Commun by miannaveed

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									EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION




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            Communication
• Communication
  – The process of transmitting information from
    one person to another
• Effective communication
  – The process of sending a message so that
    the message received is as close in meaning
    as possible to the message intended



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Flow of Information in Organizations




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    Information :Key Concepts...
• Data
  – Raw figures and facts reflecting an aspect of
    reality
• Information
  – Data presented in a form that has meaning
• Information Technology (IT)
  – The resources used by the organization to
    manage information to achieve its mission

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   Characteristics of Information
• Accurate
  – A valid and reliable reflection of reality
• Timely
  – Information delivered in time for managerial action
• Complete
  – Information that tells a complete story, rather than
    being incomplete or distorted
• Relevant
  – Meets the needs and circumstances of the individual
    manager


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 The Communication Process
• Steps in the Communication Process
  – Deciding to transmit a fact, idea, opinion, or other
    information to the receiver.
  – Encoding the meaning into a form appropriate to the
    situation.
  – Transmitting through the appropriate
    channel or medium.
  – Decoding the message back into
    a form that has meaning to the
    receiver.
  – ―Noise‖ is anything disrupting the
    communication process.
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  The Communication Process
• Feedback
  – The receiver becomes the sender and the
    sender becomes the receiver. This is
    required to verify meaning and complete the
    effective communication process




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 Interpersonal Communication

• Oral Communication
  – Face-to-face conversations, group discussions,
    telephone calls, and other situations in which
    the spoken word is used to express meaning.
  – Advantages of oral communication
    • Promotes prompt feedback and interchange in
      the form
      of verbal questions and responses.
    • Is easy to use and can be done
      with little preparation.


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  Interpersonal Communication
• Oral Communication
  – Disadvantages of oral communication
    • Suffers from problems with inaccuracy in meaning
      and details.
    • Leaves no time for thought and consideration and no
      permanent record of what was said.




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  Interpersonal Communication
• Written Communication
  – Memos, letters, reports, notes, email, and other
    methods in which the written word is used to
    transmit meaning.
  – Advantages of written communication
    • Is accurate and leaves a permanent record
      of the exchange.
    • Leaves for thought and consideration,
      can be referenced.
    • Is easy to use and can be done with
      little preparation.
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  Interpersonal Communication
• Written Communication : Disadvantages

    • Inhibits feedback and interchange due to burden of
      the process of preparing a physical document.
    • Considerable delay can occur in
      clarifying message meanings.




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Forms of Communication in Organizations

 • Choosing the Right Form
   – The situation determines the most appropriate
     medium
     • Oral communication and email is preferred for
       personal, non-routine, or high priority
       communications.
     • Formal written communication (e.g., memos, letters,
       reports, and notes) are used for messages that are
       impersonal, routine, and lower priority.




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Forms of Communication in Organizations
• Communication in Networks and Teams
  – Communication network—the pattern through which
    the members of a group or team communicate.
  – Research suggests:
     • When the group’s task is simple and routine, centralized
       networks perform with the greatest efficiency and accuracy.
     • When the group’s task is complex and non-routine,
       decentralized networks with open communications that foster
       interaction and exchange of relevant information tend to be
       most effective.




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        Forms of Communication


                                                                           2
2                 3                                          1                     3
                                4            5
         1
                                         1                        5            4
4                 5                      2                            Circle
        Wheel                                                          2
                                         3
                                         Y             1                           3

    1
    2     2      3      2
                        4   5
                                                             5                 4
                Chain
                                                            All channel
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     Communication Networks
• Wheel – all communication flows through one
  central person (i.e., the leader).
• The Chain – offers a more even flow of
  information among members (although the two
  people on each end interact with only one other
  person.
• The Y – slightly less centralized – two people
  are close to the center.



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    Communication Networks
• The Circle – the chain closed in
• The All Channel network – The most
  decentralized allows a free flow of
  information among all group members.
  Everyone participates equally.




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 Organizational Communication
• Vertical Communication
  – Communication that flows up and down the
    organization, usually along formal reporting lines.
     • Takes place between managers and subordinates and may
       involve several levels of the organization.
  – Upward communication
     • Consists of messages from subordinates to superiors and is
       more subject to distortion.
  – Downward communication
     • Occurs when information flows down the hierarchy from
       superiors to subordinates.




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 Organizational Communication
• Horizontal Communication
  – Communication that flows laterally within the
    organization; involves persons at the same
    level of the organization.
    • Facilitates coordination among independent units.
    • Useful in joint problem solving.
    • Plays a major role in communications among
      members of work teams drawn from different
      departments.


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 Vertical and
  Horizontal
Communication




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  Electronic Communication
• Information Technology (IT)
  – The resources used by the organization to
    manage information that it needs to carry
    out its mission.




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     Electronic Communication
• Formal information systems
  – Transaction-processing systems
  – Management information systems (MIS)
  – Decision support systems (DSS)
  – Executive information systems (EIS)
  – Intranets
  – Expert systems
• Personal electronic technology

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  Formal Information Systems
• Transaction processing system
  – System designed to handle routine and
    recurring transactions
• Management information system (MIS)
  – System that gathers more comprehensive
    data, organizes it in a form of value to
    managers



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  Formal Information Systems
• Decision support system (DSS)
  – System that automatically searches for,
    manipulates, and summarizes information
    needed by Managers for specific decisions
• Executive Information Systems (EIS)
    • A quick-reference, easy-access application of
      information systems specially designed for instant
      access by upper-level managers.



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   Formal Information Systems
• Intranets
  – Firewall-protected private networks for
    internal company use by employees.
• Expert Systems
  – Information systems designed to imitate the
    thought process of human experts.




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     Electronic Communication
• Personal Electronic Technology
  – Technological advances (e.g., fax machines,
    cellular telephones, copiers, and personal
    computers) have created opportunities for quickly
    disseminating and contacting others in the
    organization.
  – Corporate intranets and the Internet
    have made possible teleconferences
    and the rapid retrieval of information
    from all corners of the globe.
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  Electronic Communication

• Personal Electronic Technology
  – Telecommuting allows people to work at home
    and transmit their work to the company by
    means of a telephone and a modem.
    • Disadvantages are the lack of face-to-face contact,
      strong personal relationships, falling behind
      professionally, and losing out in organizational
      politics.



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     Electronic Communication
• Problems:
  – Individuals fall behind in their professional field
  – Persons can be victimized by organizational
    policies…cannot protect themselves
  – Telecommuters miss out on organizational
    grapevine
  – Difficult for organization to build strong culture
    without face-to-face interaction

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   Informal Communication in
         Organizations
• Informal Communications
  – May or may not follow official reporting relationships
    and/or prescribed organizational channels and may
    have nothing to do with official organizational
    business.
  – Common forms of informal
    communications are the
    grapevine, management
    by wandering around, and
    nonverbal communication.



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     Informal Communication
• Informal Communication is on the rise in
 organizations because:
  – Increase in merger, acquisition, and takeover
    activity
  – Facilities being spread from downtown areas
    to suburbs, which results in employees talking
    more to each other



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             Informal Communication

• Grapevine – an informal communication
  network that can permeate an organization.
 The Gossip Chain        The Cluster Chain
 One person tells many   Many people tell a few




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   Informal Communication in
         Organizations
• Management by Wandering Around
  – Managers keep in touch with what’s going on
    by wandering around and talking to people on
    all levels in the organization




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         Informal Communication in
               Organizations
• Nonverbal Communication
  – Any communication exchange that does not use
    words, or uses words to carry more meaning than
    the strict definition of the words themselves.
     • Much of the content of a message
       may be transmitted by facial                       Words in
       expression alone; other                            the message
       message content is derived                         7%
       from inflection and tone of
                                             Inflection            Facial
       the voice. Only a small portion       and tone              expression
       of the message content is due to      38%                   55%
       the words in the message.

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        Informal Communication in
              Organizations
• Nonverbal Communication
  – Kinds of nonverbal communication practiced
    by managers:
    • Images—the kinds of words people elect to use to
      give emphasis and effect to what they say.
    • Settings—boundaries, familiarity, home turf (e.g.,
      office location, size, and furnishings) are symbols
      of power and influence how people choose to
      communicate in organizations.

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  Informal Communication in
        Organizations
• Nonverbal Communication
  – Kinds of nonverbal communication
    practiced by managers:
    • Body language—how people of different
      cultures and backgrounds physically position
      themselves and react to the stance and body
      movements of others has a strong influence on
      communications between individuals.



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  Barriers to
   Effective
Communication



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More and Less Effective
    Listening Skills
More Effective Listening                  Less Effective Listening

 Stays active, focused                       Is passive, laid back



    Pays attention                            Is easily distracted



    Asks questions                            Asks no questions



  Keeps an open mind                         Has preconceptions



Assimilates information                  Disregards information
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     Improving Communication
           Effectiveness

Individual skills            Organizational skills
– Encourage two-way           – Follow up
  communication               – Regulate information
– Be aware of language          flow
   and meaning                – Understand the
– Be sensitive to sender’s      richness of media
  and receiver’s
  perspective
– Develop good listening
  skills
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