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IPC Training Examples – First an by fjhuangjun

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									                 HANDBOOK ON INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY INFORMATION AND DOCUMENTATION

Ref.: IPC Training Examples                                                                             page: 5.1.4.0




                                  IPC TRAINING EXAMPLES – FIRST SET


       The IPC training examples were approved by the IPC Committee of Experts at its sixth and eighth sessions, (see
documents IPC/CE/VI/6, Annex V, and IPC/CE/VIII/8, paragraphs 20 and 21 and Annex D) and have been revised
according to the seventh edition of the IPC.




en / 05-01-04                                                                                 Date: September 2002
                  HANDBOOK ON INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY INFORMATION AND DOCUMENTATION

Ref.: IPC Training Examples                                                                                      page: 5.1.4.1



                                          IPC TRAINING EXAMPLES – FIRST SET



INTRODUCTION

        This Chapter relates to a number of examples of patent families, having members in at least the English, French
and German languages, intended for the training of classifiers in the use of the International Patent Classification (IPC).
For each family, a statement of the subject matter to be classified and an explanation of the reasons for the selection of
the classification, agreed by the competent Working Groups of the Committee of Experts of the IPC Union, is given.

         As far as possible, all the examples have been selected for technical simplicity so that any problem resides in the
classification of the document and not in its understanding.

       An attempt has been made to categorize the examples into three groups as follows:

       Category I:       Examples in which the classification is obvious

       Category II:      Examples selected to illustrate certain aspects of the IPC system, the particular aspects being
                         indicated as:

                         (a)    group hierarchy

                         (b)    preference questions

                                –   ―last place rule‖

                                –   other priority rules

                         (c)    other notes and references

                                –   references limiting the scope

                         (d)    function-oriented place/application place

                         (e)    interdisciplinary questions

                         (f)    other aspects

       Category III:     Examples which are difficult to classify

       It should be noted that the training examples should be studied in conjunction with the following documents:

       –        the seventh edition of the IPC (including the Guide)

       –        the Catchword Index to the IPC

       –        the Introductory Manual to the IPC (see Chapter 5.1.3)

The training examples fall into the following categories:

          CHEMISTRY                                     MECHANICS                       PHYSICS AND ELECTRICITY
            (Part A)                                      (Part B)                                (Part C)
   Example No.   Category(ies)                  Example No.    Category(ies)            Example No.    Category(ies)

           1         I                                  1       I                             1         I

           2         I                                  2       I                             2         I

           3         I                                  3       I                             3         II (a)

           4         I                                  4       I                             4         II (a)

           5         I                                  5       I                             5         II (a)

           6         I                                  6       I                             6         II (a)

           7         II (b)                             7       I                             7         II (a)


en / 05-01-04                                                                                       Date: September 2002
                  HANDBOOK ON INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY INFORMATION AND DOCUMENTATION

Ref.: IPC Training Examples                                                                                     page: 5.1.4.2



         8         II (b), (c)                    8          I                               8         II (a)

         9         II (b), (c)                    9          I                               9         II (a)

        10         II (c)                         10         Deleted*                       10         II (a)

        11         II (c)                         11         I                              11         II (a)

        12         II (c)                         12         I                              12         II (a), (c), (e)

        13         Deleted                        13         II (c)                         13         II (a), (d)

        14         II (c), (e)                    14         II (c)                         14         II (a), (f)

        15         II (d)                         15         II (c), (d)                    15         II (a), (f)

        16         II (f)                         16         II (c),( d)                    16         II (c)

        17         II (f)                         17         II (c), (d)                    17         II (d)

                                                  18         II (c), (d)                    18         II (f)

                                                  19         II (c), (d)                    19         II (f)

                                                  20         II (d)                         20         II (f)

                                                  21         II (d)

                                                  22         II (d)

                                                  23         Deleted

                                                  24         II (f)

        The family members which have been considered in arriving at the agreed classification are indicated by
underlining, and where any textual differences exist these have been taken into account. Any user finding discrepancies
between other family members and those indicated is invited to bring this to the attention of the International Bureau of
WIPO.




*   This example has subsequently been considered by the IPC Committee of Experts to be unsuitable for training purposes.



en / 05-01-04                                                                                      Date: September 2002
                     HANDBOOK ON INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY INFORMATION AND DOCUMENTATION

Ref.: IPC Training Examples                                                                           page: 5.1.4.3




                                            PART A — CHEMISTRY


Example No. A 1



                Documents                     Matter to be classified             Classification and comments


                                      from claim(s):                          Obligatory classification:

    BE                    767   247   Method of producing                     Inventions dealing with the
    DE-OS             2   123   345   tetrasila-adamantane compounds using    preparation of chemical compounds
    FR                2   091   694   aluminium halides.                      are classified in the groups for the
    GB                1   295   393                                           compound prepared (see Note (3)
    IT                    975   530                                           of C 07 class notes).
    NL                7   106   723
*   US                3   631   195                                           Classification in group B 01 J 27/08
                                                                              is not necessary, since aluminium
                                                                              halides are considered to be a
                                                                              conventional catalyst.


                                                                              C 07 F 7/08




                                      from description:                       Non-obligatory classification:

                                      Example 6 demonstrates the utility of   Insect repellents can be found in
                                      the compounds as a mosquito             subclass A 01 N, but in this case
                                      repellent.                              the invention only relates to the
                                                                              protection of human skin.

                                                                              A 61 K 7/40




Category(ies)                                                                 Complete classification:

I                                                                             C 07 F7/08 // A 61 K 7/40




* Priority country                                                            Classification based on underlined
                                                                              document(s)


en / 05-01-04                                                                               Date: September 2002
                     HANDBOOK ON INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY INFORMATION AND DOCUMENTATION

Ref.: IPC Training Examples                                                                        page: 5.1.4.4



                                            PART A – CHEMISTRY



Example No. A 2



                Documents                    Matter to be classified           Classification and comments


                                     from claim(s):                        Obligatory classification:

    AT                   307   046   Process for making aphenol-aldehyde   Since no separate provision is
*   CA                    56   613   condensation product by reacting a    made for the classification of the
    CH                   552   645   monohydric phenol with an aldehyde.   relevant process, it has to be
    DE-OS            2   034   136                                         classified as the product.
    ES                   381   565                                         Condensation polymers of
    FR               2   051   635                                         aldehydes with phenols are
    GB               1   265   465                                         provided for in group C 08 G 8/04.
    NL               7   010   201
    NO                   133   452
    SE                   383   352
    ZA                   704   797




                                     from description:                     Non-obligatory classification:

                                     None                                  None




Category(ies)                                                              Complete classification:

I                                                                          C 08 G 8/04




* Priority country                                                         Classification based on underlined
                                                                           document(s)


en / 05-01-04                                                                            Date: September 2002
                     HANDBOOK ON INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY INFORMATION AND DOCUMENTATION

Ref.: IPC Training Examples                                                                              page: 5.1.4.5



                                            PART A – CHEMISTRY



Example No. A 3



                Documents                   Matter to be classified              Classification and comments


                                     from claim(s):                         Obligatory classification:

    AT                   761   320   Method of separating wax from oil in   The main group for recovery of
    DE-OS            2   100   320   petroleum fractions by centrifuging    mineral wax is C 10 G 73/00. The
    FR               2   075   965   at temperatures of 30ºC or below.      subgroup 73/28 relates to recovery by
*   GB               1   267   491   The wax-oil mixture is subjected to    centrifugal force.
    NL               7   100   012   agitation to render it mobile before
    SE                   359   111   the centrifuging.                      Subclasses B 01 D and B 04 B are not
    US               3   670   888                                          relevant because the invention is not
                                                                            related to any special centrifuging
                                                                            methods. The centrifugal technique
                                                                            appears to be standard.




                                     from description:                      Non-obligatory classification:

                                     None                                   None




Category(ies)                                                               Complete classification:

I                                                                           C 10 G 73/28




* Priority country                                                           Classification based on underlined
                                                                             document(s)


en / 05-01-04                                                                                Date: September 2002
                     HANDBOOK ON INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY INFORMATION AND DOCUMENTATION

Ref.: IPC Training Examples                                                                             page: 5.1.4.6



                                            PART A – CHEMISTRY



Example No. A 4



                Documents                    Matter to be classified             Classification and comments


                                     from claim(s):                          Obligatory classification:

    BE                   754   550   Treatment of the surface of stainless   The treatment of metals other than
    DE-OS          2     -36   869   steel in order to provide it with an    by mechanical means, the inhibition
    FR             2     056   540   oxalate coating.                        of corrosion, etc., is dealt with in
    GB             1     267   228                                           class C 23. Chemical surface
    JP            49     018   531                                           treatment by reaction of the surface
    NL             7     011   607                                           with a reactive medium other than
    SE                   366   780                                           gas is dealt with in C 23 C 22/00.
*   US               3   649   371


                                                                             The following classification
                                                                             corresponds completely to the matter
                                                                             concerned:

                                                                             C 23 C 22/46



                                     from description:                       Non-obligatory classification:

                                     None                                    None

                                                                             The known lubrication properties of
                                                                             oxalate coatings, as mentioned in the
                                                                             statement of the prior art, are not to
                                                                             be classified.




Category(ies)                                                                Complete classification:

I                                                                            C 23 C 22/46




* Priority country                                                           Classification based on underlined
                                                                             document(s)


en / 05-01-04                                                                                Date: September 2002
                     HANDBOOK ON INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY INFORMATION AND DOCUMENTATION

Ref.: IPC Training Examples                                                                              page: 5.1.4.7



                                            PART A – CHEMISTRY



Example No. A 5



                Documents                    Matter to be classified              Classification and comments


                                     from claim(s):                           Obligatory classification:

    CH                   539   145   Method of treating a synthetic yarn by   It is apparent from the description
    DE-OS            2   061   795   advancing it over a heat transfer        that the purpose is to curl the yarn,
    FR               2   073   849   element and using twisting means to      hence subclass D 02 G is the
*   GB               1   280   168   impart false twist to the yarn.          appropriate subclass. The roller
    NL               7   017   897                                            system which can be used to impart
    US               3   724   191                                            false twist is not of sufficient
                                                                              importance to merit separate
                                                                              classification in group D 02 G 1/08.
                                                                              (See paragraph 60 of the Guide to
                                                                              the IPC.)

                                                                              D 02 G 1/02



                                     from description:                        Non-obligatory classification:

                                     None                                     None

                                                                              Heating during spinning or twisting
                                                                              (subclass D 01 H) is not appropriate,
                                                                              since the subclass relates to the
                                                                              formationand not the treatment of
                                                                              yarn.

                                                                              The heating aspect, not described in
                                                                              detail but forming part of the total
                                                                              process, is not specifically provided
                                                                              for in the classification.

                                                                              Heating of yarn to curl or crimp is not
                                                                              appropriate to group D 02 J 13/00,
                                                                              since this subject matter is referred
                                                                              out in the title of subclass D 02 J to
                                                                              subclass D 02 G.

Category(ies)                                                                 Complete classification:

I                                                                             D 02 G 1/02




* Priority country                                                            Classification based on underlined
                                                                              document(s)


en / 05-01-04                                                                                 Date: September 2002
                     HANDBOOK ON INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY INFORMATION AND DOCUMENTATION

Ref.: IPC Training Examples                                                                           page: 5.1.4.8



                                            PART A – CHEMISTRY



Example No. A 6



                Documents                    Matter to be classified           Classification and comments


                                     from claim(s):                        Obligatory classification:

    AT                   548   070   Process and apparatus for producing   Non-woven fabrics formed of yarns
    BE                   753   524   net material and similar non-woven    or like filamentary material
    CH                   562   902   products.                             characterised by the arrangement of
*   DK                   136   082                                         the yarns or filaments in rectilinear
    DE-OS            2   030   203                                         paths are provided for in group
    ES                   382   015                                         D 04 H 3/04.
    FI                    50   348
    FR               2   064   186                                         Group D 04 H 3/07 is not appropriate
    GB               1   298   267                                         since the tubular form is not retained
    NL               7   009   158                                         in the final product.
    NO                   126   140
    SE                   373   888
    US               3   663   331




                                     from description:                     Non-obligatory classification:

                                     None                                  None




Category(ies)                                                              Complete classification:

I                                                                          D 04 H 3/04




* Priority country                                                         Classification based on underlined
                                                                           document(s)


en / 05-01-04                                                                              Date: September 2002
                     HANDBOOK ON INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY INFORMATION AND DOCUMENTATION

Ref.: IPC Training Examples                                                                       page: 5.1.4.9



                                            PART A – CHEMISTRY



Example No. A 7



                Documents                    Matter to be classified       Classification and comments


                                     from claim(s):                    Obligatory classification:

    BE                   765   396   Process for the preparation of    Inventions dealing with the
    CH                   546   761   4-(pyridylthio) acetic acid.      preparation of chemical compounds
    DE-OS            2   116   159                                     are classfied in the groups for the
    ES                   390   039                                     compound prepared (see Note (3) of
    FI                    52   217                                     C 07 class notes). Furthermore, the
    FR               2   089   348                                     ―last-place rule‖ should be observed
    GB               1   331   718                                     (see Note (2) of C 07 class notes).
    HU                   163   223
    IE                    35   240                                     C 07 D 213/70
    IL                    36   552
    NL               7   104   539
    NO                   133   549
    PH                     9   953
    SE                   358   885
*   US               3   644   377
    ZA                   712   138




                                     from description:                 Non-obligatory classification:

                                     Intermediate compound for the     C 07 D 501/34
                                     preparation of cephalosporins.




Category(ies)                                                          Complete classification:

II (b)                                                                 C 07 D 213/70 // C 07 D 501/34




* Priority country                                                     Classification based on underlined
                                                                       document(s)


en / 05-01-04                                                                          Date: September 2002
                     HANDBOOK ON INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY INFORMATION AND DOCUMENTATION

Ref.: IPC Training Examples                                                                    page: 5.1.4.10



                                            PART A – CHEMISTRY



Example No. A 8



                Documents                    Matter to be classified       Classification and comments


                                     from claim(s):                    Obligatory classification:

    DE-OS          2    047   983    Method of making a seleno         Since no preparation group exists,
    FR             2    064   875    compound corresponding to the     the method is classified in the
    GB             1    277   325    formula                           compound group C 07 C 391/00 (see
    JP            50    012   414                                      Note (3) of C 07 class notes).
    NL             7    014   038    CH3Se–(CH2)n–CH–COY
*   US             3    678   067                  |                   The compounds containing
                                                  NHX                  radioactive selenium are also
                                                                       classified in that group.
                                     The compound can contain          Classification of such compounds in
                                     radioactive selenium.             group C 07 B 59/00 is not correct
                                                                       since this subclass deals with
                                                                       general methods.




                                     from description:                 Non-obligatory classification:

                                     None                              None

                                                                       Use of such compounds containing
                                                                       selenium-75 as radiodiagnostic
                                                                       means does not warrant a
                                                                       classification, since the disclosure
                                                                       merely states a well known use of the
                                                                       material.




Category(ies)                                                          Complete classification:

II (b), (c)                                                            C 07 C 391/00




* Priority country                                                     Classification based on underlined
                                                                       document(s)


en / 05-01-04                                                                          Date: September 2002
                     HANDBOOK ON INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY INFORMATION AND DOCUMENTATION

Ref.: IPC Training Examples                                                                            page: 5.1.4.11



                                            PART A – CHEMISTRY



Example No. A 9



                Documents                    Matter to be classified               Classification and comments


                                     from claim(s):                            Obligatory classification:

    AT                   297   714   N-oxides of a dibenzo (b, f) thiepin      According to Note (2) of C 07 D
    BE                   759   999   compound                                  subclass notes, the piperazine ring,
    CH                   547   307                                             covered by group 295/00, is to be
*   CS                   148   851                                             considered as an open chain with
    DE-OS          2     060   903                                             nitrogen atoms, classification is
    FR             2     081   339                                             determined by the other hetero-ring:
    GB             1     277   854                                             heterocyclic compounds containing
    JP            49     004   463                                             rings of more than six members
    NL             7     018   025                                             having one sulphur atom as only ring
    SE                   366   747                                             hetero atom are classified in group
    US               3   830   814   and process of producing same.            337/00.

                                                                               C 07 D 337/14




                                     from description:                         Non-obligatory classification:

                                     Compounds are disclosed exhibiting        Medicinal compositions are classified
                                     a shift of the balance of central         in subclass A 61 K according to the
                                     sedative and cataleptic effect with       active ingredient (compound)
                                     application in the therapy of psychotic   according to the ―last place rule.‖
                                     diseases.
                                                                               A 61 K 31/495




Category(ies)                                                                  Complete classification:

II (b), (c)                                                                    C 07 D 337/14 // A 61 K 31/495




* Priority country                                                             Classification based on underlined
                                                                               document(s)


en / 05-01-04                                                                                  Date: September 2002
                     HANDBOOK ON INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY INFORMATION AND DOCUMENTATION

Ref.: IPC Training Examples                                                                           page: 5.1.4.12



                                            PART A – CHEMISTRY



Example No. A 10



                Documents                   Matter to be classified             Classification and comments


                                     from claim(s):                        Obligatory classification:

    AT                   306   056   Process for reducing the acidity of   Inventions dealing with general
    BE                   764   496   an ester product, which process       processes for the preparation of
    BG                    20   780   comprises contacting the product      compounds are classified in the
    CH                   553   741   with steam and a solid alkali at a    groups for the processes employed
    DE-OS            2   112   492   temperature in excess of 100ºC.       (see Note (3) of C 07 class notes).
    DK                   129   984
    ES                   389   344                                         C 07 C 67/48
    FR               2   084   774
*   GB               1   279   203                                         Secondary classification in group
    HU                   164   445                                         C 07 C 69/00 for the compounds
    IE                    34   955                                         prepared (see notes referred to
    IL                    36   267                                         above) is not considered necessary.
    NL               7   103   562
    PL                    82   745
    RO                    58   575
    SU                   489   305
    US               3   818   071
    ZA                   711   080



                                     from description:                     Non-obligatory classification:

                                     None                                  None




Category(ies)                                                              Complete classification:

II (c)                                                                     C 07 C 67/48




* Priority country                                                          Classification based on underlined
                                                                            document(s)


en / 05-01-04                                                                               Date: September 2002
                     HANDBOOK ON INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY INFORMATION AND DOCUMENTATION

Ref.: IPC Training Examples                                                                          page: 5.1.4.13



                                            PART A – CHEMISTRY



Example No. A 11



                Documents                    Matter to be classified             Classification and comments


                                     from claim(s):                          Obligatory classification:

    BE                  762   991    Process for the preparation of          A compound containing an acyclic
    CH                  513   178    5-nitroimidazole derivatives and such   chain and a heterocyclic ring is
    DE-A           2    107   405    derivatives;                            classified only as a heterocyclic
*   FR             2    079   880                                            compund (see Note (2) of C 07 class
    GB             1    278   757                                            notes).
    JP            49    080   066
    NL             7    101   642                                            Heterocyclic compounds containing
    OA                    3   569                                            1,3-diazole rings are classified in
                                                                             group C 07 D 233/00. The
                                                                             compound of the invention, in view of
                                                                             its unsaturation and of its
                                                                             substituents, is classified in group
                                                                             233/94.

                                                                             C 07 D 233/94




                                     from description:                       Non-obligatory classification:

                                     None                                    None




Category(ies)                                                                Complete classification:

II (c)                                                                       C 07 D 233/94




* Priority country                                                           Classification based on underlined
                                                                             document(s)


en / 05-01-04                                                                                Date: September 2002
                     HANDBOOK ON INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY INFORMATION AND DOCUMENTATION

Ref.: IPC Training Examples                                                                            page: 5.1.4.14



                                               PART A – CHEMISTRY



Example No. A 12



                Documents                      Matter to be classified          Classification and comments


                                        from claim(s):                    Obligatory classification:

    CH                      540   977   Device for making a culture of    Devices for culturing micro-organisms
    DE-OS              2    034   923   micro-organisms.                  are provided for in subclass C 12 M.
    ES                      381   794
    FR                 2    057   723                                     C 12 M 1/28
    GB                 1    246   070
    LU                       61   458
    NL                 7    011   646
*   US                 3    616   265




                                        from description:                 Non-obligatory classification:

                                        The purpose of the device is to   Testing processes involving
                                        provide early office diagnosis    micro-organisms are in subsclass
                                        without the necessity of a        C 12 Q.
                                        laboratory.
                                                                          C 12 Q 1/24




Category(ies)                                                             Complete classification:

II (c)                                                                    C 12 M 1/28 // C 12 Q 1/24




* Priority country                                                          Classification based on underlined
                                                                            document(s)


en / 05-01-04                                                                              Date: September 2002
                     HANDBOOK ON INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY INFORMATION AND DOCUMENTATION

Ref.: IPC Training Examples                                                                          page: 5.1.4.15



                                               PART A – CHEMISTRY



Example No. A 14



                Documents                       Matter to be classified           Classification and comments


                                        from claim(s):                       Obligatory classification:

    DE-OS              1    938   318   Piezo-electric, ferroelectric body   In the Note (1) after group
    FR                 2    055   350   (structure) consisting of the        C 04 B 35/00 the rule states that
    GB                 1    251   933   perowskite:                          ―compositions are classified according
    NL                 7    010   855                                        to the constituent present in the
    US                 3    663   440   xPbTiO3-yPbZrO3-zPb(Mg0.5W 0.5)O3    highest proportion by weight.‖ In group
                                                                             C 04 B 35/46, titanates containing also
                                        x = 0.41-0.44                        zirconates are referred out to group
                                        y = 0.37-0.49                        C 04 B 35/49. According to this rule
                                        z = 0.05-0.18                        and this reference, a composition
                                                                             based on lead zirconates and lead
                                        There are some other minor           titanates and containing also other
                                        constituents about 1% MnO2 and       lead compounds is classified in group
                                        0.15% A12O3.                         C 04 B 35/493 only.

                                        The main constituents are            Classification in group H 01 L 41/187
                                        PbO-TiO2-ZrO2.                       is also retained for the selection of the
                                                                             specified material for piezo-electric
                                                                             devices.



                                        from description:                    Non-obligatory classification:

                                        None                                 None




Category(ies)                                                                Complete classification:

II (c), (e)                                                                  C 04 B 35/493, H 01 L 41/187




* Priority country                                                           Classification based on underlined
                                                                             document(s)


en / 05-01-04                                                                                Date: September 2002
                     HANDBOOK ON INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY INFORMATION AND DOCUMENTATION

Ref.: IPC Training Examples                                                                               page: 5.1.4.16



                                               PART A – CHEMISTRY



Example No. A 15



                Documents                      Matter to be classified              Classification and comments


                                        from claim(s):                         Obligatory classification:

*   DE-OS              2    338   562   Process for the manufacture of         The invention is concerned with the
    FR                 2    239   739   moulded carbon or graphite bodies      preparation of an ingredient of a
    US                 4    013   760   having high isotropic and thermal      composition for subsequent moulding
                                        conductivity values, for use as fuel   into an article.
                                        elements in high temperature
                                        nuclear reactors. A pyrolitic and      Process of preparation of a graphitic
                                        isotropic form of carbon is used,      powdery material.
                                        ground to given dimensions.
                                                                               C 01 B 31/04

                                                                               Ceramic product based on graphite.

                                                                               C 04 B 35/52

                                                                               For use as fuel elements in high
                                                                               temperature nuclear reactors.

                                                                               G 21 C 21/02

                                                                               The invention is not concerned with
                                                                               the moulding per se and is therefore
                                                                               not suitable for classification in
                                                                               subclass B 28 B.

                                        from description:                      Non-obligatory classification:

                                        None                                   None




Category(ies)                                                                  Complete classification:

II (d)                                                                         C 01 B 31/04, C 04 B 35/52,
                                                                               G 21 C 21/02




* Priority country                                                              Classification based on underlined
                                                                                document(s)


en / 05-01-04                                                                                   Date: September 2002
                     HANDBOOK ON INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY INFORMATION AND DOCUMENTATION

Ref.: IPC Training Examples                                                                                    page: 5.1.4.17



                                                 PART A – CHEMISTRY



Example No. A 16



                Documents                        Matter to be classified                 Classification and comments


                                          from claim(s):                            Obligatory classification:

    BE                      755   133     1.      Process for the purification of   1. No specific place is available for
*   DE-OS              1    942   925     an aqueous hexafluor-silicic acid            classification of the acid as such. It
    ES                      382   983     solution.                                    should be classified as a compound
    FR                 2    059   104                                                  containing silicon, fluorine and other
    GB                 1    278   886     2.    Preparation of a substantially         elements; the fluorsilicic acid
    NL                 7    012   190     phosphate-free solution of NH4F.             H2SiF6 containing hydrogen as
    US                 3    669   621                                                  another element.
    ZA                      704   486
                                                                                       C 01 B 33/10.

                                                                                    2. With regard to the ammonium
                                                                                       fluoride, the classification scheme
                                                                                       only provides one place for all
                                                                                       halides of ammonium.

                                                                                       C 01 C 1/16.


                                          from description:                         Non-obligatory classification:

                                          None                                      None

                                                                                    Separation of the phosphate occurs in
                                                                                    form of iron (III) phosphate, which
                                                                                    phosphate is not of sufficient
                                                                                    importance to merit a classification.




Category(ies)                                                                       Complete classification:

II (f) No place provided in the IPC for                                             C 01 B 33/10, C 01 C 1/16
such acids.




* Priority country                                                                   Classification based on underlined
                                                                                     document(s)


en / 05-01-04                                                                                         Date: September 2002
                     HANDBOOK ON INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY INFORMATION AND DOCUMENTATION

Ref.: IPC Training Examples                                                                            page: 5.1.4.18



                                               PART A – CHEMISTRY



Example No. A 17



                Documents                      Matter to be classified           Classification and comments


                                        from claim(s):                      Obligatory and comments:

    CH                      513   287   Paper making machine containing a   Two aspects of the invention can be
    DE-OS              2    102   447   head-box having the slice-lip       considered:
    ES                      387   321   pivotally mounted to regulate the
    FR                 2    092   441   pulp-flow.                          (1) construction of the head-box of a
    GB                 1    314   456                                           Fourdrinier machine:
    NL                 7    019   052
    SE                      380   304                                            D 21 F 1/02
*   US                 3    645   843
    ZA                      708   429                                       (2) regulating pulp flow:

                                                                                 D 21 F 1/06

                                                                            Since no precedence rule exists in
                                                                            this subsclass, both classifications
                                                                            are equally correct. The construction
                                                                            of the head-box appearing to be the
                                                                            essential aspect of the invention is
                                                                            placed first.

                                        from description:                   Non-obligatory classification:

                                        None                                None




Category(ies)                                                               Complete classification:

II (f) No precedence rule.                                                  D 21 F 1/02, 1/06




* Priority country                                                           Classification based on underlined
                                                                             document(s)


en / 05-01-04                                                                               Date: September 2002
                     HANDBOOK ON INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY INFORMATION AND DOCUMENTATION

Ref.: IPC Training Examples                                                                            page: 5.1.4.19




                                               PART B — MECHANICS


Example No. B 1



                Documents                      Matter to be classified           Classification and comments


                                        from claim(s):                      Obligatory classification:

    AR                      195   467   Eviscerating devices for poultry.   Since processing poultry falls within
    DE-OS              2    061   644                                       subclass A 22 C, it is merely
    ES                      196   295                                       necessary to use straightforward
*   FR                 2    073   009                                       classification in group A 22 C 21/06.
    GB                 1    306   720
    IL                       35   798
    JP                50    016   268
    NL                 7    017   906
    SE                      366   202
    US                 3    605   179




                                        from description:                   Non-obligatory classification:

                                        None                                None




Category(ies)                                                               Complete classification:

I                                                                           A 22 C 21/06




* Priority country                                                           Classification based on underlined
                                                                             document(s)


en / 05-01-04                                                                                Date: September 2002
                     HANDBOOK ON INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY INFORMATION AND DOCUMENTATION

Ref.: IPC Training Examples                                                                              page: 5.1.4.20



                                               PART B – MECHANICS



Example No. B 2



                Documents                      Matter to be classified             Classification and comments


                                        from claim(s):                        Obligatory classification:

    AT                 3     14   957   Leaf vegetables such as spinach are   Freezing vegetables is provided in
    BE                      754   585   dewatered, shaped into particulate    group A 23 B 7/04. Group A 23 B 7/02
    CH                      520   476   form and frozen.                      is not necessary because dewatering
    DE-OS              2    041   926                                         is only a preparatory step before
    FR                 2    059   142                                         freezing.
*   GB                 1    279   732
    NL                 7    011   787
    NO                      132   572
    SE                      364   626
    US                 3    794   751
    ZA                      705   732




                                        from description:                     Non-obligatory classification:

                                        None                                  None




Category(ies)                                                                 Complete classification:

I                                                                             A 23 B 7/04




* Priority country                                                             Classification based on underlined
                                                                               document(s)


en / 05-01-04                                                                                  Date: September 2002
                     HANDBOOK ON INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY INFORMATION AND DOCUMENTATION

Ref.: IPC Training Examples                                                                             page: 5.1.4.21



                                               PART B – MECHANICS



Example No. B 3



                Documents                      Matter to be classified            Classification and comments


                                        from claim(s):                       Obligatory classification:

    AT                      324   107   Pre-treatment of potatoes before     The general symbol of the
    BE                      767   766   deep frying. The process includes    classification for preparation of fruits or
    CA                      964   918   heating the potatoes by passing an   vegetables is group A 23 L 1/212. The
    CH                      551   156   electrical current through them.     preparation of potatoes is covered by
    DE-OS              2    126   234                                        group A 23 L 1/216 thereunder.
    ES                      391   606
    FR                 2    093   820
    GB                 1    282   409
    NL                 7    107   307
    NO                      132   816
*   SE                      350   188
    SU                      499   775
    US                 3    997   678




                                        from description:                    Non-obligatory classification:

                                        None                                 None




Category(ies)                                                                Complete classification:

I                                                                            A 23 L 1/216




* Priority country                                                            Classification based on underlined
                                                                              document(s)


en / 05-01-04                                                                                 Date: September 2002
                     HANDBOOK ON INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY INFORMATION AND DOCUMENTATION

Ref.: IPC Training Examples                                                                             page: 5.1.4.22



                                               PART B - MECHANICS



Example No. B 4



                Documents                      Matter to be classified            Classification and comments


                                        from claim(s):                       Obligatory classification:

    BE                      764   341   Drawer runners comprising a tongue   Drawer runners are furniture
    CH                      513   616   enabling the runner to be locked.    components provided for under
    DE-OS              2    112   429                                        subclass A 47 B together with furniture.
    FR                 2    084   626                                        Drawers and runners therefore are
*   GB                 1    283   294                                        explicitly covered by group
    JP                51    024   950                                        A 47 B 88/04.
    NL                 7    103   293
    SE                      366   907
    US                 3    677   615
    ZA                      711   654




                                        from description:                    Non-obligatory classification:

                                        None                                 None




Category(ies)                                                                Complete classification:

I                                                                            A 47 B 88/04




* Priority country                                                            Classification based on underlined
                                                                              document(s)


en / 05-01-04                                                                                 Date: September 2002
                     HANDBOOK ON INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY INFORMATION AND DOCUMENTATION

Ref.: IPC Training Examples                                                                              page: 5.1.4.23



                                               PART B – MECHANICS



Example No. B 5



                Documents                      Matter to be classified               Classification and comments


                                        from claim(s):                          Obligatory classification:

    AT                      314   068   Speculum comprising elongate             Speculums are explicitly covered by
    CH                      531   342   complementary jaws. A device             group A 61 B 1/32.
    DE-OS              2    103   250   enables the jaws to be opened and
    FR                 2    079   178   closed. A member controlled by
    GB                 1    337   830   external pressure to hold the jaws in
    NL                 7    101   357   predetermined relative positions.
    SE                      370   861
*   US                 3    650   266




                                        from description:                        Non-obligatory classification:

                                        None                                     None




Category(ies)                                                                    Complete classification:

I                                                                                A 61 B 1/32




* Priority country                                                               Classification based on underlined
                                                                                 document(s)


en / 05-01-04                                                                                    Date: September 2002
                     HANDBOOK ON INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY INFORMATION AND DOCUMENTATION

Ref.: IPC Training Examples                                                                                 page: 5.1.4.24



                                               PART B – MECHANICS



Example No. B 6



                Documents                      Matter to be classified                Classification and comments


                                        from claim(s):                           Obligatory classification:

*   DE-OS              2    005   981   A book designed to accommodate in        Books are covered by subclass
    FR                 2    078   330   addition to the pages relatively thick   B 42 D. Books themselves are in
    GB                 1    344   200   material detachably secured to the       group 1/00.
    US                 3    658   365   inside of one of the covers, the spine
                                        being arranged so that the covers        The invention relates to a book and not
                                        are parallel when closed.                to a loose book cover. Therefore,
                                                                                 classification in group 3/12 is not
                                                                                 considered appropriate.




                                        from description:                        Non-obligatory classification:

                                        None                                     None

                                                                                 A particular form of educational
                                                                                 material for incorporation in the book is
                                                                                 described and classification in
                                                                                 subclass G 09 B might be considered
                                                                                 but no detail is given and such material
                                                                                 is already known and no
                                                                                 supplementary classification is
                                                                                 necessary.




Category(ies)                                                                    Complete classification:

I                                                                                B 42 D 1/00




* Priority country                                                                Classification based on underlined
                                                                                  document(s)


en / 05-01-04                                                                                     Date: September 2002
                     HANDBOOK ON INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY INFORMATION AND DOCUMENTATION

Ref.: IPC Training Examples                                                                           page: 5.1.4.25



                                               PART B – MECHANICS



Example No. B 7



                Documents                      Matter to be classified          Classification and comments


                                        from claim(s):                     Obligatory classification:

    AT                      322   407   Construction of a non-refillable   Pens are covered by subclass B 43 K
*   DE-OS              2    133   769   fountain pen.                      and those with reservoirs in the holder
    FR                 2    144   642                                      by group 5/00. Although both the ink
    GB                 1    344   435                                      reservoir (group 5/02) and the ink feed
                                                                           to the nib (group 5/18) are included in
                                                                           the claim, the invention resides in the
                                                                           pen as a whole so group 5/00 is
                                                                           selected.




                                        from description:                  Non-obligatory classification:

                                        None                               None




Category(ies)                                                              Complete classification:

I                                                                          B 43 K 5/00




* Priority country                                                          Classification based on underlined
                                                                            document(s)


en / 05-01-04                                                                               Date: September 2002
                     HANDBOOK ON INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY INFORMATION AND DOCUMENTATION

Ref.: IPC Training Examples                                                                                page: 5.1.4.26



                                               PART B – MECHANICS



Example No. B 8



                Documents                      Matter to be classified               Classification and comments


                                        from claim(s):                          Obligatory classification:

    AT                      323   974   Metal door or wing frame having a       The place for hollow metal wing frames
    BE                      754   621   closed rectangular cross section        is group E 06 B 3/16.
*   CH                      505   974   which mounts resilient sealing strips
    DE-OS              2    039   643   located in grooves.                     Sealing arrangements in connection
    FR                 2    058   327                                           with doors or windows comprising
    GB                 1    281   622                                           resilient strips of plastic material, as
    LU                       61   519                                           appearing from the drawings, are
    NL                 7    012   032                                           covered by group E 06 B 7/23.
    US                 3    729   869




                                        from description:                       Non-obligatory classification:

                                        None                                    None




Category(ies)                                                                   Complete classification:

I                                                                               E 06 B 3/16, 7/23




* Priority country                                                               Classification based on underlined
                                                                                 document(s)


en / 05-01-04                                                                                    Date: September 2002
                     HANDBOOK ON INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY INFORMATION AND DOCUMENTATION

Ref.: IPC Training Examples                                                                              page: 5.1.4.27



                                               PART B – MECHANICS



Example No. B 9



                Documents                       Matter to be classified               Classification and comments


                                        from claim(s):                           Obligatory classification:

    CH                      519   654   Gas turbine fuel control system          Controlling the fuel supply of gas
    DE-OS              2    048   807   including means for producing a          turbine plants is covered by
    FR                 2    068   347   control signal operable to control the   group F 02 C 9/28.
    GB                 1    328   356   temperature increase rate of the
    NL                 7    014   354   turbine.
*   US                 3    601   984




                                        from description:                        Non-obligatory classification:

                                        None                                     None




Category(ies)                                                                    Complete classification:

I                                                                                F 02 C 9/28




* Priority country                                                               Classification based on underlined
                                                                                 document(s)


en / 05-01-04                                                                                   Date: September 2002
                     HANDBOOK ON INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY INFORMATION AND DOCUMENTATION

Ref.: IPC Training Examples                                                                              page: 5.1.4.28



                                               PART B – MECHANICS



Example No. B 11



                Documents                       Matter to be classified               Classification and comments


                                        from claim(s):                           Obligatory classification:

    BE                      757   305   According to the claims, interpreted     Endless-strand sintering apparatus
    DE-OS              2    053   977   in the light of the description, the     are provided for in group
    FR                 2    065   336   invention relates to sintering           B 27 B 21/06.
*   GB                 1    247   977   apparatus wherein a plurality of
    JP                51    008   084   pallets, each having a base in the
    NL                 7    014   348   form of a grate, are adapted to be
    SE                      365   866   moved in end-to-end abutting
    US                 3    744   777   relationship through a treatment zone.
    ZA                      706   204

FR document is a patent application




                                        from description:                        Non-obligatory classification:

                                        None                                     None




Category(ies)                                                                    Complete classification:

I                                                                                B 27 B 21/06




* Priority country                                                               Classification based on underlined
                                                                                 document(s)


en / 05-01-04                                                                                   Date: September 2002
                     HANDBOOK ON INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY INFORMATION AND DOCUMENTATION

Ref.: IPC Training Examples                                                                           page: 5.1.4.29



                                                PART B – MECHANICS



Example No. B 12



                Documents                        Matter to be classified           Classification and comments


                                         from claim(s):                       Obligatory classification:

    AT                      302 848      DE and FR documents:                 Shells as such are classified in group
    BE                      753 888                                           F 42 B 12/00.
    CA                      945 005      Armour-piercing shell comprising a
*   CH                11      861 / 69   core and a special casing of the     Armour-piercing shells with special
    DE-OS              2    036 897      charge.                              construction of core and casing are
    ES                      382 435                                           classified in group 12/04 (DE and FR
    FR                 2    056 596      GB document:                         documents).
    GB                 1    278 546
    JP                50    014 840      High-explosive shell with an         Armour-piercing projectiles and high
    NL                 7    011 557      armour-piercing projectile.          explosive projectiles (core) are
    SE                      354 520                                           classified in groups 12/06 and 12/20,
    US                 3    731 630                                           respectively (GB document).




                                         from description                     Non-obligatory classification:

                                         Fragmentation hull construction.     The disclosure relating to
                                                                              fragmentation hull construction does
                                                                              not justify separate classification.




Category(ies)                                                                 Complete classification:

I                                                                             F 42 B 12/04                 (DE, FR)
                                                                              F 42 B 12/06, 12/20          (GB)




* Priority country                                                            Classification based on underlined
                                                                              document(s)


en / 05-01-04                                                                                Date: September 2002
                     HANDBOOK ON INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY INFORMATION AND DOCUMENTATION

Ref.: IPC Training Examples                                                                                   page: 5.1.4.30



                                               PART B – MECHANICS



Example No. B 13



                Documents                        Matter to be classified                   Classification and comments


                                        from claim(s):                                Obligatory classification:

    BE                      754 056     Electrical circuit for signalling lights on   Signalling in general is provided for in
    DE-OS              2    037 970     motor vehicles, providing high and low        class G 08 and, more particularly in
    ES                      382 349     levels of lamp luminosity.                    subclass G 08 B. The title of this
    FR                 2    057 879                                                   subclass, however, refers out
    GB                 1    253 175                                                   signalling arrangements on vehicles
*   IT                52     862 / 69                                                 to subclass B 60 Q. Here the most
    LU                       61 448                                                   appropriate entry is group 1/26, since
    NL                 7    011 351                                                   the device is not specific to any of the
                                                                                      particular aspects of signalling
                                                                                      contained in groups hierarchically
                                                                                      below group 1/26. (See
                                                                                      paragraph 27(a) and 47(b) of the
                                                                                      Guide to the IPC.)




                                        from description:                             Non-obligatory classification:

                                        None                                          None




Category(ies)                                                                         Complete classification:

II (c)                                                                                B 60 Q 1/26




* Priority country                                                                    Classification based on underlined
                                                                                      document(s)


en / 05-01-04                                                                                         Date: September 2002
                     HANDBOOK ON INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY INFORMATION AND DOCUMENTATION

Ref.: IPC Training Examples                                                                           page: 5.1.4.31



                                               PART B – MECHANICS



Example No. B 14



                Documents                       Matter to be classified            Classification and comments


                                        from claim(s):                        Obligatory classification:

    DE-OS              2    041   925   Floating structure with a stability   Platforms in general are covered by
    FR                 2    061   001   column.                               group E 02 B 17/00, but in this group
    GB                 1    310   142                                         there is a reference for floatable
    NL                 7    012   519                                         structures, which are covered by
    TR                       16   905                                         group B 63 B 35/44. (See
*   US                 3    605   669                                         paragraph 27 (a) of the Guide to the
    ZA                      705   508                                         IPC.)




                                        from description:                     Non-obligatory classification:

                                        None                                  None




Category(ies)                                                                 Complete classification:

II (c)                                                                        B 63 B 35/44




* Priority country                                                            Classification based on underlined
                                                                              document(s)


en / 05-01-04                                                                                Date: September 2002
                     HANDBOOK ON INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY INFORMATION AND DOCUMENTATION

Ref.: IPC Training Examples                                                                              page: 5.1.4.32



                                               PART B – MECHANICS



Example No. B 15



                Documents                       Matter to be classified               Classification and comments


                                        from claim(s):                           Obligatory classification:

    BE                      827   378   Rack for wine bottles and similar        Storage devices in general are
    CA                 1    012   095   objects.                                 classified in subclass B 65 G.
    DE-OS              2    428   089                                            However, in view of the reference to
*   FR                 2    265   308                                            subclasses A 47 B, A 47 F and
    GB                 1    467   959                                            A 47 G in group B 65 G 1/02,
    NL                 7    503   228                                            classification in this subclass is not
    US                 3    896   936                                            considered appropriate.

                                                                                 Classification in group A 47 B 73/00
                                                                                 completely covers the invention.
                                                                                 Classification in A 47 F 1/00 is not
                                                                                 appropriate, in view of the reference
                                                                                 ―racks in general A 47 B‖ appearing
                                                                                 there.


                                        from description:                        Non-obligatory classification:

                                        None                                     None

                                        The rack is designed for shipment in a   No additional classification is
                                        reduced volume.                          appropriate to this further information
                                                                                 and the main classification is
                                                                                 sufficient.




Category(ies)                                                                    Complete classification:

II (c), (d)                                                                      A 47 B 73/00




* Priority country                                                               Classification based on underlined
                                                                                 document(s)


en / 05-01-04                                                                                   Date: September 2002
                     HANDBOOK ON INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY INFORMATION AND DOCUMENTATION

Ref.: IPC Training Examples                                                                             page: 5.1.4.33



                                               PART B – MECHANICS



Example No. B 16



                Documents                       Matter to be classified              Classification and comments


                                        from claim(s):                          Obligatory classification:

    BE                      760   152   A forge manipulator having a wheeled    Manipulators in general are classified
    DE                 2    060   061   carriage with jaws mounted thereon in   in subclass B 25 J. However, the title
    FR                 2    094   177   such a way as to be capable of          of subclass B 25 J refers out
*   GB                 1    352   547   longitudinal movement in relation to    ―manipulators associated with forging
    JP                50    010   701   the carriage.                           machines‖ to group B 21 J 13/10.
    NL                 7    100   448
*   US                 3    631   996   The combined motion of the jaws and
                                        the carriage causes a pre-selected
                                        fresh portion of the workpiece to be
                                        presented to the press.




                                        from description:                       Non-obligatory classification:

                                        None                                    None




Category(ies)                           :                                       Complete classification

II (c), (d)                                                                     B 21 J 13/10




* Priority country                                                              Classification based on underlined
                                                                                document(s)


en / 05-01-04                                                                                  Date: September 2002
                     HANDBOOK ON INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY INFORMATION AND DOCUMENTATION

Ref.: IPC Training Examples                                                                            page: 5.1.4.34



                                               PART B – MECHANICS



Example No. B 17



                Documents                       Matter to be classified             Classification and comments


                                        from claim(s):                         Obligatory classification:

    BE                      753   231   Railway axle counting installations.   The counting of moving objects is to
*   CH                      494   665                                          be found under subclass G 06 M, but
    DE-OS              2    029   525                                          this classification has not been used
    FR                 2    063   896                                          since the invention relates to a special
    GB                 1    253   958                                          application covered elsewhere. Such
    NL                 7    009   297                                          application is to be found under
    SE                      363   067                                          subclass B 61 L, Guiding Railway
                                                                               Traffic, and more particularly under
                                                                               group B 61 L 1/16. The reference to
                                                                               group B 61 L 1/16 in the Guide
                                                                               heading preceding group G 06 M 7/00
                                                                               confirms this classification.




                                        from description:                      Non-obligatory classification:

                                        None                                   None




Category(ies)                                                                  Complete classification:

II (c), (d)                                                                    B 61 L 1/16




* Priority country                                                             Classification based on underlined
                                                                               document(s)


en / 05-01-04                                                                                 Date: September 2002
                     HANDBOOK ON INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY INFORMATION AND DOCUMENTATION

Ref.: IPC Training Examples                                                                            page: 5.1.4.35



                                               PART B – MECHANICS



Example No. B 18



                Documents                       Matter to be classified             Classification and comments


                                        from claim(s):                         Obligatory classification:

    AT                      308   575   Endless vulcanized belt made for       The various elements of automotive
    BE                      759   973   tracked vehicles, comprising a body    vehicles are to be found: (a) in class
    CH                      526   426   of flexible elastomeric material and   B 60 under vehicles in general where
    DE-OS              2    056   849   rigid, elongated elements in contact   they are common to more than one
    FI                       49    94   with the ground.                       type of vehicle or mentioned in the
    FR                 2    072   989                                          exceptions noted in the Note of class
    GB                 1    270   078                                          B 60; (b) under subclass B 62 D in
    JP                49    002   732                                          the remaining cases.
    NL                 7    017   550
    NO                      127   100                                          Wheels and tyres are covered by
    SE                      382   995                                          class B 60 but no mention is made of
*   US                 3    623   780                                          tracks. On the other hand, subclass
                                                                               B 62 D contains a special group,
                                                                               55/00, for endless-track vehicles and,
                                                                               more particularly for the tracks
                                                                               themselves, under group 55/18.
                                                                               Since these are flexible tracks, group
                                                                               55/24 has been chosen. The
                                                                               elements coming into contact with the
                                                                               ground have also been claimed and
                                                                               classification in group B 62 D 55/26 is
                                                                               therefore appropriate.



                                        from description:                      Non-obligatory classification:

                                        None                                   None




Category(ies)                                                                  Complete classification:

II (c), (d)                                                                    B 62 D 55/24, 55/26




* Priority country                                                             Classification based on underlined
                                                                               document(s)


en / 05-01-04                                                                                 Date: September 2002
                     HANDBOOK ON INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY INFORMATION AND DOCUMENTATION

Ref.: IPC Training Examples                                                                              page: 5.1.4.36



                                               PART B – MECHANICS



Example No. B 19



                Documents                       Matter to be classified               Classification and comments


                                        from claim(s):                           Obligatory classification:

*   DE-OS              2    460   417   Sealing strips in general                The general classification for sealing
    FR                 2    257   008                                            strips is to be found in group
    GB                 1    488   272                                            F 16 J 15/00.
    US                 3    958   369




                                        from description:                        Non-obligatory classification:

                                        – Sealing strips for openings closed     All closures for openings for movable
                                          by means of movable panels.            panels are found in subclass E 06 B.
                                                                                 Plastic sealing devices are found in
                                                                                 group 7/23.

                                        – Sealing strips for vehicle doors and   This specific application is covered by
                                          particularly for motor vehicles.       subclass E 06 B as set out in its
                                                                                 title.This is confirmed by Note (2) of
                                                                                 B 60 J subclass notes.




Category(ies)                                                                    Complete classification:

II (c), (d)                                                                      F 16 J 15/00 // E 06 B 7/23




* Priority country                                                               Classification based on underlined
                                                                                 document(s)


en / 05-01-04                                                                                   Date: September 2002
                     HANDBOOK ON INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY INFORMATION AND DOCUMENTATION

Ref.: IPC Training Examples                                                                                 page: 5.1.4.37



                                               PART B – MECHANICS



Example No. B 20



                Documents                       Matter to be classified                  Classification and comments


                                        from claim(s):                              Obligatory classification:

*   AT                      303   571   A moulding frame to enable soles or         Producing particular articles from
    CA                      964   014   heels to be moulded onto uppers in          plastics by moulding technique is
    DE                 2    141   167   which the frame is integral and has a       covered by subclass B 29 D. Note (1)
    FR                 2    107   134   resilient portion acting as a hinge         following the title of this subclass
    GB                 1    344   153   opposite to a parting line, the resilient   draws attention of the user to Note (3)
    US                 3    838   956   material being non-metallic.                following the title of class B 29. As
                                                                                    indicated in this Note, the working of
                                                                                    plastics is, as far as possible,
                                                                                    classified primarily according to the
                                                                                    particular shaping technique used,
                                                                                    e.g., in subclass B 29 C, and
                                                                                    classification in subclass B 29 D is
                                                                                    restricted to aspects which are
                                                                                    characteristic for the production of a
                                                                                    particular article and combined
                                                                                    operations for making the particular
                                                                                    article. However, Note (1) following
                                                                                    group B 29 D 31/50 should be taken
                                                                                    into consideration, which Note,
                                                                                    according to paragraph 29 of the
                                                                                    Guide to the IPC, overrides a general
                                                                                    Note in class B 29. As mentioned in
                                                                                    the former Note, classification should
                                                                                    be made in group B 29 D 31/50 if the
                                                                                    moulding technique is of interest. In
                                                                                    the said group, subgroup 31/508 is
                                                                                    provided for producing footwear
                                                                                    having soles or heels formed and
                                                                                    joined on to preformed uppers using a
                                                                                    moulding technique.

                                                                                    Classification in subclass A 43 D
                                                                                    covering machines for manufacturing
                                                                                    footwear is not appropriate since,
                                                                                    according to Note (2) following group
                                                                                    B 29 D 31/50, only the assembling of
                                                                                    individual parts of footwear by
                                                                                    mechanical joining is classified in this
                                                                                    subclass.

                                        from description:                           Non-obligatory classification:

                                        None                                        None

Category(ies)                                                                       Complete classification:

II (c)                                                                              B 29 D 31/508




* Priority country                                                                  Classification based on underlined
                                                                                    document(s)


en / 05-01-04                                                                                       Date: September 2002
                     HANDBOOK ON INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY INFORMATION AND DOCUMENTATION

Ref.: IPC Training Examples                                                                               page: 5.1.4.38



                                               PART B – MECHANICS



Example No. B 21



                Documents                       Matter to be classified                Classification and comments


                                        from claim(s):                            Obligatory classification:

    AT                      321   795   An interconnected toy building block      Constructional toys of this type are
    BE                      754   451   set that has as its basis a modular       provided for in group A 63 H 33/08.
    CH                      532   943   concept and in which the basic
    DE-OS              2    039   039   module is a cube (DE document).           Classification of constructional
    FR                 2    056   776   The claims of the FR and US               elements in general in subclass
    GB                 1    322   777   documents are not restricted to toys,     F 16 S is unnecessary, since the
    IE                       34   451   but have to be interpreted in the light   invention is limited to constructional
    JP                51    008   061   of the information given in the           toys.
    NL                 7    011   324   description.
    NO                      128   011
    SE                      345   809
*   US                 3    651   597
    ZA                      704   943




                                        from description:                         Non-obligatory classification:

                                        None                                      None




Category(ies)                                                                     Complete classification:

II (d)                                                                            A 63 H 33/08




* Priority country                                                                Classification based on underlined
                                                                                  document(s)


en / 05-01-04                                                                                     Date: September 2002
                     HANDBOOK ON INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY INFORMATION AND DOCUMENTATION

Ref.: IPC Training Examples                                                                               page: 5.1.4.39



                                               PART B – MECHANICS



Example No. B 22



                Documents                       Matter to be classified                Classification and comments


                                        from claim(s):                            Obligatory classification:

    CA                      967   027   An arrangement for damping vibration      Centrifuges are covered by subclass
*   DE-OS              2    122   602   in a rotor for a centrifuge, making use   B 04 B. Drive suspensions and
*   FR                 2    137   553   of an annular permanent magnet            related matter being provided for in
    GB                 1    344   768   attached to the rotor and positioned      group 9/00. The damper being a part
    NL                 7    205   679   opposite a fixed annular permanent        of the suspension, group 9/12 is the
    US                 3    786   694   magnet.                                   appropriate group.

                                                                                  The suppression of vibrations of
                                                                                  rotating systems in general is covered
                                                                                  by group F 16 F 15/00, the use of
                                                                                  members not rotating and rotating
                                                                                  with the rotating system being
                                                                                  covered respectively by groups 15/02
                                                                                  and 15/10.

                                                                                  In the present case the invention
                                                                                  includes a combination of rotating and
                                                                                  non-rotating members, and, therefore,
                                                                                  group F 16 F 15/00 is considered to
                                                                                  be the most suitable entry.

                                        from description:                         Complete classification:

                                        None                                      None




Category(ies)                                                                     Complete classification:

II (d)                                                                            B 04 B 9/12, F 16 F 15/00




* Priority country                                                                Classification based on underlined
                                                                                  document(s)


en / 05-01-04                                                                                    Date: September 2002
                     HANDBOOK ON INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY INFORMATION AND DOCUMENTATION

Ref.: IPC Training Examples                                                                              page: 5.1.4.40



                                                 PART B – MECHANICS



Example No. B 24



                Documents                         Matter to be classified             Classification and comments


                                          from claim(s):                         Obligatory classification:

    DE-OS              2    123   118     Flotation process and apparatus for    A problem arises from the fact that no
    ES                      390   947     simultaneous separation of oxygen      entry exists to cover the simultaneous
    FR                 2    088   472     and insoluble matter from a liquid.    separation of oxygen and insoluble
    GB                 1    327   296                                            matter. These two aspects have,
    NL                 7    106   369                                            therefore, to be classified separately,
*   US                 3    647   069                                            i.e., groups B 03 D 1/02
    TR                       17   399                                            (froth-flotation), 1/16 (process and
                                                                                 apparatus for the separation of
                                                                                 insoluble matter), and group
                                                                                 B 01 D 19/00 (evacuation of oxygen).




                                          from description:                      Non-obligatory classification:

                                          Application is to the cleansing of     The recovery of oil through
                                          water employed in obtaining oil from   displacement by water is the entry
                                          deep wells.                            closest to this subject, i.e., group
                                                                                 E 21 B 43/20.




Category(ies)                                                                    Complete classification:

II (f) Classification by fragmentation,                                          B 03 D D 1/02, 1/16,
a technique frequently applied when                                              B 01 D 19/00 // E 21 B 43/20
the IPC does not provide an entry for
the combination of two or more
aspects.




* Priority country                                                               Classification based on underlined
                                                                                 document(s)


en / 05-01-04                                                                                   Date: September 2002
                     HANDBOOK ON INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY INFORMATION AND DOCUMENTATION

Ref.: IPC Training Examples                                                                               page: 5.1.4.41




                                        PART C — PHYSICS AND ELECTRICITY


Example No. C 1



                Documents                        Matter to be classified               Classification and comments


                                         from claim(s):                           Obligatory classification:

    BE                      761   504    1. A capacitor with coplanar             1. Capacitors with invariable
    DE-OS              2    100   871       electrodes covered by dielectric         capacitance and ceramic
    FR                 2    074   309       ceramic particles in a glass binder      dielectric are covered by group
    GB                 1    283   501       and an electrode overlapping the         H 01 G 4/12.
    NL                 7    100   441       coplanar electrodes.
*   US                 2    813    70                                             2. For the trimming facility the most
                                         2. The structure is such that the           appropriate place is group
                                            capacitance value can readily be         H 01 G 4/255.
                                            adjusted.




                                         from description:                        Non-obligatory classification:

                                         None                                     None




Category(ies)                                                                     Complete classification:

I                                                                                 H 01 G 4/12, 4/255




* Priority country                                                                Classification based on underlined
                                                                                  document(s)


en / 05-01-04                                                                                    Date: September 2002
                     HANDBOOK ON INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY INFORMATION AND DOCUMENTATION

Ref.: IPC Training Examples                                                                              page: 5.1.4.42



                                        PART C – PHYSICS AND ELECTRICITY



Example No. C 2



                Documents                        Matter to be classified              Classification and comments


                                         from claim(s):                          Obligatory classification:

    CH                      520   452    A telephone instrument having a first   Telephone instruments are
    DE-PS              2    053   862    and a second electro-acoustic           sub-station equipment and are
    DK                      123   130    transducer with means for               covered by group H 04 M 1/00.
    FR                 2    066   714    interchanging their function from a
    GB                 1    280   388    loud-speaking to a low-speaking         None of the subgroups of group 1/00
    JP                50    004   481    arrangement.                            provides specifically for the claimed
    NL                 7    015   357                                            subject matter.
    NO                      123   778
*   SE                      336   609
    SU                      370   815
    US                 3    659   050




                                         from description:                       Non-obligatory classification:

                                         None                                    None




Category(ies)                                                                    Complete classification:

I                                                                                H 04 M 1/00




* Priority country                                                               Classification based on underlined
                                                                                 document(s)


en / 05-01-04                                                                                   Date: September 2002
                     HANDBOOK ON INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY INFORMATION AND DOCUMENTATION

Ref.: IPC Training Examples                                                                             page: 5.1.4.43



                                        PART C – PHYSICS AND ELECTRICITY



Example No. C 3



                Documents                        Matter to be classified             Classification and comments


                                         from claim(s):                         Obligatory classification:

    BE                      753   181    System for recording digital           Methods of digital recording of
    BR                 7    018   642    information magnetically and           information by magnetisation of a
    CH                      524   216    reproducing the same information and   record carrier are covered by group
    DE-PS              2    023   567    arrangement for compensating           G 11 B 5/09. The compensation of
    FR                 2    054   397    error-producing distorsions at high    error-producing distortions cannot be
    GB                 1    252   387    density recording levels.              more specifically classified.
    JP                48    042   490
    NL                 7    009   289                                           Although the claims of the FR
    SE                      366   862                                           document are not specifically limited
*   US                 3    614   758                                           to digital nature of the recording
                                                                                system.




                                         from description:                      Non-obligatory classification:

                                         None                                   None




Category(ies)                                                                   Complete classification:

II (a)                                                                          G 11 B 5/09




* Priority country                                                              Classification based on underlined
                                                                                document(s)


en / 05-01-04                                                                                  Date: September 2002
                     HANDBOOK ON INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY INFORMATION AND DOCUMENTATION

Ref.: IPC Training Examples                                                                           page: 5.1.4.44



                                        PART C – PHYSICS AND ELECTRICITY



Example No. C 4



                Documents                        Matter to be classified           Classification and comments


                                         from claim(s):                       Obligatory classification:

    DE-OS              2    009   560    A memory system including a          Memory systems characterised by the
    FR                 2    037   152    continuous oligatomic thin           use of particular storage elements are
    GB                 1    297   855    ferromagnetic-film having uniaxial   covered by group G 11 C 11/00. In
    JA                50    023   576    anisotropy.                          this case the storage element is a thin
*   US                 3    550   101                                         ferromagnetic-film and this system is
                                                                              covered by group 11/14.




                                         from description:                    Non-obligatory classification:

                                         None                                 None




Category(ies)                                                                 Complete classification:

II (a)                                                                        G 11 C 11/14




* Priority country                                                            Classification based on underlined
                                                                              document(s)


en / 05-01-04                                                                                Date: September 2002
                     HANDBOOK ON INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY INFORMATION AND DOCUMENTATION

Ref.: IPC Training Examples                                                                                page: 5.1.4.45



                                        PART C – PHYSICS AND ELECTRICITY



Example No. C 5



                Documents                        Matter to be classified               Classification and comments


                                         from claim(s):                            Obligatory classification

    AT                      301   632    1. The invention relates to the           1. A method of producing an
    BE                      758   229       production of extensible helically        extensible helically coiled twin
    CH                      512   811       coiled twin cored electric wires.         cored electric wire.
*   DE-PS              1    962   536
    DK                      135   193    2. Although the claims of some                H 01 B 13/008
    FI                       51   016       documents (e.g., NL, DE) are
    FR                 2    068   809       directed only to the method of         2. Such a wire.
    GB                 1    273   106       production it is also clear that the
    NL                 7    016   009       extensiblle wire per se is                 H 01 B 7/06
    NO                      127   560       simplicitly included and should be
    SE                      359   187       classified.                            The more important aspect is the
    US                 3    694   279                                              method of production.




                                         from description:                         Non-obligatory classification:

                                         None                                      None




Category(ies)                                                                      Complete classification:

II (a)                                                                             H 01 B 13/008, 7/06




* Priority country                                                                 Classification based on underlined
                                                                                   document(s)


en / 05-01-04                                                                                     Date: September 2002
                     HANDBOOK ON INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY INFORMATION AND DOCUMENTATION

Ref.: IPC Training Examples                                                                                page: 5.1.4.46



                                        PART C – PHYSICS AND ELECTRICITY



Example No. C 6



                Documents                        Matter to be classified                Classification and comments


                                         from claim(s):                            Obligatory classification:

    DE-OS              2    500   867    Method for fabricating a                  Group H 01 L 21/822 covers the
    FR                 2    258   001    semi-conductive integrated circuit with   fabrication of integrated circuits with a
    JA                50    104   579    oxide isolated semi-conductive            semiconductor substrate, using silicon
    NL                 7    500   360    regions characterized by the method       technology.
*   US                 3    962   779    of producing doped regions and a
                                         two-layer metallization pattern.          The interest lies primarily in the
                                                                                   fabrication of the whole device rather
                                                                                   than in individual steps such as
                                                                                   fabrication of insulation regions or
                                                                                   metallization patterns.




                                         from description:                         Non-obligatory classification:

                                         None                                      None




Category(ies)                                                                      Complete classification:

II (a)                                                                             H 01 L 21/822




* Priority country                                                                 Classification based on underlined
                                                                                   document(s)


en / 05-01-04                                                                                      Date: September 2002
                     HANDBOOK ON INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY INFORMATION AND DOCUMENTATION

Ref.: IPC Training Examples                                                                                  page: 5.1.4.47



                                        PART C – PHYSICS AND ELECTRICITY



Example No. C 7



                Documents                        Matter to be classified                  Classification and comments


                                         from claim(s):                              Obligatory classification:

    CH                      520   407    A monolithic integrated circuit utilising   Monolithic circuits are provided for in
*   DE-AS              2    201   824    a combination of lateral and vertical       group H 01 L 27/04. Group 27/08 and
    FR                 2    088   338    bipolar transistors.                        its subgroups cover the case where
    GB                 1    284   257                                                the components are all of a single
    NL                 7    106   117                                                kind. Lateral and vertical transistors
                                                                                     have been considered here to be of a
                                                                                     single kind.




                                         from description:                           Non-obligatory classification:

                                         Specific semiconductor logic circuits.      Logic circuits using bipolar transistors
                                                                                     are covered by group H 03 K 19/082.




Category(ies)                                                                        Complete classification:

II (a)                                                                               H 01 L 27/082 // H 03 K 19/082




* Priority country                                                                   Classification based on underlined
                                                                                     document(s)


en / 05-01-04                                                                                        Date: September 2002
                     HANDBOOK ON INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY INFORMATION AND DOCUMENTATION

Ref.: IPC Training Examples                                                                               page: 5.1.4.48



                                        PART C – PHYSICS AND ELECTRICITY



Example No. C 8



                Documents                        Matter to be classified               Classification and comments


                                         from claim(s):                           Obligatory classification:

    DE-OS              2    106   130    Improvement in the production of         Process for manufacture of an
*   FR                 2    082   771    negative electrodes for alkaline         electrodes for an alkaline accumulator
    GB                 1    279   587    storage cells and in the manufacture     in which active material is precipitated
    LU                       62   751    of a negative electrode comprising a     on a carrier is covered by group
    NL                 7    104   066    sintered carrier, on which cadmium       H 01 M 4/28.
                                         hydroxide is deposited. Precipitation
                                         of the cadmium hydroxide is              Although a cell incorporating an
                                         specifically referred to in claim 1 of   electrode produced by the process of
                                         FR document and in claim 2 of GB         the invention is described and
                                         document.                                claimed, this is characterised solely
                                                                                  by the electrode features and,
                                                                                  therefore, classification of the cell as
                                                                                  a whole is unnecessary, since the
                                                                                  only interest is in a detail of the cell.
                                                                                  Details of secondary cells are covered
                                                                                  by group 10/02, but this group
                                                                                  specifically refers electrodes to group
                                                                                  4/00. A single classification is
                                                                                  therefore sufficient to completely
                                                                                  cover all the claims.




                                         from description:                        Non-obligatory classification:

                                         None                                     None




Category(ies)                                                                     Complete classification:

II (a)                                                                            H 01 M 4/28




* Priority country                                                                Classification based on underlined
                                                                                  document(s)


en / 05-01-04                                                                                     Date: September 2002
                     HANDBOOK ON INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY INFORMATION AND DOCUMENTATION

Ref.: IPC Training Examples                                                                               page: 5.1.4.49



                                        PART C – PHYSICS AND ELECTRICITY



Example No. C 9



                Documents                        Matter to be classified               Classification and comments


                                         from claim(s):                           Obligatory classification:

    BE                      758   403    1. An electrical connector comprising    1. Electrical connector as a detail of
    DE-OS              2    051   954       a tubular body formed with an            a group device with a pin, blade or
    FR                 2    071   871       integral tongue designed to lock         socket contact member shaped to
*   GB                 1    265   186       the connector to a cooperating           retain cooperating parts together.
    NL                 7    015   282       part.
                                                                                      H 01 R 13/20
                                         2. The DE, FR and NL documents
                                            include further claimed subject       2. Two-part coupling device, which
                                            matter, namely a two-part coupling       consists of a single-pole
                                            device involving cooperation of the      connector secured to a wire or
                                            connector with a conductive liner        cable and cooperating with a
                                            in a hole of a panel.                    counterpart secured to a panel
                                                                                     structure.

                                                                                      H 01 R 24/06

                                                                                  The GB document is fully classified in
                                                                                  group H 01 R 13/20 alone.



                                         from description:                        Non-obligatory classification:

                                         None                                     According to the Note after group
                                                                                  H 01 R 24/00, it is desirable to add
                                                                                  the indexing codes of groups 101:00
                                                                                  to 107:00 relating to the number of
                                                                                  poles in a two-part coupling device, in
                                                                                  the present document, one pole.

                                                                                  H 01 R 101:00.

                                                                                  There is not sufficient substance in
                                                                                  the description of the two-part
                                                                                  coupling device to justify
                                                                                  non-obligatory classification of the GB
                                                                                  document in group H 01 R 15/12.




Category(ies)                                                                     Complete classification:

II (a)                                                                            H 01 R 13/20, 24/06
                                                                                  // H 01 R 101:00 (DE, FR, NL)
                                                                                  H 01 R 13/20 (GB)




* Priority country                                                                Classification based on underlined
                                                                                  document(s)


en / 05-01-04                                                                                    Date: September 2002
                     HANDBOOK ON INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY INFORMATION AND DOCUMENTATION

Ref.: IPC Training Examples                                                                              page: 5.1.4.50



                                        PART C – PHYSICS AND ELECTRICITY



Example No. C 10



                Documents                        Matter to be classified              Classification and comments


                                         from claim(s):                          Obligatory classification:

    DE-OS              2    059   629    The construction of the head of an      Lasers wherein optical pumping is
*   FR                 2    070   398    optically pumped laser particularly     used for excitation are covered by
    GB                 1    271   920    concerned with a reflector for          group H 01 S 3/091. Arrangements
    NL                 7    016   272    directing excitation energy onto the    for actually directing or focusing flash
                                         active medium.                          lamp radiation are covered by group
                                                                                 H 01 S 3/093.




                                         from description:                       Non-obligatory classification:

                                         The construction of the reflector       This is considered to be an unusual
                                         per se, comprising a cavity including   mirror with curved surface, covered
                                         an elastic reflective sheet.            by group G 02 B 5/10.




Category(ies)                                                                    Complete classification:

II (a)                                                                           H 01 S 3/093 // G 02 B 5/10




* Priority country                                                               Classification based on underlined
                                                                                 document(s)


en / 05-01-04                                                                                    Date: September 2002
                     HANDBOOK ON INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY INFORMATION AND DOCUMENTATION

Ref.: IPC Training Examples                                                                                page: 5.1.4.51



                                        PART C – PHYSICS AND ELECTRICITY



Example No. C 11



                Documents                        Matter to be classified               Classification and comments


                                         from claim(s):                           Obligatory classification:

*   DC-PS              1    941   848    The invention related, to a method for   The example is concerned with the
    FR                 2    058   320    separating the luminance and             decoding of luminance and chroma in
    GB                 1    280   733    chromitance components from a PA         a standard PAL signal by comb
    NL                 7    012   027    colour television signal with quarter    filtering. Therefore, it is not really the
                                         line offset by tran it time analysis.    combination of signals for
                                                                                  transmission (covered by group
                                                                                  H 04 N 11/16).

                                                                                  The wording of group H 04 N 9/78 fits
                                                                                  the invention nicely. The wording of
                                                                                  the higher level group 9/77 is not
                                                                                  particularly clear, but it must be
                                                                                  assumed that simple separation is
                                                                                  thought of as ―processing . . . relative
                                                                                  to each other.‖ Therefore, the
                                                                                  example should be classified in group
                                                                                  H 04 N 9/78.


                                         from description:                        Non-obligatory classification:

                                         None                                     None




Category(ies)                                                                     Complete classification:

II (a)                                                                            H 04 N 9/78




* Priority country                                                                Classification based on underlined
                                                                                  document(s)


en / 05-01-04                                                                                     Date: September 2002
                      HANDBOOK ON INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY INFORMATION AND DOCUMENTATION

Ref.: IPC Training Examples                                                                                   page: 5.1.4.52



                                           PART C – PHYSICS AND ELECTRICITY



Example No. C 12



                   Documents                        Matter to be classified                Classification and comments


                                            from claims(s):                           Obligatory classification:

    BE                         828   803    Process and apparatus for measuring       Investigating fluid tightness is covered
*   DE-OS                2     422   561    leaks in pipe-lines during inoperative    by group G 01 M 3/00, methods using
    FR                   2     270   514    periods by detecting drop in pressure     measurement of loss of fluid by group
    NL                   7     505   099    and ascertaining quantity of substitute   3/26 and application to pipe- lines by
    US                   3     958   449    liquid required to maintain pressure.     group 3/28.

                                                                                      The method does not involve
                                                                                      progressive displacement of one fluid
                                                                                      by another so group 3/30 is
                                                                                      inappropriate.

                                                                                      Investigation of fluid tightness of
                                                                                      pipe-lines is referred from group
                                                                                      F 17 D 5/00 to group G 01 M 3/00. It
                                                                                      is considered that this reference
                                                                                      relates to investigations performed
                                                                                      during inoperative conditions.


                                            from descriptions:                        Non-obligatory classification:

                                            None                                      None




Category(ies)                                                                         Complete classification:

II (a), (c), (e)                                                                      G 01 M 3/28




* Priority country                                                                    Classification based on underlined
                                                                                      document(s)


en / 05-01-04                                                                                        Date: September 2002
                     HANDBOOK ON INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY INFORMATION AND DOCUMENTATION

Ref.: IPC Training Examples                                                                            page: 5.1.4.53



                                        PART C – PHYSICS AND ELECTRICITY



Example No. C 13



                Documents                        Matter to be classified            Classification and comments


                                         from claim(s):                        Obligatory classification:

    BE                      824   866    A penetrometer mounted on a frame,    Devices of this type involve the
    DE-OS              2    503   414    e.g., for support by a vehicle, and   investigation of strength properties of
*   FR                 2    271   343    arranged to permit application of     materials by application of mechanical
    GB                 1    453   272    constant force or impulses to the     force and are, therefore, covered by
    US                 3    958   646    probe.                                group G 01 N 3/00. Measuring
                                                                               hardness using indentors is covered
                                                                               by group 3/40 but it is considered that
                                                                               the measurement carried out is not
                                                                               exclusively of hardness and groups
                                                                               3/08 and 3/32 are, therefore, selected
                                                                               to cover methods of measurement
                                                                               using steady and impulsive forces
                                                                               respectively. The order of these
                                                                               groups is arbitrary.



                                         from description:                     Non-obligatory classification:

                                         Field of use.                         Although the application to foundation
                                                                               soil is not specifically mentioned, it is
                                                                               considered that it is the most probable
                                                                               field of use and classification in group
                                                                               E 02 D 1/02 could be of value.




Category(ies)                                                                  Complete classification:

II (a), (d)                                                                    G 01 N 3/08, 3/32 // E 02 D 1/02




* Priority country                                                             Classification based on underlined
                                                                               document(s)


en / 05-01-04                                                                                  Date: September 2002
                     HANDBOOK ON INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY INFORMATION AND DOCUMENTATION

Ref.: IPC Training Examples                                                                             page: 5.1.4.54



                                        PART C – PHYSICS AND ELECTRICITY



Example No. C 14



                Documents                        Matter to be classified             Classification and comments


                                         from claim(s):                         Obligatory classification:

    AT                      306   114    1. An electromagnetic relay of the     1. There is no specific provision for
    BE                      762   283       bistable kind having a permanent       bistable relays in general but the
    BR                 7    100   094       magnet which polarizes the core        claimed relay is of the polarized
    CH                      519   239       of the energising windings.            type covered by group
*   DE-PS              2    004   029                                              H 01 H 51/24.
    FR                 2    077   390    2. The forming of the magnetic
    GB                 1    272   374       shunts as shielding plates, e.g.,       Group H 01 H 51/27 covers only
    LU                       62   498       claims 1 and 2 (FR document),           relays in which the movement of
    NL                 7    100   708       claim 3 (GB document), claim 2          the armature results from a
    SE                      359   400       (DE document), and as auxiliary         change between two stable
    ZA                      710   277       magnetic circuits.                      magnetic states of the armature
                                                                                    itself and is therefore not relevant.

                                                                                2. (a) Such a relay with auxillary
                                                                                       magnetic circuits.

                                                                                         H 01 H 50/42

                                                                                    (b) Such a relay with magnetic
                                                                                        shunts formed as shieldings.

                                                                                          H 01 H 50/10



                                         from description:                      Non-obligatory classification:

                                         The arrangement of the armature and    This structure is covered by group
                                         contacts in a sealed casing with the   H 01 H 51/28.
                                         coil outside is of interest.




Category(ies)                                                                   Complete classification:

II (a), (f)                                                                     H 01 H 51/24, 50/42, 50/10
Additional invention information is                                             // H 01 H 51/28
given in dependent claims.




* Priority country                                                              Classification based on underlined
                                                                                document(s)


en / 05-01-04                                                                                   Date: September 2002
                     HANDBOOK ON INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY INFORMATION AND DOCUMENTATION

Ref.: IPC Training Examples                                                                                 page: 5.1.4.55



                                        PART C – PHYSICS AND ELECTRICITY



Example No. C 15



                Documents                        Matter to be classified                 Classification and comments


                                         from claims(s):                            Obligatory classification:

    CA                      975   463    Memory cell including a capacitive         Memory systems characterized by the
    DE-PS              2    247   553    storage element (which is in fact the      use of semiconductor electric storage
    FR                 2    156   564    gate capacitance of a field-effect         elements are covered by group
    GB                 1    369   724    transistor) and write, read and/or         G 11 C 11/34 and, more specifically,
    JA                48    045   145    address field-effect transistors.          by group 11/401 for those using
*   US                 3    744   037                                               transistors forming cells needing
                                         Claims 1 to 5 of the GB document do        refreshing or charge regeneration.
                                         not explicitly state the use of
                                         field-effect transistors, but it is        No hierarchically lower group
                                         obvious to a man skilled in the art that   completely covers the invention.
                                         the invention is designed to work with
                                         that type of device.



                                         from description:                          Non-obligatory classification:

                                         None                                       None




Category(ies)                                                                       Complete classification:

II (a), (f)                                                                         G 11 C 11/401
Interpretation of the Classification.




* Priority country                                                                  Classification based on underlined
                                                                                    document(s)


en / 05-01-04                                                                                       Date: September 2002
                     HANDBOOK ON INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY INFORMATION AND DOCUMENTATION

Ref.: IPC Training Examples                                                                                   page: 5.1.4.56



                                        PART C – PHYSICS AND ELECTRICITY



Example No. C 16



                Documents                        Matter to be classified                   Classification and comments


                                         from claim(s):                               Obligatory classification:

    CH                      531   162    Method and apparatus for determining         The interest lies in the measurement
    DE-OS              2    123   972    the relief angle of a helical cutting tool   of angles by determining the
    FR                 2    091   713    by measuring mechanically the                curvature by a mechnical probe and
    GB                 1    342   299    profile.                                     this is to be classified in group
*   US                 3    683   509                                                 G 01 B 5/24 (see Note (4) of G 01
                                         There is no restriction to a measuring       class notes).
                                         apparatus using electrical
                                         transmission.




                                         from description:                            Non-obligatory classification:

                                         A particular form of slide rule.             This subject matter is covered by
                                                                                      group G 06 G 1/06.




Category(ies)                                                                         Complete classification:

II (c)                                                                                G 01 B 5/24 // G 06 G 1/06




* Priority country                                                                    Classification based on underlined
                                                                                      document(s)


en / 05-01-04                                                                                        Date: September 2002
                     HANDBOOK ON INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY INFORMATION AND DOCUMENTATION

Ref.: IPC Training Examples                                                                              page: 5.1.4.57



                                        PART C – PHYSICS AND ELECTRICITY



Example No. C 17



                Documents                        Matter to be classified              Classification and comments


                                         from claim(s):                          Obligatory classification:

    AT                10    368 / 71     An insulated gate field-effect memory   Insulated gate field-effect transistors
    AU                35    915 / 972    transistor with improved insulating     are covered by group H 01 L 29/78
    BE                      776 013      layer structure.                        and its subgroups.
    CA                      950 126
    DE-AS              2    159 192                                              Classification in group G 11 C 11/40
    DK                      132 145                                              is not considered necessary. The
    ES                      397 549                                              structure of the particular device is
    FR                 2    116 410                                              covered by group H 01 L 29/792 and
    GB                 1    315 230                                              there is no disclosure of how the
    JA                51    016 265                                              device is used in a static store
    NL                 7    116 675                                              (paragraph 57 of the Guide to the IPC
    NO                      131 563                                              indicates that in such circumstances
    SE                      364 598                                              classification in the place for the
*   US                 3    719 866                                              particular device is adequate).
    ZA                      717 690




                                         from description:                       Non-obligatory classification:

                                         None                                    None




Category(ies)                                                                    Complete classification:

II (d)                                                                           H 01 L 29/792




* Priority country                                                               Classification based on underlined
                                                                                 document(s)


en / 05-01-04                                                                                    Date: September 2002
                     HANDBOOK ON INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY INFORMATION AND DOCUMENTATION

Ref.: IPC Training Examples                                                                                 page: 5.1.4.58



                                        PART C – PHYSICS AND ELECTRICITY



Example No. C 18



                Documents                        Matter to be classified                 Classification and comments


                                         from claim(s):                             Obligatory classification:

    AT                      321   607    Apparatus for measuring the weight of      Conveyer belt weighers are covered
    DE-PS              2    123   599    a material carried on a moving             by group G 01 G 11/00. No subgroup
    FR                 2    090   100    conveyer belt, in which the tensile        of 11/00 makes provision specifically
    GB                 1    319   722    force in a flexible support for the belt   for the particular way in which the
    JA                51    013   591    is measured.                               weight to be measured is transmitted
    NL                 7    106   560                                               to a transducer.
    SE                      368   461
*   US                 3    603   416                                               The evaluation of mass flow by
                                                                                    integrating signals representing the
                                                                                    weight of the material and the speed
                                                                                    of the belt is conventional and
                                                                                    classification in group 11/14 is not
                                                                                    justified.

                                                                                    The invention concerns constructional
                                                                                    details of a conveyer-belt weigher
                                                                                    which uses conventional electrical
                                                                                    weight sensitive devices (compare
                                                                                    G 01 G 11/04) and a conventional
                                                                                    integrating device (compare
                                                                                    G 01 G 11/14). Since the invention
                                                                                    resides in the combination of these
                                                                                    details, the conveyer-belt weigher is
                                                                                    classified in G 01 G 11/00.


                                         from description:                          Non-obligatory classification:

                                         The figures and the description show       These details merit classification.
                                         details of the rollers.                    B 65 G 39/00.




Category(ies)                                                                       Complete classification:

II (f)                                                                              G 01 G 11/00 // B 65 G 39/00
Conventional matter in the claims is
not classified.




* Priority country                                                                  Classification based on underlined
                                                                                    document(s)


en / 05-01-04                                                                                      Date: September 2002
                     HANDBOOK ON INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY INFORMATION AND DOCUMENTATION

Ref.: IPC Training Examples                                                                                 page: 5.1.4.59



                                        PART C – PHYSICS AND ELECTRICITY



Example No. C 19



                Documents                        Matter to be classified                 Classification and comments


                                         from claim(s):                             Obligatory classification:

    BE                      762   741    1. A thermonuclear reactor system          1. Fusion reactors are covered by
    DE-OS              2    104   738       comprising a pressure vessel with          group G 21 B 1/00.
    FR                 2    079   370       a top inlet for the injection of fuel
    GB                 1    273   945       pellets, a tangential inlet for the
    NL                 7    101   778       introduction of liquid lithium and a
    SE                      371   520       bottom lithium outlet, a heat
*   US                 3    624   239       exchanger, a tritium recovery
                                            system, an electrical generating
                                            system and a pulsed laser system
                                            for initiating a fusion reaction.

                                         2. Claim 8 (FR, GB, US documents)          2. Arrangements of reactor and
                                            effectively identifies a plant in          engines in which
                                            which the above reactor system is          reactor-produced heat is
                                            associated with a potassium                converted into mechanical energy
                                            turbine and a steam turbine.               with liquid engine working medium
                                                                                       vaporised by reactor coolant are
                                                                                       covered by group G 21 D 5/12(FR, GB, US)



                                         from description:                          Non-obligatory classification:

                                         The plant specified above is               None                       (FR, GB, US)
                                         described but not claimed in the DE
                                         document.                                  G 21 D 5/12                  (DE)




Category(ies)                                                                       Complete classification:

II (f)                                                                              G 21 B 1/00, G 21 D 5/12
Additional invention information is                                                 (FR, GB, US)
given in dependent claims.                                                          G 21 B 1/00 // G 21 D 5/12
                                                                                    (DE)




* Priority country                                                                  Classification based on underlined
                                                                                    document(s)


en / 05-01-04                                                                                      Date: September 2002
                     HANDBOOK ON INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY INFORMATION AND DOCUMENTATION

Ref.: IPC Training Examples                                                                                  page: 5.1.4.60



                                           PART C – PHYSICS AND ELECTRICITY



Example No. C 20



                Documents                           Matter to be classified               Classification and comments


                                            from claim(s):                           Obligatory classification:

    DE-OS              2    119   040       Multilayer ceramic capacitor             Although claim 1 is directed to the
    FR                 2    099   077       consisting of alternate layers of        structure of the capacitor, it is clear
    GB                 1    340   414       ceramic dielectric which separate        that the most important subject is the
    JP                50    026   140       alternately metal electrodes. The        correction of the capacitance value
    NL                 7    105   292       multilayer capacitor is a stack          and therefore group H 01 G 4/255 is
*   US                 3    648   132       capacitor having a structure             selected as the first classification
                                            particularly enabling the capacitance    followed by group 4/30 to cover the
                                            to be corrected using the electrode      structure of claim 1 and by group
                                            layers and appropriate terminals.        4/232 to cover the interconnection of
                                                                                     the electrodes of the stacked
                                                                                     capacitor by the terminals.



                                            from description:                        Non-obligatory classification:

                                            Details of the electrode structure and   The details of the electrode structure
                                            arrangement.                             and the arrangement are thought to
                                                                                     be of sufficient interest to justify
                                                                                     classification in group 4/005.




Category(ies)                                                                        Complete classification:

II (f)                                                                               H 01 G 4/255, 4/30, 4/232 //
Selection of first classification is not                                             H 01 G 4/005
obviously corresponding to broadest
claim.




* Priority country                                                                   Classification based on underlined
                                                                                     document(s)


en / 05-01-04                                                                                       Date: September 2002
                HANDBOOK ON INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY INFORMATION AND DOCUMENTATION

Ref.: IPC Training Examples                                                                              page: 5.1.4.61



                                IPC TRAINING EXAMPLES — SECOND SET


        This Section contains a set of 20 IPC training examples of patent documents, having patent family members in at
least the English, French and German languages, intended to illustrate classifying in function-oriented and application
places of the IPC as explained in paragraphs 52 to 62 of the Guide to the sixth edition of the IPC.

         For each patent document, a statement of the subject matter to be classified and observations on how
classification symbols should be allotted to the document, elaborated by the PCIPI Working Group on Search
Information, are given.




en / 05-01-04                                                                                    Date: September 2002
                   HANDBOOK ON INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY INFORMATION AND DOCUMENTATION

Ref.: IPC Training Examples                                                                                        page: 5.1.4.62




                                                     PART I — CHEMISTRY

Example No. C-1

                                                        EXAMPLE No. C-1

                                              Patent Document FR – A – 2,584,727
                                                       (Chemical Field)

                                                     Patent Family Members*:

                                                CH      –   A   –   668,428
                                                BE      –   A   –   905,087
                                                DE      –   A   –   3,623,474
                                                DK      –   A   –   8,603,273
                                                GB      –   A   –   2,179,947
                                                JP      –   A   –   62,019,523
                                                LU      –   A   –   86,508
                                                NL      –   A   –   8,601,814
                                                SE      –   A   –   8,602,877


Technical Subjects of the Invention

1.       The invention is essentially concerned with three technical subjects, namely:

       (a)     A process for extraction of proteins from pretreated milk (i.e., the casein and fats already removed) by
adsorption on ion exchangers.

         (b)     Proteins, in particular lactotransferrins and immunoglobulins, obtained by the process.

         (c)     Pharmaceutical compositions containing the proteins obtained by the process.


Other Technical Subjects Disclosed

2.     The description discloses ―the use of proteins, obtained by the process, in food compositions‖ (see page 3, lines
36 and 37).


Allotting Classification Symbols to the Patent Document

3.       In respect of the classification of the document, the following considerations should apply:

        re Subject 1 - The process is new and, in accordance with Note (3) following the title of class C 07, is classified
in the place for the type of compound prepared, namely C 07 K 14/79 and 16/04. This double classification is justified
because of the two types of ―protein‖ mentioned.

        The process itself is of interest and is classified under C 07 K 1/00 (the last place rule according to Note (2)
following the title of class C 07 is only applicable to ―compounds‖). The ―adsorption on ion exchangers‖ is classified in
C 07 K 1/18. The combination (claim 11) is not considered of sufficient interest to warrant classification in 1/36.

        re Subject 2 - The ―proteins‖ are already known and are, therefore, not further classified. They are already
indicated by the classification of Subject 1.

       re Subject 3 - The ―pharmaceutical compositions‖ are not considered of interest for search purposes, since they
are ―compositions of known compounds obtained by the improved process.‖ They are, therefore, not classified in A 61
K. However, the GB document mentions (see page 2, lines 20 to 22) a possibly surprising characteristic of the product,
which may be considered as being of interest for search purposes. The GB document may, thus, be classified in A 61 K
38/40 and 39/395, as additional classifications.




*    Patent family data may include documents at different publication levels, which could differ in their contents. This may
     influence their classification to a certain degree, in comparison with the classification agreed for the selected document.



en / 05-01-04                                                                                              Date: September 2002
                 HANDBOOK ON INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY INFORMATION AND DOCUMENTATION

Ref.: IPC Training Examples                                                                                 page: 5.1.4.63



       This illustrates the fact that different members of a patent family often contain different information and may
warrant different classifications.

       re paragraph 2, above - The ―use of the proteins obtained in food compositions‖ reveals only a general aspect,
which does not merit classification in A 23 J.


Classification of the Patent Document

4.     The document should be classified as follows:

                                                C 07 K 14/79, 16/04, 1/18.




en / 05-01-04                                                                                       Date: September 2002
                   HANDBOOK ON INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY INFORMATION AND DOCUMENTATION

Ref.: IPC Training Examples                                                                                        page: 5.1.4.64



                                                      PART I — CHEMISTRY
Example No. C-2

                                                        EXAMPLE No. C-2

                                             Patent Document GB – A – 1,561,237
                                                       (Chemical Field)

                                                     Patent Family Members*:

                                                AU      –   B   –   512,867
                                                CA      –   A   –   1,100,817
                                                DE      –   A   –   2,741,285
                                                DE      –   B   –   2,759,993
                                                FR      –   A   –   2,365,754
                                                JP      –   A   –   53,039,670
                                                SE      –   B   –   430,000
                                                SE      –   B   –   462,398
                                                SU      –   A   –   927,108
                                                US          A       4,244,779
                                                US          A       4,311,670


Technical Subjects of the Invention

1.       The invention is essentially concerned with two technical subjects, namely:

       (a)     combustion of materials in a fluidised bed reactor wherein the heat of solid particles entrained in the flue
gases is used to preheat the feed material;

         (b)     application of this general method to the treatment of spent liquors from pulping processes.


Allotting Classification Symbols to the Patent Document

2.       In respect of the classification of the document, the following considerations should apply:

       (a)     The technical subject referred to under 1(a), above, is classified in group B 01 J 8/00, which covers
general processes of treating materials in the presence of fluids and solid particles. More specifically, its subgroup
B 01 J 8/24 relates to the treatment according to ―fluidised-bed‖ technique.

      (b)      The technical subject referred to under 1(b), above, which relates to claims 5, 6 and 9 to 16 of the
document, is classified in the application place D 21 C 11/12 (―Combustion of pulp liquors‖).

       (c)     Classification in subclass F 23 C (―Combustion apparatus using fluent fuel‖) or in subclass F 23 G
(―Cremation furnaces; Consuming waste by combustion‖) is not appropriate, since these subclasses relate only to
apparatus for combustion which do not represent a part of the invention.


Classification of the Patent Document

3.       The document should be classified as follows:

                                                     B 01 J 8/24, D 21 C 11/12.




*    Patent family data may include documents at different publication levels, which could differ in their contents. This may
     influence their classification to a certain degree, in comparison with the classification agreed for the selected document.



en / 05-01-04                                                                                              Date: September 2002
                   HANDBOOK ON INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY INFORMATION AND DOCUMENTATION

Ref.: IPC Training Examples                                                                                        page: 5.1.4.65



                                                     PART I — CHEMISTRY
Example No. C-3

                                                        EXAMPLE No. C-3

                                              Patent Document GB – A – 2,072,223
                                                        (Chemical Field)

                                                     Patent Family Members*:

                                                CA      –   A   –   1,176,509
                                                DE      –   A   –   3,010,855
                                                DE      –   C   –   3,010,855
                                                FR      –   A   –   2,478,676
                                                GB      –   B   –   2,072,223
                                                JP      –   A   –   56,152,976
                                                JP      –   B   –   88,009,021
                                                KR      –   B   –   88,02,278
                                                US      –   A   –   4,357,367




Technical Subjects of the Invention

1.       The invention is essentially concerned with:

        (a)     a process for blackening steel components wherein a bismuth coating is formed on the steel by
electroless plating and the coated component is heated in an oxidising atmosphere (claims 1 and 2);

        (b)    a process for blackening steel components as described in the Example, given in the specification, which
indicated properties of the blackened steel components obtained (claim 3).


Allotting Classification Symbols to the Patent Document

2.       In respect of the classification of the document, the following considerations should apply:

         (a)    The technical subject referred to under 1(a), above, concerns a general process of coating metallic
material and should be classified in the function-oriented subclass C 23 C. The process comprises two essential steps,
namely obtaining a bismuth coating on a steel component by electroless plating and oxidising the obtained coating, and
classification symbols should be assigned for both steps. Coating with metals by electroless plating is classified in
group C 23 C 18/31. Chemical surface treatment by oxidising is classified in group C 23 C 8/10, and its subgroup
8/12 provides for using elemental oxygen, which corresponds to the example, given in the description, where oxidising is
carried out in air.

        (b)     As follows from the description, the properties of the blackened steels components obtained ensure their
use as shadow masks for colour cathode-ray display tubes. Although this use is not claimed, it should be considered as
―invention information,‖ since, according to paragraph 83(a) of the Guide to the IPC, ―invention information‖ represents
technical information as defined by the claims, with due regard given to the description. Thus, the technical subject
referred to under 1(b), above, should receive obligatory classification in group H 01 J 9/14, since a shadow mask can be
considered as an example of a non-emitting electrode. Classification in group H 01 J 29/07 is not appropriate because
main group H 01 J 29/00 relates to details of cathode-ray tubes but not to their manufacture.


Classification of the Patent Document

3.       The document should be classified as follows:

                                                 C 23 C 18/31, 8/12, H 01 J 9/14.




*    Patent family data may include documents at different publication levels, which could differ in their contents. This may
     influence their classification to a certain degree, in comparison with the classification agreed for the selected document.



en / 05-01-04                                                                                              Date: September 2002
                   HANDBOOK ON INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY INFORMATION AND DOCUMENTATION

Ref.: IPC Training Examples                                                                                        page: 5.1.4.66



                                                     PART I — CHEMISTRY
Example No. C-4

                                                        EXAMPLE No. C-4

                                              Patent Document US – A – 4,176,090
                                                        (Chemical Field)

                                                     Patent Family Members*:

                                                AU      –   B   –   518,419
                                                CA      –   A   –   1,106,346
                                                DE      –   A   –   2,825,769
                                                DE      –   C   –   2,825,769
                                                FR      –   A   –   2,394,324
                                                GB      –   A   –   1,604,190
                                                JP      –   A   –   54,005,884
                                                JP      –   A   –   54,016,386
                                                JP      –   B   –   87,020,130
                                                NL          A       78,06,339


Technical Subjects of the Invention

1.       The invention is essentially concerned with four technical subjects, namely:

         (a)     an interlayered smectite pillared clay product;

         (b)     a process for preparing an interlayered smectite pillared clay product;

         (c)     a catalyst comprising the said product;

         (d)     an adsorbent composition comprising the said product.


Other Technical Subjects Disclosed

2.       The description disclosed:

         (a)     the use of a catalyst comprising an interlayered smectite in petroleum conversion processes;

         (b)     the use of an interlayered smectite as a catalytic support.


Allotting Classification Symbols to the Patent Document

3.       In respect of the classification of the document, the following considerations should apply:

       (a)     The technical subject referred to under 1(a), above, should be classified in the function-oriented subclass
C 01 B and represents a silicate having molecular sieve and base-exchange properties. In view of this, classification in
group C 01 B 33/36, which covers silicates having only base-exchange properties, is not appropriate. Products of the
claimed type belong to group C 01 B 39/00. Since the interlayered smectite does not represent a zeolite, neither of its
subgroups can be chosen, and classification should be made in group 39/00 itself. This patent document illustrates the
importance of identifying physical and chemical properties of the claimed product in order to classify it correctly.

        (b)     The technical subject referred to under 1(b), above, is classified in the same group C 01 B 39/00, since,
according to paragraph 65 of the Guide to the IPC, when the subject of the invention concerns a process of preparation
of a chemical compound, it is classified in the place for the type of the compound concerned if there is no specific group
for preparation.




*    Patent family data may include documents at different publication levels, which could differ in their contents. This may
     influence their classification to a certain degree, in comparison with the classification agreed for the selected document.



en / 05-01-04                                                                                              Date: September 2002
                 HANDBOOK ON INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY INFORMATION AND DOCUMENTATION

Ref.: IPC Training Examples                                                                                    page: 5.1.4.67



         (c)    The technical subject referred to under 1(c), above, is classified in the application subclass B 01 J, where
two groups are provided for that type of catalysts, namely B 01 J 21/16 and 29/04. In view of the last place rule applied
in groups 21/00 to 38/00 (see Note (4) before group 20/00), the technical subject should be classified in group B 01 J
29/04. Indexing codes cannot be assigned to this technical subject since, according to Note (1) before indexing scheme
B 01 J 101:00 to 105:00, indexing codes are applied with group 29/00 so as to indicate any further ingredient present
besides which is reflected by the classification symbol, whereas the specification of the invention does not refer to such
further ingredients of the interlayered smectite.

       (d)      The technical subject referred to under 1(d), above, is classified in group B 01 J 20/16.

        (e)     The use of catalysts based on interlayered clays is conventional in petroleum conversion processes and
no detailed information thereon is given in the description. Furthermore, the description does not contain any
information of interest in respect of the use of interlayered clays as catalyst carriers, which is necessary for classification
in group B 01 J 32/00, in view of Note (5) before group B 01 J 20/00. Consequently, the information given in the
description does not merit classification.


Classification of the Patent Document

4.     The document should be classified as follows:

                                             C 01 B 39/00, B 01 J 29/04, 20/16.




en / 05-01-04                                                                                         Date: September 2002
                   HANDBOOK ON INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY INFORMATION AND DOCUMENTATION

Ref.: IPC Training Examples                                                                                        page: 5.1.4.68



                                                     PART I — CHEMISTRY
Example No. C-5

                                                        EXAMPLE No. C-5

                                              Patent Document FR – A – 2,620,655
                                                       (Chemical Field)

                                                     Patent Family Members*:

                                                DE      –   A   –   3,832,112
                                                GB      –   A   –   2,210,071
                                                GB      –   B   –   2,210,071
                                                JP      –   A   –   1,078,877
                                                US      –   A   –   5,180,624


Technical Subjects of the Invention

1.      The invention is essentially concerned with an ink-jet recording paper comprising a support layer and an
ink-receptive layer on one or both sides of the support layer.


Other Technical Subjects Disclosed

2.      The disclosure mentioned the use of fibres, fillers and retention aids in the ink-receptive layer to control the paper
qualities or productivity.


Allotting Classification Symbols to the Patent Document

3.       In respect of the classification of the document, the following considerations should apply:

        (a)      The technical subject of the invention concerns paper having a specific structure, adapted for use in
marking processes. This type of paper is covered by the application group B 41 M 5/00 (―Sheet materials for use in
duplicating or marking methods‖). This group, however, does not include subdivisions relating to the structure of the
paper, which is important enough to justify classification in the function-oriented subclass D 21 H (―Paper not otherwise
provided for‖), in which group 27/30 relates to multi-ply paper.

       Both symbols, B 41 M 5/00 and B 21 H 27/30, should be assigned to the document, but, in accordance with
paragraph 88 of the Guide to the IPC, group B 41 M 5/00 should be indicated first as the classification symbol most
adequately representing the invention.

       (b)    In view of the Note following group D 21 H 27/30, layer paper should also be classified in subclass B 32 B
(―Layered products‖), where group B 32 B 29/06 is provided for specially treated, e.g. surfaced, paper.

        (c)      According to Note (2) following group D 21 H 27/00, in this group, it is desirable to add indexing codes
relating to individual constituents of the special paper. As mentioned in the patent claims, coating siliceous pigments
and sizing agents are incorporated in the paper to ensure its use in the marking process, for which ingredients indexing
codes D 21 H 19:40 and 21:16 are appropriate.

         (d)    Technical features referred to under 2, above, are conventional and, therefore, do not merit additional
classification or indexing.


Classification of the Patent Document

4.       The document should be classified as follows:

                               B 41 M 5/00, D 21 H 27/30, B 32 B 29/06 // D 21 H 19:40, 21:16.




*    Patent family data may include documents at different publication levels, which could differ in their contents. This may
     influence their classification to a certain degree, in comparison with the classification agreed for the selected document.



en / 05-01-04                                                                                              Date: September 2002
                   HANDBOOK ON INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY INFORMATION AND DOCUMENTATION

Ref.: IPC Training Examples                                                                                        page: 5.1.4.69



                                                     PART I — CHEMISTRY
Example No. C-6

                                                        EXAMPLE No. C-6

                                              Patent Document GB – A – 2,053,904
                                                        (Chemical Field)

                                                    Patent Family Members*:

                                               BE       –   A    –   879,976
                                               BR       –   A    –   79,08,906
                                               CA       –   A    –   1,128,830
                                               DE       –   A    –   2,953,276
                                               DE       –   C    –   2,953,276
                                               DK       –   A    –   80,03,009
                                               FR       –   A    –   2,468,402
                                               GB       –   B    –   2,053,904
                                               IT       –   B    –   1,127,216
                                               JP       –   W    –   56,500,016
                                               NL       –   A    –   79,20,129
                                               NO       –   A    –   79,03,637
                                               RO       –   A    –   81,465
                                               US       –   A    –   4,404,109
                                               WO       –   A    –   80/00,921


Technical Subjects of the Invention

1.     The invention is essentially concerned with surface-active agents representing N–acyl–alpha–amino carboxylic
acids or their salts, and their use for the preparation of microemulsions of organic substances with water.


Other Technical Subjects Disclosed

2.       The description disclosed the application of the claimed surface-active agents as additives in the process of the
tertiary recovery of oil, facilitating forming the microemulsion of water and oil.


Allotting Classification Symbols to the Patent Document

3.       In respect of the classification of the document, the following considerations should apply:

        (a)     As indicated in paragraph 63 of the Guide to the IPC, when the subject of the invention concerns a
chemical compound and its specific field of use, the subject is classified in section C according to the chemical structure
of the compound and in the place provided for that field of use. The claimed chemical compounds are classified,
according to their structure, in group C 07 C 233/46 covering the general chemical formula with alternative substituents
included in claim 1.

       (b)     The use of the compounds as emulsifying agents is classified in the application group B 01 F 17/00 (―Use
of substances as emulsifying, wetting, dispersing, or foam-producing agents‖), where groups 17/22 and 17/28 cover
chemical structure of the compounds in question. Since the last place rule is not applied in subclass B 01 F, both
groups should be selected for classification.

         (c)     The object of the invention relates primarily to the selection of new surface-active agents for the tertiary
recovery of oil, and the disclosure is mainly concerned with the field of use of the compounds. Therefore, application
classification groups most adequately represent the invention and, according to paragraph 88 of the Guide to the IPC,
should be listed first.

         (d)      The technical subject referred to under 2, above, is classified in group E 21 B 43/22 (―Use of chemicals in
enhanced recovery methods for obtaining hydrocarbons‖). Group C 09 K 7/00 (―Well-drilling compositions‖) is not
appropriate for the classification of additional information from the description, since it covers compositions used in
drilling but not in recovery methods.

*    Patent family data may include documents at different publication levels, which could differ in their contents. This may
     influence their classification to a certain degree, in comparison with the classification agreed for the selected document.



en / 05-01-04                                                                                              Date: September 2002
                HANDBOOK ON INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY INFORMATION AND DOCUMENTATION

Ref.: IPC Training Examples                                                                  page: 5.1.4.70



Classification of the Patent Document

4.     The document should be classified as follows:

                                 B 01 F 17/22, 17/28, C 07 C 233/46 // E 21 B 43/22.




en / 05-01-04                                                                          Date: September 2002
                   HANDBOOK ON INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY INFORMATION AND DOCUMENTATION

Ref.: IPC Training Examples                                                                                        page: 5.1.4.71



                                                     PART I — CHEMISTRY
Example No. C-7

                                                        EXAMPLE No. C-7

                                              Patent Document DE – A – 2,750,903
                                                        (Chemical Field)

                                                    Patent Family Members*:

                                               AT       –   A    –    78,08,116
                                               BE       –   A    –    871,705
                                               CA       –   A    –    1,111,159
                                               CH       –   A    –    646,189
                                               DE       –   A    –    2,759,719
                                               DE       –   C    –    2,750,903
                                               DE       –   C    –    2,759,719
                                               DK       –   A    –    78,05,042
                                               FR       –   A    –    2,408,638
                                               GB       –   A    –    2,007,684
                                               GB       –   B    –    2,007,684
                                               IT       –   B    –    1,100,903
                                               NL       –   A    –    78,11,225
                                               NL       –   B    –    187,121
                                               US       –   A    –    4,196,259


Technical Subjects of the Invention

1.     The invention is essentially concerned with coating agents comprising solutions or dispersions of film-forming
binders and a finely divided, rubber-elastic powder dispersed therein.


Other Technical Subjects Disclosed

2.      The claims and the description refer to various applications of the coating agents, for example, for bridging
cracks and joints in buildings, as non-slip and wear-resistant floor coatings on industrial floors and on sport grounds, for
underfloor protection or as roof coatings.


Allotting Classification Symbols to the Patent Document

3.       In respect of the classification of the document, the following considerations should apply:

        (a)     A new additive disclosed in the document—rubber-elastic powder—provides improved film properties of
the coating agents and represents the most important feature of the invention. Coating compositions are classified in
the function-oriented subclass C 09 D, where group 7/12 covers additives of the disclosed nature. This group should be
indicated as the first classification symbol most adequately representing the invention.

        (b)     Coating agents referred to in 1, above, contain film-forming binders and additives, both of them being
macromolecular substances. Note (3) following the title of subclass C 09 D states: ―In this subclass, coating
compositions comprising two or more macromolecular constituents are classified according to the constituent on which
the composition is based‖. It is disclosed in the claims that rubber-elastic powder, for which preparation any natural or
synthetic rubber may be used, could represent the major part by weight of the composition and, therefore, group C 09 D
121/00 (―Coating compositions based on unspecified rubbers‖) should be assigned to the patent document for indicating
the chemical nature of the additive. On the contrary, classification of the film-forming binder according to its chemical
nature would not be appropriate, because this nature is not disclosed in the claims and, in conformity with the
description, a broad variety of synthetic resins, including polymers, polycondensates and polyadditives, may be used as
binders.

        (c)     In respect of properties of the coating agents disclosed, which properties are essential, for example, for
bridging joints and cracks in buildings, the coating agents may be regarded as filling-pastes. Group C 09 D 5/34 should
also be indicated, therefore, as one of the obligatory classification symbols.

*    Patent family data may include documents at different publication levels, which could differ in their contents. This may
     influence their classification to a certain degree, in comparison with the classification agreed for the selected document.



en / 05-01-04                                                                                              Date: September 2002
                 HANDBOOK ON INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY INFORMATION AND DOCUMENTATION

Ref.: IPC Training Examples                                                                                   page: 5.1.4.72



        (d)     Although many diverse fields of application of the coating agents are disclosed in the claims and the
description, they cannot be considered as essential technical characteristics of the subject of the invention, which is
concerned with the nature of the coating agents. Places in the IPC, covering these fields of application, are based on
constructional, structural or process features of the relevant subject matter, and indication of such places will give no
useful information relating to the coating agents themselves. In this case, according to paragraph 59(a) of the Guide to
the IPC, if several applications are specified, but they are not considered to constitute the essential technical
characteristics of the subject, classification is made in the function-oriented place, and application-oriented classification
is not needed.

        (e)     According to Note (4) following the title of subclass C 09 D, in groups 101/00 to 201/00, it is desirable to
add the indexing codes relating to additional macromolecular constituents of the coating composition. On the basis of
the examples of the additional constituents given in the description, the following indexing codes should be assigned for
indicating further elements of information on the invention: C 09 D 125:06, 125:10, 125:14, 131:04, 133:08, 133:12,
161:10.


Classification of the Patent Document

4.     The document should be classified as follows:

       C 09 D 7/12, 121/00, 5/34
       // (C 09 D 121/00, 125:06, 125:10, 125:14, 131:04, 133:08, 133:12, 161:10).




en / 05-01-04                                                                                         Date: September 2002
                   HANDBOOK ON INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY INFORMATION AND DOCUMENTATION

Ref.: IPC Training Examples                                                                                        page: 5.1.4.73




                                           PART II — PHYSICS AND ELECTRICITY

Example No. E-1

                                                        EXAMPLE No. E-1

                                              Patent Document FR – A – 2,551,344
                                                        (Electrical Field)

                                                     Patent Family Members*:

                                                DE      – A     – 3,332,317
                                                JP      – A     – 60,075,185
                                                US      – A     – 4,618,976


Technical Subjects of the Invention

1.     The invention is essentially concerned with two technical subjects, namely, ―equipment for detecting and
processing image signals‖ and ―such equipment used for diagnosis.‖

2.       The ―image processing equipment‖ is so closely related to its use for diagnostic purposes, which actively involves
the patient, that the invention is considered to be essentially concerned therewith. The ―image processing equipment,‖
which is of minor importance in general, is of major importance in the context of the invention, and should therefore be
classified.


Allotting Classification Symbols to the Patent Document

3.       In respect of the classification of the document, the following considerations should apply:

         (a)     The ―image processing equipment‖ should be classified in the function-oriented place H 04 N 5/325.

         (b)     Classification of the other technical subject, i.e. the application of the equipment, is in group A 61 B 6/00.


Classification of the Patent Document

4.     In view of the importance of the application aspect, the classification symbols of the application place should be
presented first. Therefore, the document should be classified as follows:

                                                     A 61 B 6/00, H 04 N 5/325.




*    Patent family data may include documents at different publication levels, which could differ in their contents. This may
     influence their classification to a certain degree, in comparison with the classification agreed for the selected document.



en / 05-01-04                                                                                              Date: September 2002
                   HANDBOOK ON INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY INFORMATION AND DOCUMENTATION

Ref.: IPC Training Examples                                                                                        page: 5.1.4.74



                                           PART II — PHYSICS AND ELECTRICITY
Example No. E-2

                                                        EXAMPLE No. E-2

                                              Patent Document GB – A – 1,567,238
                                                        (Electrical Field)

                                                     Patent Family Members*:

                                                DE      – A     – 2,724,787
                                                FR      – A     – 2,389,895
                                                US      – A     – 4,048,526


Technical Subjects of the Invention

1.     The document discloses two technical subjects, namely, a ―motion sensing detector using a piezo-electric
material‖ and the ―piezo-electric material‖ itself.


Allotting Classification Symbols to the Patent Document

2.       In respect of the classification of the document, the following considerations should apply:

         (a)     The ―motion sensing detector‖ is classified in group G 01 P 13/00.

         (b)     The piezo-electric material is classified in group H 01 L 41/193.

       (c)    The fields of application mentioned in the document (see page 2, lines 14 to 19) are mere examples (not
exhaustive) and do not warrant classification.


Classification of the Patent Document

3.       The document should be classified as follows:

                                                  G 01 P 13/00, H 01 L 41/193.




*    Patent family data may include documents at different publication levels, which could differ in their contents. This may
     influence their classification to a certain degree, in comparison with the classification agreed for the selected document.



en / 05-01-04                                                                                              Date: September 2002
                   HANDBOOK ON INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY INFORMATION AND DOCUMENTATION

Ref.: IPC Training Examples                                                                                        page: 5.1.4.75



                                           PART II — PHYSICS AND ELECTRICITY
Example No. E-3

                                                        EXAMPLE No. E-3

                                              Patent Document US – A – 4,236,213
                                                        (Electrical Field)

                                                     Patent Family Members*:

                                                CA      –   A   –   1,127,268
                                                DE      –   A   –   2,945,168
                                                FR      –   A   –   2,442,542
                                                GB      –   A   –   2,039,396
                                                JP      –   A   –   55,074,601
                                                US      –   A   –   963,694


Technical Subjects of the Invention

1.       The invention is essentially concerned with three technical subjects, namely:

         (a)     Apparatus for generating electric pulses (claims 1, 8 and 9).

         (b)     A control system, in general (claims 2 to 7).

         (c)     Application of the control system to an engine.


Other Technical Subjects Disclosed

2.      The description disclosed ―the application of the control system for controlling vehicle speed‖ (column 3, lines 17
to 19).


Allotting Classification Symbols to the Patent Document

3.       In respect of the classification of the document, the following considerations should apply:

         re Subject 1 - Group H 03 K 3/00 provides for ―pulse generators‖ only if they are ―characterised by the type of
circuit or other means used,‖ or if they are ―producing pulses.‖ Since the subject is a complete generator, it is not
classified under 3/01, but in 3/00 itself.

        re Subject 2 - Control systems, in general, are classified in class G 05. Since there is no limitation to a particular
variable, the subject is classified in G 05 B. In view of Note (3) following the title of the subclass, 11/00 is not applicable,
so the subject is classified in 15/00.

       re Subject 3 - Since the subject deals with ―the electrical aspect of electric control of a combustion engine,‖ more
precisely ―miscellaneous control of several functions in the engine,‖ it is classified in F 02 D 43/00, which takes
precedence over 41/00. Because the subject deals with ―electric control,‖ it is not classified in F 02 D 37/00 or in F 02 P.

       re paragraph 2, above - Since ―speed control‖ is only mentioned, without any details, there is no classification in
B 60 K 31/00.


Classification of the Patent Document

4.       The document should be classified as follows:

                                            H 03 K 3/00, G 05 B 15/00, F 02 D 43/00.




*    Patent family data may include documents at different publication levels, which could differ in their contents. This may
     influence their classification to a certain degree, in comparison with the classification agreed for the selected document.



en / 05-01-04                                                                                              Date: September 2002
                   HANDBOOK ON INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY INFORMATION AND DOCUMENTATION

Ref.: IPC Training Examples                                                                                        page: 5.1.4.76



                                           PART II — PHYSICS AND ELECTRICITY
Example No. E-4

                                                        EXAMPLE No. E-4

                                              Patent Document DE – A – 3,422,181
                                                        (Electrical Field)

                                                     Patent Family Members*:

                                                BE      –   A   –   899,915
                                                CH      –   A   –   669,842
                                                FR      –   A   –   2,548,349
                                                GB      –   A   –   2,141,365
                                                US      –   A   –   4,779,319


Technical Subjects of the Invention

1.     The invention deals with a signal transmission system used in a measuring arrangement on machine tools, and
is essentially concerned with two technical subjects, namely:

         (a)     an apparatus for scanning work pieces in a machine tool system (claim 1), and

       (b)     as an essential part of the apparatus, a signal transmission system controlling the provision of electric
energy so that it is supplied only when needed for the scanning process (the characterising part of claim 1 and all the
dependent claims).


Other Technical Subjects Disclosed

2.       The description disclosed the use of a probe having an electrical contact in order to close or open the electric
circuit of its electric signal transmission system for locating surfaces on workpieces.


Allotting Classification Symbols to the Patent Document

3.       In respect of the classification of the document, the following considerations should apply:

       (a)     The technical subject referred to under 1(a), above, is classified in the application place B 23 Q 17/00,
which relates to ―arrangements for indicating or measuring on machine tools‖. The subject is not classified in subgroup
17/20 or 17/22, because the characteristics and the position of the workpiece are not essential for using the invention.

       (b)     The technical subject referred to under 1(b), above, is classified in the function-oriented place G 08 C
23/00, which covers ―non-electric signal transmission systems‖. Classification in that place is necessary because the
disclosed transmission system may be used for other applications.

        (c)    The use of electric means for measuring surfaces is classified in group G 01 B 7/00. As the optical
means involved, that is the optical transmission system, have no direct bearing on the measuring process, group G 01 B
11/00 is not appropriate.


Classification of the Patent Document

4.       The document should be classified as follows:

         B 23 Q 17/00, G 08 C 23/00
         // G 01 B 7/00.




*    Patent family data may include documents at different publication levels, which could differ in their contents. This may
     influence their classification to a certain degree, in comparison with the classification agreed for the selected document.



en / 05-01-04                                                                                              Date: September 2002
                   HANDBOOK ON INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY INFORMATION AND DOCUMENTATION

Ref.: IPC Training Examples                                                                                        page: 5.1.4.77



                                           PART II — PHYSICS AND ELECTRICITY
Example No. E-5

                                                        EXAMPLE No. E-5

                                              Patent Document GB – A – 2,044,560
                                                        (Electrical Field)

                                                     Patent Family Members*:

                                                DE      – A     – 2,908,517
                                                FR      – A     – 2,451,118


Technical Subjects of the Invention

1.       The invention is essentially concerned with three technical subjects, namely:

         (a)     an electric coupling with a built-in switch operated by engaging or disengaging the coupling parts;

       (b)     an electric switch as such whose contact surfaces are kept clean by a sliding motion when closing and
opening the electric circuit;

        (c)    the use of an electric coupling between a trailer and a towing vehicle, for turning off the rear lights of the
vehicle when the coupling parts are engaged.


Allotting Classification Symbols to the Patent Document

2.     (a)    The technical subject referred to under 1(a), above, is classified in the function-oriented place
H 01 R 13/703.

        (b)     Under the assumption that the switch, which constitutes the second technical subject of the invention
(see 1(b), above) was not part of the state of the art at the time the patent document was published, this technical
subject is classified in group H 01 H 1/18 (see, in this respect, paragraph 59 of the Guide).

        (c)     The use of a coupling for connecting the circuit of a trailer to the circuit of a towing vehicle, which has an
impact on the construction of the coupling, is classified in the application place B 60 D 1/64, since it is considered as an
auxiliary device, in connection with a traction coupling, involving electric circuits.


Classification of the Patent Document

3.       The document should be classified as follows:

                                           H 01 R 13/703, H 01 H 1/18, B 60 D 1/64.




*    Patent family data may include documents at different publication levels, which could differ in their contents. This may
     influence their classification to a certain degree, in comparison with the classification agreed for the selected document.



en / 05-01-04                                                                                              Date: September 2002
                   HANDBOOK ON INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY INFORMATION AND DOCUMENTATION

Ref.: IPC Training Examples                                                                                        page: 5.1.4.78



                                           PART II — PHYSICS AND ELECTRICITY
Example No. E-6

                                                        EXAMPLE No. E-6

                                              Patent Document GB – A – 2,184,922
                                                        (Electrical Field)

                                                     Patent Family Members*:

                                                US      –   A   –   4,808,884
                                                DE      –   A   –   3,640,692
                                                FR      –   A   –   2,591,004
                                                JP      –   A   –   62,234,420


Technical Subjects of the Invention

1.     The invention is essentially concerned with a phase-locked loop system for providing a digital output signal
synchronized with a stream of data pulses.


Other Technical Subjects Disclosed

2.     The description disclosed the use of the phase-locked loops for data separation in disc drive systems, when
reading data information which is interspersed with clock information.


Allotting Classification Symbols to the Patent Document

3.       In respect of the classification of the document, the following considerations should apply:

        The phase-locked loop system is claimed independently of any application, and several of those applications
could be foreseen, namely digital TV systems, digital telephone exchanges and global positioning systems (GPS).
Therefore, it is classified in group H 03 L 7/099, since the controlled oscillator (see Fig.9 of the document) is the core of
the invention.

        However, the invention is mainly concerned with the communication aspect, namely, the synchronization
between transmitter and receiver. Thus, in accordance with paragraph 59(b) of the Guide to the sixth edition of the IPC,
the technical subject is also classified in the application place H 04 L 7/00 (the reference in group H 03 L 7/00 indicates
that ―synchronizing in digital communication systems‖ is covered by class H 04). The main group H 04 L 7/00 is chosen
because the presence or absence of a synchronization signal is immaterial (see Fig.8 of the document).

        Also of interest is the use of the phase-locked loop for data separation from a disc memory when reading data
information. This ―memory accessing‖ is considered useful for the searcher and is classified in group G 11 B 20/14,
which, in this case, is less function-oriented than group H 04 L 7/00.

        Modified frequency modulation coding of data, mentioned in the description, is covered by subclass H 03 M, but
this aspect is not important enough to merit classification.


Classification of the Patent Document

4.       The document should be classified as follows:

         H 03 L 7/099, H 04 L 7/00
         // G 11 B 20/14.




*    Patent family data may include documents at different publication levels, which could differ in their contents. This may
     influence their classification to a certain degree, in comparison with the classification agreed for the selected document.



en / 05-01-04                                                                                              Date: September 2002
                   HANDBOOK ON INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY INFORMATION AND DOCUMENTATION

Ref.: IPC Training Examples                                                                                        page: 5.1.4.79



                                           PART II — PHYSICS AND ELECTRICITY
Example No. E-7

                                                        EXAMPLE No. E-7

                                              Patent Document DE – A – 4,011,491
                                                        (Electrical Field)

                                                     Patent Family Members*:

                                                DE      –    C2   –   4,011,491
                                                FR      –    A    –   2,645,661
                                                JP      –    A    –   03,073,003
                                                KR      –    B    –   93,11,719
                                                US      –    A    –   4,961,036


Technical Subjects of the Invention

1.      The invention is essentially concerned with a system for controlling a working shaft including a counter receiving
clock signals, a memory storage, a divider and a shaft driver wherein data on the shaft speed is previously stored in the
memory.


Other Technical Subjects Disclosed

2.      The description only refers to applications (multi spindle automatic lathe, machine for knitting fishing nets)
without giving any details on the adaptation of the invention to these particular machines.


Allotting Classification Symbols to the Patent Document

3.       In respect of the classification of the document, the following considerations should apply:

        (a)     This control system may be applied to different types of machines (automatic lathe, knitting machine...)
and, therefore, should be classified in a function-oriented place.

        (b)    Although the expression ―numerical control‖ is not included in the claim, the invention deals with a control
system corresponding to the definition given by the wording of group G 05 B 19/18. More precisely, this numerical
control system is characterised by the control of speed.

         (c)     There is no additional information to indicate concerning applications.


Classification of the Patent Document

4.       The document should be classified as follows:

                                                            G 05 B 19/416.




*    Patent family data may include documents at different publication levels, which could differ in their contents. This may
     influence their classification to a certain degree, in comparison with the classification agreed for the selected document.



en / 05-01-04                                                                                              Date: September 2002
                   HANDBOOK ON INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY INFORMATION AND DOCUMENTATION

Ref.: IPC Training Examples                                                                                        page: 5.1.4.80




                                                     PART III — MECHANICS

Example No. M-1

                                                        EXAMPLE No. M-1

                                              Patent Document DE – A – 2,855,426
                                                       (Mechanical Field)

                                                     Patent Family Members*:

                                                AT      –   A   –   384,533
                                                BR      –   A   –   7,908,407
                                                CS      –   A   –   7,908,817
                                                FR      –   A   –   2,444,420
                                                GB      –   A   –   2,039,722
                                                IT      –   B   –   1,126,600
                                                JP      –   A   –   55,104,980
                                                US      –   A   –   4,353,765


Technical Subjects of the Invention

1.      The technical subjects with which the invention is essentially concerned are ―a process of coating several
individual objects with a heat-activated adhesive in one operation, which objects would afterwards be separated from
each other‖ and ―the application of that process to ornamental stones,‖ as disclosed prima facie in the patent document.


Allotting Classification Symbols to the Patent Document

2.       In respect of the classification of the document, the following considerations should apply:

       (a)    It is desirable to classify the document in a function-oriented place, but no appropriate function-oriented
place appears to exist in the IPC.

                 Subclass B 05 D seems to be the most relevant function-oriented place, but group B 05 D 5/10, for
                 example, is limited to the application of ―liquids or other fluent materials.‖ By classifying the document in
                 B 05 D the ―thermoforming‖ aspect would be lost.

                 Classifying the document in B 29 C would be appropriate for the ―thermoforming‖ aspect, but the aspect
                 of ―coating with an adhesive‖ would be lost.

                 C 09 J covers ―adhesive processes in general‖ where group 5/00 is appropriate.

                 In view of too much information being lost if the document is not classified in a function-oriented place,
                 the document is classified in B 29 C 51/16 and C 09 J 5/00.

       (b)      Classification in group A 44 C 17/00 is required, in view of the process being described in connection with
the coating of ornamental stones. However, classification in this group alone would merely identify the involvement of
―gems or the like,‖ and the aspect of coating with an adhesive would be lost.


Classification of the Patent Document

3.    The document should be classified as follows (the classifications symbols A 44 C 17/00 are placed first only
because there is no appropriate function-oriented place):

                                            A 44 C 17/00, B 29 C 51/16, C 09 J 5/00.




*    Patent family data may include documents at different publication levels, which could differ in their contents. This may
     influence their classification to a certain degree, in comparison with the classification agreed for the selected document.



en / 05-01-04                                                                                              Date: September 2002
                   HANDBOOK ON INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY INFORMATION AND DOCUMENTATION

Ref.: IPC Training Examples                                                                                        page: 5.1.4.81



                                                     PART III — MECHANICS
Example No. M-2

                                                        EXAMPLE No. M-2

                                              Patent Document GB – A – 2,150,897
                                                       (Mechanical Field)

                                                     Patent Family Members*:

                                                DE      –   A   –   3,338,466
                                                FR      –   A   –   2,553,826
                                                JP      –   A   –   60,110,527
                                                US      –   A   –   4,566,407


Technical Subjects of the Invention

1.      The invention is essentially concerned with a ―radiator-cooling arrangement in a vehicle having at least two
radiators, consisting of a separate air duct for each radiator and with the air ducts and air inlets extending through the
vehicle bumper and its support.‖


Allotting Classification Symbols to the Patent Document

2.       In respect of the classification of the document, the following considerations should apply:

         (a)     The technical subject should be classified in an application place, within subclass B 60 K, in group 11/00.

         (b)    It would be of interest to classify also the aspect of the technical subject referred to in claims 5 and 6, so
that this aspect would not be lost to searchers interested in the construction of bumpers. This aspect might be classified
in group B 60 R 19/48.

                 This further classification should be obligatory (see paragraph 83(a) of the Guide to the IPC).


Classification of the Patent Document

3.       The document should be classified as follows:

                                                   B 60 K 11/00, B 60 R 19/48.




*    Patent family data may include documents at different publication levels, which could differ in their contents. This may
     influence their classification to a certain degree, in comparison with the classification agreed for the selected document.



en / 05-01-04                                                                                              Date: September 2002
                   HANDBOOK ON INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY INFORMATION AND DOCUMENTATION

Ref.: IPC Training Examples                                                                                        page: 5.1.4.82



                                                     PART III — MECHANICS
Example No. M-3

                                                        EXAMPLE No. M-3

                                              Patent Document GB – A – 2,156,389
                                                       (Mechanical Field)

                                                     Patent Family Members*:
                                                DE      – A – 3,410,826
                                                FR      – A – 2,561,797
                                                SE      – A – 8,501,369




Technical Subjects of the Invention

1.     The invention is essentially concerned with control of water level in household appliances by use of pressure-
generating means and means sensitive to the pressure generated, in order to cause closure of an inlet valve.


Other Technical Subjects Disclosed

2.       The description disclosed details for, and of, washing machines.


Allotting Classification Symbols to the Patent Document

3.       In respect of the classification of the document, the following considerations should apply:

        (a)     In accordance with paragraph 59(a) of the Guide to the IPC, classification should be made in the
function-oriented place G 05, namely in subclass G 05 D.

        (b)     In view of Note (3) following the title of subclass G 05 D and the fact that subclasses A 47 L and D 06 F
(which could otherwise be considered for classification of the details mentioned in paragraph 2, above) do not
specifically provide for control of the parameters concerned, classification is only made in subclass G 05 D.


Classification of the Patent Document

4.       The document should be classified as follows:

                                                           G 05 D 9/00.




*    Patent family data may include documents at different publication levels, which could differ in their contents. This may
     influence their classification to a certain degree, in comparison with the classification agreed for the selected document.



en / 05-01-04                                                                                              Date: September 2002
                   HANDBOOK ON INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY INFORMATION AND DOCUMENTATION

Ref.: IPC Training Examples                                                                                        page: 5.1.4.83



                                                     PART III — MECHANICS
Example No. M-4

                                                        EXAMPLE No. M-4

                                              Patent Document GB – A – 2,161,577
                                                       (Mechanical Field)

                                                     Patent Family Members*:

                                                DE      –   A    –   3,524,842
                                                FR      –   A    –   2,567,603
                                                JP      –   A    –   61,026,448
                                                US      –   A    –   4,563,605


Technical Subjects of the Invention

1.    The invention is essentially concerned with a vibration damper for a rotary stepping motor consisting of an inertial
mass connectible to the shaft of the motor through a viscous coupling.


Other Technical Subjects Disclosed

2.       The description disclosed:

         (a)     certain vibration characteristics of electrical stepping motors;

         (b)     the use of lubricants for the roller bearings of the coupling.


Allotting Classification Symbols to the Patent Document

3.       In respect of the classification of the document, the following considerations should apply:

       Suppression of vibrations in rotating systems by making use of members moving with the system, using a fluid
and having an inertia member, is classified in group F 16 F 15/167.

        Claims 8 to 12 of the document specifically refer to the combination comprising a rotary stepping motor and a
damping device, for which a particular group H 02 K 37/22, covering damping units for electrical motors with rotor
rotating step by step, is provided.

        However, the essential features of the invention concern only the vibration damper, which construction is not
specific for the suppression of vibrations in electrical stepping motors. Consequently, in accordance with paragraph
53(a) of the Guide to the sixth edition of the IPC, the technical subject of the invention should only be classified in the
function-oriented place F 16 F 15/167.

         The information referred to under 2(a), above, is trivial and not being of interest to the searcher. Non-obligatory
classification in subclass H 02 K (―Dynamo-electric machines‖) is not therefore needed.

        The information referred to under 2(b), above, relates to the use of conventional lubricants, known in the art, and
does not merit classification in group F 16 C 33/66 (―Special parts or details of ball or roller bearings in view of
lubrication‖).


Classification of the Patent Document

4.       The document should be classified as follows:

                                                            F 16 F 15/167.




*    Patent family data may include documents at different publication levels, which could differ in their contents. This may
     influence their classification to a certain degree, in comparison with the classification agreed for the selected document.



en / 05-01-04                                                                                              Date: September 2002
                   HANDBOOK ON INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY INFORMATION AND DOCUMENTATION

Ref.: IPC Training Examples                                                                                        page: 5.1.4.84



                                                     PART III — MECHANICS
Example No. M-5

                                                        EXAMPLE No. M-5

                                              Patent Document US – A – 4,209,289
                                                       (Mechanical Field)

                                                     Patent Family Members*:

                                                CA      –   A   –   1,141,511
                                                DE      –   A   –   3,016,731
                                                FR      –   A   –   2,456,600
                                                FR      –   B   –   2,456,600
                                                GB      –   A   –   2,048,758
                                                GB      –   B   –   2,048,758
                                                JP      –   A   –   63,036,484


Technical Subjects of the Invention

1.     The invention is essentially concerned with a two piece contact lens mould having a pair of blunt, continuous
mating surfaces extending around the periphery of the mould cavity. The construction of the mould allows the mating
surface to accurately control lens thickness and avoid flash at the mould joint.


Other Technical Subjects Disclosed

2.       The description disclosed the use of polypropylene as a preferred moulding material for the production of lenses.


Allotting Classification Symbols to the Patent Document

3.       In respect of the classification of the document, the following considerations should apply:

         (a)     Production of optical elements, e.g. lenses, from plastics or from substances in a plastic state, is
classified in group B 29 D 11/00. However, Note (1) following the title of subclass B 29 D directs the user to Note (3)
following the title of class B 29. As mentioned in this Note, the working of plastics is, as far as possible, classified
primarily according to the particular shaping technique used, e.g. in subclass B 29 C, and classification in subclass
B 29 D is restricted to aspects which are characteristic for the production of a particular article and combined operations
for making the particular article. The concept of the invention relates to the construction of the mould and does not
include aspects which are characteristic for the production of lenses. Shaping by introducing the moulding material
between confining surfaces without significant moulding pressure is classified in group B 29 C 39/00, which subgroup
39/28 covers moulds with means to avoid flashes. This classification symbol represents the main technical features of
the invention;

       (b)    Indexing code B 29 L 11:00 complements the information on the invention, by indicating that the articles
produced are optical elements;

       (c)     To indicate the information on the moulding material, it is also desirable to assign indexing code
B 29 K 23:00 relating to polyalkenes which include polypropylene.


Classification of the Patent Document

4.       The document should be classified as follows:

                                           B 29 C 39/28 // B 29 K 23:00, B 29 L 11:00.




*    Patent family data may include documents at different publication levels, which could differ in their contents. This may
     influence their classification to a certain degree, in comparison with the classification agreed for the selected document.



en / 05-01-04                                                                                              Date: September 2002
                   HANDBOOK ON INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY INFORMATION AND DOCUMENTATION

Ref.: IPC Training Examples                                                                                        page: 5.1.4.85



                                                     PART III — MECHANICS
Example No. M-6

                                                        EXAMPLE No. M-6

                                              Patent Document GB – A – 2,050,560
                                                       (Mechanical Field)

                                                     Patent Family Members*:

                                                BE      –   A   –   883,487
                                                DE      –   B   –   2,923,327
                                                DE      –   C   –   2,923,327
                                                FR      –   A   –   2,458, 658
                                                FR      –   B   –   2,458,658
                                                GB      –   B   –   2,050,560
                                                NL      –   A   –   80,03,164


Technical Subjects of the Invention

1.       The invention is essentially concerned with a device for the balancing of a gate or door, which comprises a
helical tension spring incorporating a safety member representing a shock-absorbing device, so as to provide protection
against uncontrolled movement of spring parts if the spring brakes.


Allotting Classification Symbols to the Patent Document

2.       In respect of the classification of the document, the following considerations should be apply:

         (a)    The technical subject of the invention concerns primarily the construction of the device referred to under
1, above, and should be classified in the function-oriented subclass F 16 F, which covers, in particular, springs, shock-
absorbers and vibration-dampers. Paragraph 52 of the Guide to the IPC specifies that any technical subject should be
classified as a whole. Thus, group F 16 F 13/00, covering combinations of springs with shock-absorbers, should be
chosen as the first classification symbol most adequately representing the invention. Group F 16 F 7/12, covering
shock-absorbers using plastic deformation of members, should also be indicated as representing information on the
most important part of the combination, namely, the shock-absorber.

        (b)    Function-oriented classification in group F 16 P 1/00 (―Safety devices independent of the control or
operation of any machine‖) is not appropriate, since the safety aspect of the technical subject of the invention depends
completely on the specific construction of the invented device.

       (c)     The particular use of the device, namely for the balancing of a gate or door, is indicated in the claims and
should receive obligatory classification in the application group E 05 F 1/08 (―Spring-actuated closers or openers for
wings‖).

       (d)    Classification in the application subclass E 06 B (―Fixed or movable closures for openings in buildings‖)
would not be appropriate in view of Note (1) following the title of subclass E 06 B, referring out combinations of wings or
frames with operating means, which are covered by the relevant subclasses of class E 05.


Classification of the Patent Document

3.       The document should be classified as follows:

                                                 F 16 F 13/00, 7/12, E 05 F 1/08.




*    Patent family data may include documents at different publication levels, which could differ in their contents. This may
     influence their classification to a certain degree, in comparison with the classification agreed for the selected document.



en / 05-01-04                                                                                              Date: September 2002

								
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