction in which we are going. Practical steps can be taken to begin the process
of starting the Project up.

                        Project Structure (based on Prince2)

                            Programme Management

                                     Project Board
Senior User                   Project Executive              Senior Supplier
                                   Project Manager

                                    Project Team(s)


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When considering representation on a Project Board three interests must be
represented at all times:


The product(s) of the project should meet a business need. The project should give
value for money. There should, therefore, be representation from the business viewpoint
to ensure that these two pre-requisites exist before commitment to the project is made,
and remain in existence throughout the project. The Executive role (see below) is
designed to look after the business interests (representing the Customer). In a Public
Sector context people sometimes struggle with the term business: try replacing it with
terms like operational, clinical or service.


There will be an individual, group or groups for whom some or all of the following will

   they will use the final product
   the product will achieve an objective for them
   they will use the end-result to deliver benefits
   they will be impacted by the outcome.

The User presence is needed to specify the desired outcome and ensure that the project
delivers it. User management should therefore be represented on the Project Board.


The creation of the end product (and possibly its subsequent operation) will need
resources with certain skills. Representation is needed from the Supplier who will
provide the necessary skills.


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The key point is that the Project Board is part of the overall Project Management Team
not separate from it.

Avoid the twin perils of micro managing and „fire and forget‟

The five key activities for this stage of the Project are listed below:

                           Step 1: Appointing a Project Executive and a Project Manager

Appointing a Project Executive:

The Project Executive is the person ultimately accountable for the project (not the
Project Manager). Throughout the Project the Executive owns the Business Case and
provides the link to wider and higher organisational management. The Executive will also
be the key decision maker for the Project. So the Executive needs to be someone of
sufficient organisational weight to be able to take on this role.

The Executive also has a key role in selling the project.

Selling is a frequently underestimated but vital role for successful project
implementation. Successful projects must be sold to team members, the wider
organisation and users of the projects outcomes.

Where a Project is part of a wider Programme the way in which individual Project
Management Teams are defined and how projects interface with a programme may
differ from project to project. The decision must be made during the start-up process of
the project, and the roles and responsibilities for that project at both project and
programme level defined clearly.


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It is likely the Programme Board will take responsibility for establishing the Project
Board. However, having appointed the Project Executive, the Programme Board may
choose to delegate the appointment of the remainder of the Project Board and Project
Management Team to the Project Executive, rather than making all the appointments
themselves. Whichever option is followed, serious consideration must be given both to
the need for programme representation and the need for the project to be seen to be
locally owned, so allowing for the adoption of the project‟s output by the Customer and

Appointing a Project Manager:

The Project Manager is given authority to run the project on a day to day basis on
behalf of the Project Board and within the constraints that Board has laid down. Again in
a Programme the Project Manager may be part of a wider Programme Team.

Hints & Tips for Appointing a Project Manager:

Consider high quality people part time as an option

Where the Project Manager does not have direct authority over staff required to work
on or with the project the agreement of the relevant managers should be sought and
maintained throughout the Project (this task will almost certainly fall to the Project

Remember the Project Manager‟s role is to manage the work not to do it

Project Managers are Managers not Magicians


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   Step 2: Designing & Appointing a Project Board (in conjunction with the Project

Project Tool 6: The Project Board:

The Project Board is part of the overall Project Management process and not separate
from it. The role of the Project Board is to represent at a Managerial Level the business,
user and supplier interests. They must have authority for decision making and
committing of resources. They are responsible for ensuring that the project remains on
course and delivers the outcome to the specified quality standard. They therefore
provide the project with organisational presence, thus avoiding the pitfall of “Appoint and

Project Board membership is determined by a number of factors:
 Requirements of a Programme
 (Strategic) Management Ownership
 Key Stakeholder inclusion
 Presence of Expertise (either product or project)
 Quality assurance

As well as the Project Executive & Project Manager two key interests should be
represented on any Project Board: Users & Suppliers.

These representatives need to be at a senior level in order to be able to deliver the tasks
required from them:


Representing the interests of those who will use the final product(s) of the project or
receive the benefits the project is designed to produce

As Project Boards have to make decisions it is important that representatives have
sufficient authority to be able to make those decisions. Similarly it is important that the
Project Board does not have too many members (this is a particular issue on the User
side). If there is a broad and varied user constituency User Group(s) can be formed.
The Executive of the Group(s) can then represent User interests on the Project Board.


Representing the interests of those who will actually create the products being realised
by the project

Project Board members need to be very clear as to their roles and responsibilities
before taking on the task of membership

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   Step 3: Recruitment of a Project Team (in conjunction with Project Manager)

There are probably as many different ways of staffing a project as there are projects.
There are nevertheless some good practice guidelines which can help you decide what
the appropriate model for your particular project is.


 A Programme will almost certainly require full time Project Managers for the different
projects within the programme. It may be necessary to supplement the Project Manager
with some kind of project assistant role. Larger projects within the Programme may also
benefit from use of the role of Team Manager (some times also known as a (Work
Stream or Work Package Leader). This is an optional role but the Project Manager may
find it is beneficial to delegate responsibility for planning and delivery of certain
deliverables. This may be dictated by the size of the project, particular specialist skills or
knowledge (especially if these are outside the project) or geographical location. It is
important too that the need for this role is identified at this stage of project planning and
agreed with the appropriate board.

Large Project:

The definition of large should be seen not just in financial terms but also organisational
impact. Again this may well require a full time Project Manager, or at the very least a
formally identified role. Again, the Project Manager is likely to be supplemented by
individual Team Managers responsible for managing different work streams within the
project. These may be full time, part time or undertaking the role alongside other duties
depending on the size and complexity of the project and the resources available. They
may be delivering work as individuals or ensuring that work is being undertaken by staff
they manage.

Small Project:

May only require an identified Project Manager but it is a rare project where a Project
Manager is capable of undertaking all the work themselves and some kind of informal or
„virtual‟ version of the approaches described above may be appropriate.

The key is to plan on the basis of what is actually needed to undertake the work required
(Tools later in this guide can help with this).

One final point on project organisation: it is a common mistake to confuse those who are
responsible for directing and overseeing the Project (the Project Board) with those who
are actually doing the work (the Project Team) whether they are full, part-time or virtual.

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   Step 4: Preparing a Project Brief (in conjunction with Project Manager)

Project Tool 7: Project Brief

The following is a suggested list of contents which should be tailored to the
requirements and environment of each project.

   Background
   Project Definition, explaining what the project needs to achieve. It will contain

   project objectives
   project scope
   outline project products and / or desired outcomes
   any exclusions
   constraints
   interfaces

 Outline Business Case
description of how this project supports business strategy, plans or programmes
 reason for selection of this solution

   Customer‟s Quality Expectations
   Acceptance Criteria
   Any known risks.

The Project Brief is developed from the Project Mandate supplied at the start of the
project and you will note that there is a close relationship in form and content between
the two documents. Essentially this is to help the defining and redefining of the
Commission; the more is written down in greater levels of detail the clearer the
Commission will be (although clearly the level will depend on the complexity of the
project). Again the fractal nature of projects begins to emerge. Where a Project is part of
a wider Programme the Project Brief for the Project may have already been developed
on behalf of the Programme Board.

The notion of reframing or redefining a project as it progresses is not one about which
we should become anxious. Indeed it is the very nature of projects that we need to have
the confidence and tools to do this. Nor should we be becoming anxious because we
haven‟t „started‟ yet. Time spent planning is never wasted!


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   Step 5: Allocate appropriate Project Assurance

The Project Board members do not work full time on the Project and therefore place a
great deal of reliance on the Project Manager. There is a need then in the project
organisation for monitoring all aspects of the project‟s performance and products
independent of the Project Manager. This is the Project Assurance function.

Specific responsibilities

The implementation of the assurance roles needs to answer the question `What is to be
assured? ` A list of possibilities might include:

   maintenance of thorough liaison throughout the project between the Supplier and the
   User needs and expectations are being met or managed
   risks are being controlled
   expenditure and schedule
   adherence to the Business Case
   constant reassessment of the value-for-money solution
   fit with the overall programme
   the right people are being involved in product creation
   products are being checked for quality at the right time and by the right people
   an acceptable solution is being developed
   the project remains viable
   the scope of the project is not `creeping up` unnoticed
   realisation of benefits
   focus on the business need is maintained
   internal and external communications are working
   the needs of specialist interests, for example security, are being observed
   adherence to quality assurance standards.

It is not enough to believe that standards will be adhered to. It is not enough to ensure
that the project is well set up and justified at the outset. All the possibilities listed above
need to be checked throughout the project as part of ensuring that it remains consistent
with and continues to meet a business need and that no change to the external
environment affects the validity of the project.

In theory these project assurance functions are part of the role of each Project Board
member. According to the needs and desires of the Project Board, any of these
assurance responsibilities can be delegated, as long as the recipients are independent
of the Project Manager and the rest of the team(s). There will also need to be a link
between Programme and Project Assurance where the Project is part of a wider


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                         A Plan is useless. Planning is everything
                                   President Eisenhower

Now and only now are we ready to start the Project!

Project Initiation

Once we have established our commission in broad terms we now need to firm this up
more systematically. The key phase here is Project Initiation. This may be defined as:

Authorising the Project (starting the project off on the right foot)

What a project is aiming to achieve
Why it is important to achieve it
Who is going to be involved in managing the process and what their responsibilities are
How and When this is all going to happen

Formally marking the point that project has actually begun.

The most useful tool here is what is called the Project Initiation Document. This
represents the project team‟s “contract” with the project‟s sponsors. As well as clearly
defining what the project team will do the Project Initiation Document also “protects” the
team in the sense that the Project Initiation Document also defines what will not be
done, as well as making clear any assumptions, risks, time, resource and budgetary
requirements which are apparent at this initial stage.

so that there is common understanding of:

   the adequacy of reasons for doing the project
   what key products the project will deliver
   how an when these will be delivered and at what cost
   the scope of what is to be done
   any constraints which apply to the product to be delivered
   any constraints which apply to the project
   who is to be involved in the project decision making
   how the quality required will be achieved
   what Risks are faced
   how the project is to be controlled

   the next commitment the Project Manager is looking for in the light of detailed
    planning for the next stage


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This information can be agreed as informally as the Project Board and Project Manager
wish. The Project Manager should always document the understanding, however
small the project, and get it signed by the Project Board, even if this is one person.
Peoples‟ recollection of a verbal agreement can differ weeks, or even days, later.

In formal terms the objectives of Initiating a Project are to:

   document and confirm that an acceptable Business Case exists for the project
   ensure a firm and accepted foundation to the project, prior to commencement of the
    work, via the creation of the Project Initiation Document
   enable and encourage the Project Board to take ownership of the project
   enable and encourage the Project Board to make a decision on whether the project is
    viable, and to agree to the commitment of resources to the first stage of the project
   provide the baseline for the decision-making processes required during the project‟s
   ensure that by carrying out Initiation in an organised manner, the investment of time
    and effort required by the project is made wisely, taking account of the risks to the
   monitor progress of against the plans for the initial stages of the project.
   Provide the project with an identity and profile within the wider organisation

Much of the information should come from the Project Mandate, enhanced in the
Project Brief. Parts of these documents, such as the Project Plan and Business Case,
will be updated and refined as the Project progresses. Where the Project is part of a
wider programme the Project Initiation Document will need to make explicit reference as
to the project‟s fit within the Programme.

Put simply Project Initiation is:

   Setting our Objectives (what is it we want the project to achieve)
   Defining the scope (what will the boundaries of the project be)
   Establishing the strategy (how will we deliver)
   Deriving the Work Breakdown Structure & initial High Level GANTT Chart
   Embodying this understanding in the Project Initiation Document

Failure to define your project adequately by this stage will have disastrous
consequences later on.


                                             23                  Worcestershire ICT Programme
                     Project Management ProgrammeNotes for Participants

Project Tool: 8 The Project Initiation Document

Key Elements in the PID

   Background (including Authority and Project Sponsor)
   Project Definition including:
           •   Approach (if not defined elsewhere)
           •   Customer(s)
           •   Objectives
           •   Scope (Drivers)
           •   Constraints
   Assumptions
   Business Case (may cross refer)
   Project Organisation Structure (including Roles & Responsibilities)
   Communication Plan
   Initial Project Plan including:
           •   Costs/budget
           •   Resources
           •   Deliverables/Products
           •   Project Phases and Timetable (High Level)
   Project Controls
   Exception Process
   Initial Risk Log
   Contingency Plan
   Project Filing Structure


                                           24              Worcestershire ICT Programme
                             Project Management ProgrammeNotes for Participants

     A Phased Approach:

     “Miracles need to broken down into totally impossible tasks, into
     phenomenally difficult bits, into very hard problems...,.....,....... ,

     Breaking a huge task down into manageable and achievable chunks is the essence of
     successful project management; not least because a series of small, discrete doable
     jobs can create a momentum of achievement.

     Project Tool: 9

     Work Breakdown Structure

     The Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) helps organise your project by breaking down
     the project into more manageable chunks or tasks:

            Level 1:          Project Name or Objective
            Level 2:          Subsections, departments, functional areas or broad categories
            Level 3:          Tasks
            Level 4:          Sub Tasks

     Project Tool: 9 (continued)

                                         WBS - (Organisation Chart Style)

                                                     Level 1
                                                  Project Name
                                         Develop new assessment process

                      Level 2                                     Level 2                 Level 2                   Level 2
               Project Management                                 Process                   IT                       Staff

 Level 3            Level 3              Level 3                 Level 3                   Level 3                 Level 3
Go Ahead         Manage Project        Acceptance          Map Current Processes   Establish Requirements Establish Training Needs

                                                                                           Level 4                  Level 4
                                                                                    Link Forms To System    Design Training Material

                                                         25                        Worcestershire ICT Programme
                   Project Management ProgrammeNotes for Participants

Project Tool: 10

Dependency Tasks

As you will have noted, not all tasks have equal status. Some may overlap, some occur
directly, or in tandem, while others need directly to follow a predecessor:

Dummy Tasks:          Having either a time or work requirement of zero

Parallel Tasks:       May occur in the same time frame as one or more others

Dependent Tasks:      Cannot begin until certain others are complete


                                          26                Worcestershire ICT Programme
                     Project Management ProgrammeNotes for Participants

Project Tool: 11

Project Block Template (what ought to happen):

Below are standard blocks into which projects can be broken down. Whilst these may
not have direct relevance to the project area in which you may be working they do
provide a starting point if you are having difficulty seeing clear and straightforward ways
of breaking your project down into manageable chunks. The percentages associated
with them provide rough guides to what proportion of overall project time should be being
devoted to these particular stages of activity.

Definition:   This may lead to a Feasibility Study (some would argue this may be a
              distinct project in its own right)

Commencement:                15%-25%

Initiation:                  10%-25%

Implementation Stage(s): 20-40%

Closing:                     10-20%


                                            27                 Worcestershire ICT Programme
                                       Project Management ProgrammeNotes for Participants

                                          No plan survives the first shock of battle
                                                   Karl Von Clausewitz
            Project Tool: 12

            Keeping track of Projects (Project Monitoring):

            The monitoring of in progress costs, time scales and quality is a major issue for
            consideration throughout the project. It is not merely sufficient to have a workable project
            plan. It is also vital that the implementation of that plan is carefully managed as it
            unfolds; or if the plan has to be modified that this is done in a controlled and informed
            manner. The key to solving any problem is catching that problem as early as possible. A
            problem caught early may be trivially easy to solve. The same problem caught too late
            may be impossible to solve. Below are some tools to help your Project Manager keep
            track of your project as it progresses.

            1. Time

            GANTT chart

ID     Name                       Duration Oct-00 Nov-00 Dec-00 Jan-01 Feb-01 Mar-01 Apr-01 May-01 Jun-01 Jul-01 Aug-01 Sep-01 Oct-01 01
      1 Establish Commission      1m
      2 Agree Project Manager     1m
      3 Manage Project            14m
      4 Identify Stakeholders     1m
      5 Establish Working Group   1m
      6 Workshop                  1m
      7 Analysis                  1m
      8 Develop Procedures Forms 2m
      9 Pilot Forms               2m
     10 Revise Forms              1m
     11 Consult Managers          1m
     12 Develop Training          2m
     13 Train Staff               1m
     14 Rollout Implementation    1m


                                                                 28                      Worcestershire ICT Programme
                     Project Management ProgrammeNotes for Participants

The Black Line represents the Critical Path: the longest path in the project

GANTT charts are especially useful in four areas:

1. To see if your original plan meets any Time Constraint that has been set

2. To measure actual progress against schedule

3. To prepare easy to understand and easy to interpret management reports.

4. To provide a clear visual stimulus to creative thinking if a project is going awry.

For example, if a project were over running we could clearly see this and then explore
options such as: creating more parallel tasks, splitting tasks, crash tasks, change
quality, think creatively about adjustments to the non critical path tasks.


                                             29                 Worcestershire ICT Programme
                                   Project Management ProgrammeNotes for Participants

       Although a Gantt chart is a simple tool a surprising amount of control information can be
       generated using it. We could, for example, use it to show how many person weeks a
       particular project was going to take with only minor additions:

ID Name                       Duration Oct-00 Nov-00 Dec-00 Jan-01 Feb-01 Mar-01 Apr-01 May-01 Jun-01 Jul-01 Aug-01 Sep-01 Oct-01 Nov-01
1   Establish Commission      1m
2   Agree Project Manager     1m
3   Manage Project            14m
4   Identify Stakeholders     1m
5   Establish Working Group   1m
6   Workshop                  1m
7   Analysis                  1m
8   Develop Procedures Forms 2m
9   Pilot Forms               2m
10 Revise Forms               1m
11 Consult Managers           1m
12 Develop Training           2m
13 Train Staff                1m
14 Rollout Implementation     1m
    Person Months                    58     3      2      2        3   16      3     2       2      2     2      9      2      4      3

       Scheduling for Maximum Resource Use:

       Project Tool: 13

       The Crash

       Crash Time: The fastest a task could be completed given unlimited resources.

       Crash Cost: The cost in resources or money to achieve the crash time.

       Crash Slope:                the comparison of crash cost to normal cost and crash time to
       normal time.                Use the crash slope to answer the question: “Is it worth it?”

       This technique can be used loosely or precisely.


                                                              30                     Worcestershire ICT Programme
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Project Tool: 14

Keeping track of Projects:

2. Cost

Project Control Charts

Project Control Charts provide status reports of actual costs against budget with

Step 1.

Gather the information on how the project is doing (make sure you‟re keeping records) -
using graphics to focus on key information.

                                      Variance Graph





                                      Budget   Actual

Step 2

Transfer the information to a Project Control Chart.

Task       Planned           Actual       Time          Planned     Actual   Cost       Explanation
(From Wbs) Time              Time         Variance      Cost        Cost     Variance
Select     2 weeks           2            0             £2000       £2500    (£         Additional
Computers                    weeks                                           500.00)    Memory Required


                                               31                  Worcestershire ICT Programme
                                Project Management ProgrammeNotes for Participants

This presupposes that you actually have the information to keep track of this. Project
control tools tend to focus on time. A simple spreadsheet containing your project budget
and comparing actual with projected figures is as good a tool as any for keeping tracking
of financial information; not least because graphical information can very swiftly be
generated therefrom.

                                  Budget Chart

   £25,000                                                               Planned
   £20,000                                                               Actual



Any good project proposal would include a spreadsheet indicating broad brush
expenditure (and income where appropriate) for the duration of the project. This can
then be updated with real figures as the project progresses

Remember with all these tools that the key is what is the driver constraint for that
particular project. You must however be able to show the impact on other constraints of
meeting the driver.


                                                                    32             Worcestershire ICT Programme
                     Project Management ProgrammeNotes for Participants

Keeping track of Projects:

3. Quality

Project Tool: 15

Milestone Charts:

Another useful tool to help in this regard is the project milestone (or checkpoint) chart
which shows what you actually anticipate having done by a particular point in a project.
The key point is to have concrete or measurable objectives against which you can
compare actual performance.

Overleaf is an example focus in on the following terms:

Checkpoint (Milestone):        specific point in time, typically towards the end of a project
                               phase, at which we review project progress.
Products:                      tangible outcomes which are anticipated at the end of that
                               particular project phase (also called deliverables).
Measures of                    the mechanism you use to ensure whether or not you
Effectiveness:                 have achieved a particular outcome and to a particular
                               standard. MOEs (as they are called) should be
                               quantifiable. “If you can‟t measure it, it isn‟t happening!”
Control Information            the information you use to ensure your project is on track.
                               For example the kinds of project tools referred to above

Note the advantage of this approach; each element of the project has a formal sign off
before you move onto the next one. In addition to helping with project control this is also
extremely useful for on going evaluation purposes. This approach also enables planning
to be more realistic; detailed planning stage by stage ensures that the plan reflects what
is really happening.

The other merit of this approach is that it affords opportunities for group learning and
evaluation at each stage. The Project Board will also have a clear point at which to sign
off that the Project can proceed at each Stage (or not!).


                                            33                  Worcestershire ICT Programme
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Milestone Chart

                            Standard Project Stages

Definition                  Products         Business Case
                                             Project Mandate
                                             Checkpoints & control info:
                                             Detailed   plan     and     budget    for
                                             commencement phase

Commencement                Products         Project Board
                                             Project Team
                                             Project Brief
                                             Checkpoints & control info
                                             Actual     expenditure    (commencement
                                             Detailed plan and budget (Initiation)

Initiation                  Products         Project Initiation Document
                                             Checkpoints & control info
                                             Overall broadbrush project timetable
                                             detailing checkpoints & products
                                             Forecast of MOEs
                                             Actual expenditure (Initiation)
                                             Detailed plan and budget (Implementation)

Implementation Stages       Products         Agreed Products for each stage
                                             Detailed Plan for each subsequent
                                             Final Stage: Detailed Plan for Closing
                                             Checkpoints & control info
                                             Revised forecast of MOEs
                                             Actual expenditure (Implementation)
                                             Detailed plan and budget (Closing)

Closing                     Products         End of Project Report
                                             Handover/Follow on Plan
                                             Proposals for further work
                                             Checkpoints & control info
                                             Estimates of actual MOEs
                                             Actual expenditure (Closing)

What is missing from these Products?


                                        34                   Worcestershire ICT Programme
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Project Tool: 16

It is important to know what to do when these, or other control mechanisms indicate that
something is going wrong. Contingency plans are also vital as goal posts are always
prone to movement.

Control Point Identification Chart & What-if Analysis

Task        What could go right       How/when would I           What could I do?
            or wrong                  know?
Select      Vendors could be slow     If only a few vendors      Assume they will be
Software    in sending packages       respond by halfway         late anyway and ask for
                                      through the first week     all information to be
                                                                 e-mailed or faxed
Same        We could immediately      By the first team          save a week; but
            discover ideal software   meeting                    software would still
                                                                 have to be tested.
                                                                 Additional week could
                                                                 be kept in reserve in
                                                                 case of later overrun
Same        nothing on the market     First team meeting if      Discuss urgently with
            which actually meets      nothing even close.        Project Board
            our needs                 End of task period if      Can commercial
                                      everything fails, but      software be
                                      ought to have early        customised?
                                      indicators                 May have to rethink


                                           35                  Worcestershire ICT Programme
                          Project Management ProgrammeNotes for Participants

     Work Packages

    With a larger project where there a number of different work streams it may not be
    physically possible for the Project Manager to oversee the work needing to be done to
    the appropriate level of control (at least not without a nervous collapse!). Similarly, the
    Project may require discrete pieces of work to be undertaken by teams or groups of staff
    outside the direct control of the Project Manager. For example, an IT Project may require
    the Training Team of an organisation to provide IT training at a particular time to a
    particular standard; or an organisational change project would almost certainly need
    input from HR.

    The reliance on the satisfactory delivery of outcomes or products by staff not directly
    under your control is clearly a major risk to project success. Fortunately there is a Tool
    designed to help address this issue:

    Project Tool: 17 Work Package

Work Package for [Insert Name] Work Stream within [Insert Project Name]

Person Authorised
Work package
Stage plan extract
Sign-Off Requirements (within the Work
Quality checking
Reporting Arrangements

Tasks                   Products               Quality Standard       Timescale


Associated Documents:

Work Breakdown Structure for Work Package

Outline Gantt Chart for Work Package

                                                 36                 Worcestershire ICT Programme
                     Project Management ProgrammeNotes for Participants

A Work Package may be defined as a set of information about one or more required
products collated by a Project Manager formally to pass responsibility for work to a
Team Manager or Team Member.

The level of formality will vary from project to project but there are good general reasons
for putting the required work in writing especially to avoid misunderstanding. Certainly
there would be a strong recommendation that where the work is being carried out by any
third party (whether within or outside an organisation) there is a definite need for formal
written instructions.


                                            37                 Worcestershire ICT Programme
                      Project Management ProgrammeNotes for Participants

Directing a Project

Now the Project has started the Commissioner still has a key role to play.

If Commissioners are to be involved in a Project Board as they should be in some way or
another whether personally or by delegation there needs to be clarity about they should
and should not be involved in.

   Don‟t have meetings for the sake of them!

The Project Board are busy people who should only need to be involved when they need
to be involved. Meeting dates need to be determined well in advance around critical
decision points as identified by the GANTT Chart and Milestone Chart & Stage Plan
(see below)

   As a Project Board don‟t expect the Project Manager to have planned every stage of
    the project in detail from the start.

It is unlikely that this will be realistic if you have. If someone has a project plan saying
something will happen at a particular time on a particular day six months in the future
they are probably making it up.

The Project Board don‟t actually need to know anyway. They will want to know the big
picture and get involved when they need too; if they are looking at too much detail they
are probably trying to do your Project Manager‟s job for you (so why are they employing

It can also be destructive. Detail, which is too far from reality probably won‟t be
achievable which can then lead to disillusionment

It is probable that we won‟t know every thing we need to know at the start. A staged
approach which looks to plan in detail for the next stage whilst the current one is
unfolding is probably more realistic.

   Key elements of this plan should always be the clear concrete outcomes expected
    from that stage of the project. These should be expressed in noun rather than verb
    language: Products or Deliverables rather than Activities.


                                              38                  Worcestershire ICT Programme
                     Project Management ProgrammeNotes for Participants

The objectives of Directing a Project are to:

   ensure the ultimate success of the project judged by
     the ability of the results of the project to deliver the business benefits set out in
        the Business Case
     delivery to agreed time, cost and quality parameters
   manage the identified risks to the project
   ensure the effective management of all people and resources concerned with the
    project commit the required resources
   make decisions on any changes when requested by the Project Manager
   provide overall direction and guidance throughout the project
   make decisions on exception situations
   ensure that the project and the products remain consistent with business plans and
    the external environment
   ensure that the necessary communications mechanisms are in place
   sponsor appropriate external communication and publicity about the project.

   This process covers the direction of the project throughout its life cycle. The Project
    Board proactively manages the project‟s response to the external environment.
    Within the project above and beyond the decision points identified in advance the
    Project Board should manage by exception (in other words only become seriously
    involved when something isn‟t going according to plan). The Project Board members
    are normally busy executives with a range of responsibilities, and demands on their
    time should be kept to a minimum, while fulfilling their responsibilities to the project.
    The key responsibilities are:

       overall directional decision making
       resource commitment.

Notice these are the responsibilities of the Project Board collectively not the
Project Manager alone


                                              39                 Worcestershire ICT Programme
                    Project Management ProgrammeNotes for Participants

                                Events, dear boy, events
                                   Harold Macmillan

Project Tool: 18 Project Board Meetings

Project Board Meetings

These should be planned when the Project Plan is first being put together and should be
timed for points in the plan where decisions are actually required from the Project Board,
for example towards the end of a Project Block or Stage when the detailed plan for the
next Stage needs to be approved or when a particular Product is due. These meetings
are sometimes called Milestone Meetings. These will be your tool for Directing the

There is no point in having monthly meetings simply for the sake of them. This is for two

   Project Board members are likely to be busy people so it makes sense to have their
    commitment to some purposive activity secured well in advance. Someone is always
    more likely to attend a meeting where they are required to make a decision than one
    where they are not.

   Meetings organised as suggested above will be focused on outcomes specific to the
    project. This reduces the likelihood of ad hoc changes or undirected discussions.

Any good Project Plan will always list the Products expected in a particular stage or
block. The focus of Milestone Meetings should always be the approval or otherwise of
the Products anticipated for completion during that phase.

Otherwise Projects should be managed by exception. That is the Project Board would
only be called together for other than the timetabled meetings where a serious deviation
from the Project Plan is likely (what constitutes a serious deviation is something which
should be laid down in the Project Initiation Document) and the Project Board will need
to approve a proposed course of remedial action.


                                            40                Worcestershire ICT Programme
                     Project Management ProgrammeNotes for Participants

Project Tool 18 (continued):
This is not to be seen as a disaster. Plans change for all sorts of reasons; not all of them
bad. The whole point about a staged approach is that by breaking our project down into
manageable chunks we have both the opportunity to achieve something concrete and to
reflect and adapt to changes in reality as they occur: remember too detailed a plan too
early is certainly destined to fail!

It is important though that if changes are made they are formally agreed by the Project
Board and the Project Initiation Document is revised appropriately. It is not change
which is the issue but rather unauthorised or unplanned change! Again within a wider
Programme such formally agreed changes will need to be fed back to the Programme


                                             41                 Worcestershire ICT Programme
                      Project Management ProgrammeNotes for Participants

Closing the Project:

One of the defining features of the project is that it is finite: it has a start and an end. If
the project loses this distinctiveness, then it loses its effectiveness over purely
operational management approaches.

So a clear end to the project or to particular phases of a large project:

   is always more successful than the natural tendency to drift into operational
   is a recognition by all concerned that either the operational regime must now take
    over, or the products from this project become feeds into some subsequent project,
    or into some larger programme or the current project has run its course
   helps achieve business objectives by avoiding waste and by providing a useful
    opportunity to take stock of achievements and experience
   provides an opportunity to ensure that all unachieved goals and objectives are
    identified, so that they can be addressed in the future.

The fact that goals have not been achieved may be for entirely defensible reasons. In an
IT project, for example, additional features may have been identified which have not
been developed deliberately until the originally planned system was in place.

The drift to operational management is a particular danger for two reasons:

   The Project Team can find themselves still involved with the support of the products
    of the Project which have been released to operational staff thus draining resources
    which should be available to complete later stages of the Project. This can be a
    particularly problematic issue with large scale IT projects where a particular system
    is being introduced in a modular fashion

   Responsibility for the new products will not be owned by operational staff, whilst the
    Project team may rightly feel that what has been successfully delivered is now no
    longer their responsibility

The essentials of Project Closure can be summarised as:

   check everything has been delivered according to the most up to date version of the
    Project Initiation Document
   check that the products are accepted
   make sure there are no loose ends
   record any follow-on recommendations
   store the project records for audit
   release resources
   Celebrate!


                                               42                  Worcestershire ICT Programme
                     Project Management ProgrammeNotes for Participants

Evaluate the Project.

This is potentially one of the most valuable and all too frequently neglected aspects of
successful Project Management.

By building in a final stage of evaluation it is possible to gain a measure of a given
project‟s success and see what lessons can be learned. The three key areas for review
are quality, time and costs. Others include:

   Staff skills gained or identified
   mistakes not to be repeated
   tools and techniques that were valuable
   what would be tackled differently

This is why it is so important to maintain your project documentation as you go so that
you have data on which to draw. A strong recommendation would be the writing of an
end of project report which addresses the specific issues referred to above and looks at
actual performance against targets.

Such reports can then provide an invaluable resource when it comes to planning and
managing subsequent projects: especially in providing hard information regarding how
long it actually takes to perform specific tasks (as opposed to how long we think it


                                              43               Worcestershire ICT Programme
                    Project Management ProgrammeNotes for Participants

Project Tool 19: End of Project Report (Example)
The purpose of the End of Project Report is to pass on any lessons which can be
usefully applied to other projects.

The data in the report could be used by a corporate group, such as quality assurance,
who are responsible for the quality management in order to refine, change, and improve
standards. Statistics on how much effort was needed for products can help improve
future estimating.


What management processes:

- went well
- went badly
- were lacking

   A description of any abnormal events causing deviations
   An assessment of technical methods and tools used
   An analysis of project issues and their results
   Recommendations for future enhancement or modification of the project
    management method
   Useful measurements on how much effort was required to create the various


                                          44                Worcestershire ICT Programme
                     Project Management ProgrammeNotes for Participants

                                 Murphy was an Optimist
                                   O‟Toole‟s Corollary
Project Tool: 20

Potential Project Pitfalls & Suggested Solutions

Below are some standard mistakes and the points at which they occur. When I was first
learning about projects this was the bit I found most useful, and the bit that was most
difficult to pin people down on; what goes wrong and how do we put it right? Everyone
makes mistakes. The key is to learn from them.

1. Mistaking Solution for proper Problem Analysis
2. Inadequate initial commission (scope and driver):

Avoid by:
Developing a coherent Business Case, evaluating possible projects against objective
criteria, tightly defining, the what if.. techniques, awareness and use of the triangular
driver model, written and agreed (as in signed) commission, with measures of
effectiveness to show whether achieved or not (Project Initiation Document). Also
agreed relationship with commissioners; Project Board or named individual. Clear who
reporting to and when; clear schedule of milestone meetings with agreed reporting
format including what and how will be reported.


                                            45                 Worcestershire ICT Programme
                     Project Management ProgrammeNotes for Participants

Project Tool: 20 (continued)

2a.    Fire & Forget

Avoid by:
Recognition that Commissioners have an on going role to play in the success of a
Project. Providing the Project with a recognised organisational identity through the
establishing of a Project Board with appropriate authority. Ensure formal closure of
project with proper measures of success

2b.    Failure to plan/ including contingency (your most useful phrase at any
stage is what if...) & co-ordinating with other activities

planning in a vacuum; that is recognising people are likely to have other calls on their
time. In the real world you rarely work on one project at a time.

2c.    Failure to recruit appropriate project team members skills/mix

2d.    Unrealistic time schedules

Avoid by:
proper worked out project plan, including WBS, Gantt, checkpoints (milestones),
products and crucially task allocations to specific named individuals, with costs and time
scales. Adopt a staged approach to planning rather than being too detailed too early.
Use estimating tools and historical data where available.

Having both a clear idea of what the project is about, who is available and what their
necessary skills are. This is to ensure appropriate mix as well as match. We should not
be afraid to look beyond immediately available staff, or if we can‟t we may have to
consider their training and development needs in order for them to participate
successfully in such activities.

Where you have planned out your project activities always have what if.. or contingency
plans for each key point in the project. Not just what you expect to happen, but what you
would do if things go wrong.

Nothing should be assumed. Mustn‟t be afraid to say what won‟t work and why. Look at
alternatives. Don‟t be afraid to kill off a „Death March Project‟.


                                             46                 Worcestershire ICT Programme
                     Project Management ProgrammeNotes for Participants

Project Tool: 20(continued)

3a.     Allowing un-negotiated changes to take place as you go along, must have
a mechanism for noting and incorporating at a later stage. The „wouldn‟t it be
nice if..‟, „while we‟re at it let‟s..‟ and so on

3b.   Inadequate controls over time, quality and cost once you have embarked
on your project

3c.  Inadequate documentation and evidence. No one minds things going
wrong providing you can show how and what you do about it

Avoid by:
Milestone/Checkpoint meetings with the Project Board, with formally written agreement
to proceed with noted and agreed amendments either cost, budget, scope. Providing
evidence of progress in clear, straightforward format which Project Board can
understand and speaks to their particular drivers. This one of the principle uses of the
GANTT chart. Also regular team meetings within the team (one option is to appoint an
identified progress chaser), partly to prepare evidence for Project Board but partly also
keeping track on what is happening. Use of other monitoring tools discussed above

4.     Drift into operational management

Avoid by:

Formal Project or Project Stage Closure process

5.     Failure to evaluate and incorporate learning

Avoid by:
Formally reviewing project including post project report incorporating logs/diaries/
Project Board reports etc.


                                            47                 Worcestershire ICT Programme
                     Project Management ProgrammeNotes for Participants

Tensions between a line management and project management approach.

Unless an organisation is exclusively organised around Project work and Project Teams
then there is always an inherent tension between line responsibility and project work.
This can manifest itself in seven ways:

   Workload: if the Project Manager is not full time then project work will often be on
    top of normal day to day work

   Authority: there is a danger that the Project Manager or the Project Board will not
    have sufficient authority to mobilise resources outside the Project Team; and there
    will be a lack of recognition of the status of work on the project as distinct from day
    to day work especially by staff who are only tangentially involved

   Accountability: Project Managers will often have a line Manager as well as working
    to a Project Board. This can lead to a serious blurring of operational accountability

   Lack of Organisational Fit: There is a danger of the Project Manager becoming
    isolated from and disregarded by the conventional structures of the organisation

   Communication/Information: Linked to the above, especially where the Project
    Manager is part time there are dangers of information overload or starvation, and
    difficulties in meshing with the different communication networks formal and
    informal, within the organisation.

   Lack of Understanding: It is not only those directly involved with projects who need
    to have an understanding of project management methodology but those indirectly
    involved too.

Ring Any Bells?


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Suggested Solutions:

   The composition of the Project Board is critical here. It is vital that the Board
    comprises members of sufficient organisational weight to ensure that any blockages
    which the Project Manager encounters can be resolved.

   When the Project Initiation Document for the Project are drawn up the precise role
    and responsibility of the Project Manager must be clearly defined

   It is also critical that the Project Initiation Document of the Project are circulated
    widely not just to those directly involved in the Project but indirectly too.


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And Finally……

Projects the bare minimum:

      A Business Case (at the very least a written justification of why we are doing
       this) – if you don‟t know why you are doing this, how can you hope to persuade
       other people?

      A Project organisation (even if it is only identifying who is doing what)

      One or more plans (scaled to the size and complexity of the project)

      A method of handling risks and issues

      A method of change control

      A definition of quality expectations (have we done it to the right standard?)

      Controls that match the organisation and size of the project


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Further Reading:

There are a wide variety of books available on Project Management. Below are a number
which we found helpful in preparing this work book divided into categories:

Quick, introductory texts & handbooks         Longer Introductory texts

The One Minute Manager Builds High The Complete Idiot‟s Guide to Project
Performing Teams                        Management
by K. Blanchard, D. Carew & E. Parisi- S. & K. Baker, Alpha Books 1998
Carew, Fontana 1993
                                        Project Management
Successful Project Management in a Week R. Burke John Wiley 1992
by M. Brown, Hodder & Stoughton 1992
                                        Project Workout
Essential Managers: Project Management  R. Butterick Prentice Hall 2000
by A. Bruce & K. Langdon, Dorling
Kindersley 2000                         The Fast Forward MBA in Project
10 Minute Guide to Project Management   E.Verzuh John Wiley 1999
by J. Davidson, MacMillan 2000
                                        The Handbook of Project Management
Project Management                      T. L. Young, Kogan Page 1998
by P. Hobbs, Marshall Publishing 1999

The Project Management Advisor
By L. Pacelli, Prentice Hall 2004

Provocative & stimulating                     Not for the fainthearted!

Riding The Tiger                          Managing Successful Projects with
M. Chung, A. Davidson, H. Gellman, Harper PRINCE2
Business 1998                             Office of Government Commerce 2002

The Project 50                                The Project Management Body of
by T. Peters, Knopf 1999                      Knowledge
                                              Project Management Institute 1996
Fifth Generation Management
by C.M. Savage, Butterworth-Heinemann

The Fifth Discipline
by P. Senge, Century Business, 1993

Time To Think
By Nancy Kleine. Pub - Wardlock


                                         51                   Worcestershire ICT Programme
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                                   Glossary of Terms

Business Case:

Information which describes the justification for setting up and continuing a project.

Driver Triangle:

The three constraints on a project of Time, Cost & Quality

End of Project Report:

A document completed at the end of a project to pass on any lessons which can be
usefully applied to other projects.


The result of a project. Useful term where the project result is not an easily definable


An item which the project has to create as part of its requirements. Also known as a


A portfolio of projects selected, planned and managed in a co-ordinated way and which
together achieve a defined set of business objectives.

Project Board:

The Project Board is responsible for ensuring that the project remains on course to
deliver products of the required quality to meet the Business Case defined in the Project
Initiation Document. As a minimum it should comprise a Project Board Executive, the
Project Manager and representation of User & Supplier interests. Also known as a
Steering Group.

Project Brief:

A description of what the Project is to do: a refined and extended version of the Project

Project Executive:

The Project Executive is the person ultimately accountable for the project. Throughout
the Project the Executive owns the Business Case and provides the link to wider and
higher organisational management. The Executive will also be the key decision maker
for the Project and have a key role in selling the project. So the Executive needs to be
someone of sufficient organisational weight to be able to take on this role. Also known as
the Steering Group Chair.

                                             52                 Worcestershire ICT Programme
                     Project Management ProgrammeNotes for Participants

Project Initiation Document:

A document which brings together the key information needed to start the project and to
convey that information to all concerned with the project. Also known as a Project Charter
or Terms of Reference

Project Manager:

The person given the authority and responsibility to manage the project on a day to day
basis to deliver the required products within the constraints agreed with the Project

Project Mandate:

Information created externally to the project which is the formal organisational approval to
go ahead with the project.

Project Milestone:

Key point in a Project plan where a decision is required or a product is to be delivered.
Also known as a Checkpoint.

Project Stage:

A division of the project for management purposes. Also known as a Project Phase or
Project Block.


Senior Manager responsible for establishing the project, also known as the
Commissioner or Champion. They or their nominated representative should be Executive
of the Project Board.


Representing the interests of those who will actually create the products being realised by
the project

Team Manager:

An individual to whom the responsibility of ensuring the planning of the creation of certain
identified products and their successful delivery


Representing the interests of those who will use the final product(s) of the project or
receive the benefits the project is designed to produce

Work Package:

A set of information about one or more required products collated by a Project Manager
formally to pass responsibility for work or delivery to a Team Manager or Team Member.

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