# How to create 3D using 2D  Artists use the following depth cues to convey 3D impression  Size  Geometrical perspective  Shadow  Color

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```							  How to create 3D using 2D?
   Artists use the following depth cues to convey
3D impression
   Size
   Geometrical perspective
   Color
   Sharpness
   Patterns
   Overlay (interposition)
However, they are intrinsically ambiguous, can be interpreted in
many ways. We interpret in the most likely possibility.
A counter example: impossible triangle

developed by Roger Penrose and his father
One of Escher's
marvelous impossible
buildings. The basis
of the illusion is the
inclusion of the
impossible triangle
or tri-bar.
Escher
   Escher also used this principal in
Ascending/Descending, The Impossible Staircase. The
triangle is placed into the picture three times. As you
look at each part of the construction in the print you
cannot find any mistakes, but when the print is
viewed as a whole you see the problem of water
traveling up a flat plane, yet the water is falling and
spinning a miller's wheel. How do the two towers
appear relatively the same height yet the left side
rises three stories and the right two? Why did Escher
chose to use underwater plant life, greatly magnified,
as his choice for an above watergarden? The illusion
in this print, when viewed by most people, is not
seen on the first look.
Size
   Smaller objects are more distant, and
closer objects are larger.
   However
   Movie producers use this to fool us: take a
close picture of miniature models to get an
illusion of the distance objects or vice
versa. “Honey, I shrunk the kids”
   Architects: using smaller window at higher
floors.
Geometrical perspective
   Parallel receding lines appear as if they
are coming together. (rail road tracks,
light rays from the sun)
   In architecture
   Narrower towards the top or the other end.
   In art
   Da Vinci’s “last supper”
   Shadows are extremely important in
providing us the 3D impression.
   Light color appears closer to us and
hence bigger.
Variations in Color
   Distant landscapes tend to lose their color
contrasts. Colors get duller, less pure.
   A color print seems to have more depth than
the identical picture printed in black and
white, and shadows can be conveyed without
variation in brightness.
   Distant mountains appear blue due to the
blueness of the intervening air.
Variations in Sharpness
   Distance objects appear fuzzier, less
sharply focused. Images are smaller in
the retina. (oil painting)
   Artists convey the feeling of depth by a
loss of detail in distant objects.
Patterns
   An abstract pattern may create the
feeling of depth.
   Use by Vasarely and Mattise in
paintings.
Overlaying
   We perceive one object to be farther
than another if the second object blocks
our view of the first.
   However, the apparently more distant
object may in fact be closer but cut in
such a shape that it fully reveals the
apparently closer (but actually farther)
object.
Previous knowledge
   You interpret an image according to the
previous knowledge stored in your
brain. An interpretation against
common experience is suppressed.
   Inside-out face (Disneyland)
   Cube
   Stairs

```
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