Glossary by Levone



Adult literacy rate is the percentage of people aged 15 and above who can,
with understanding, both read and write a short, simple statement on their
everyday life.

Affirmative action refers to programmes designed to remedy effects of past
and continuing discriminatory practices in the recruiting, selecting, developing
and promoting of women or other disadvantaged groups. Affirmative action
programmes seek to create systems and procedures to prevent future
discrimination by ensuring an equality of outcomes, such as quota
percentages, timetables, and affirmative action training programmes.

Aid refers to flows that qualify as official development assistance (ODA) or
official aid. Also known as foreign aid.

Aquaculture means all activities aimed at producing in restricted areas,
processing and marketing aquatic plants and animals from fresh, brackish or
salt waters.

Balance of payments is a summary statement of a nation’s financial
transactions with the outside world.

Budget deficit or surplus refers to central government current and capital
revenue and official grants received, less total expenditure and lending minus

Chronic diseases means diseases having a long course.

Common market is a form of economic integration in which there is free
internal trade, a common tariff, and free movement of labour and capital
among partner states.

Community means the organisation for economic integration established by
Article 2 of the SADC Treaty.

Community based wildlife management means the management of wildlife
by a community or group of communities, which has the right to manage the
wildlife and to receive the benefits from that management.

Comparative advantage. A country has a comparative advantage over
another if in producing a commodity it can do so at a relatively lower
opportunity cost in terms of the forgone alternative commodities that could be

Conservation means the protection, maintenance, rehabilitation, restoration
and enhancement of natural resources and includes the management of the
use of natural resources to ensure the sustainability of such use.

Corridor means a major regional transportation route along which a
significant proportion of Member States’ or non-Member States’ regional and
international imports and exports are carried by various transport modes, the
development of which is deemed to be a regional priority.

Corruption means any act referred to in Article 3 of the Protocol Against
Corruption and includes bribery or any other behaviour in relation to persons
entrusted with responsibilities in the public or private sectors which violates
their duties as public officials, private employees, independent agents or other
relationships of that kind and aimed at obtaining undue advantage of any kind
for themselves or others.

Council refers to the Council of Ministers of SADC established by Article 9 of
the SADC Treaty.

Culture means, as the totality of a people’s way of life, the whole complex of
distinctive spiritual, material, intellectual and emotional f eatures that
characterise a society or social group, and includes not only arts and
literature, but also modes of life, the fundamental rights of the human being,
value systems, traditions and beliefs.

Current account balance is the difference between exports of goods and
services plus inflows of unrequited official and private transfers, and imports
of goods and services plus unrequited transfers to the rest of the world.
Included in this figure are all interest payments on external public and publicly
guaranteed debt.

Customs union is a form of economic integration in which two or more
nations agree to free all internal trade while levying a common external tariff
on all non-member countries.

Debt burden is the sum of interest payments and repayments of principal on
external public and publicly guaranteed debt expressed as percentage of
export of goods and services.

Deep integration refers to profound and far reaching regional co-operation
and integration in terms of the breadth and depth of the areas c overed and in
the mechanisms for reaching and enforcing common decisions.

Demand reduction, as used with respect to illicit drugs, means those
measures that encompass all primary, secondary and tertiary activities taken
to reduce, and to deter the use of illicit drugs.

Development is the process of improving the quality of all human lives.
Important aspects of development are raising people’s living levels, creating
conditions conducive to the growth of people’s self-esteem and increasing
people’s freedom of choice.

Development integration is an approach to regional integration that
combines coordination of programmes/projects with trade and factor market
Direct taxes are taxes levied directly on individuals or businesses; e.g.,
income taxes.

Disability means any restriction or lack of ability to perform an activity in the
manner or within the range considered normal for a human being.

Distance education means a system of learning and teaching that is
grounded in the principles of open and resource-based learning and takes
place in different contexts at a multiplicity of sites, through a variety of
mechanisms and learning and teaching approaches.

Dropout rate is the proportion of school-aged children who do not complete a
particular school cycle.

Drugs means any narcotic drug or psychotropic substance.

Double taxation is the situation in which the same tax base is taxed more
than once.

Economic co-operation means two or more countries working together to
promote their common economic interests through joint projects and
programmes, physical or otherwise.

Economic growth is the steady process by which the productive capacity of
the economy is increased over time to bring about rising levels of national
output and income.

Economic integration is the merging to varying degrees of the economies
and economic policies of two or more countries in a given region.

Enrolment ratio, gross is the number of students enrolled in a level of
education, regardless of age, as a percentage of the population of official
school age for that level. The combined gross primary, secondary and tertiary
enrolment ratio refers to the number of students at all these levels as a
percentage of the population of official school age for those levels.

Energy pooling refers to co-operation among parties or entities in
development, transmission, conveyance and storage of energy in order to
obtain optimum reliability of service, economy of operation, and equitable
sharing of costs and benefits.

Equal opportunity measures seek to provide women with an enabling
environment and optimum conditions to reach equal status with men.

Export duties means any duties or charges of equivalent effect imposed on,
or in connection with, the exportation of goods from any Member State to a
consignee in another Member State.

External debt is the debt owed by a country to non-residents that is
repayable in foreign currency, goods or services.

Fish means any aquatic plant or animal, and includes eggs, larvae and all
juvenile stages.

Fishing means all activities directly related to the exploitation of living aquatic
resources and includes transhipment.

Fish stock means a population of fish, including migratory species, which
constitutes a coherent reproductive unit.

Foreign direct investment is capital provided by a foreign investor to an
affiliate enterprise abroad in the form of equity capital or re-invested earnings
or loans.

Free trade area is a form of economic integration in which there exists free
internal trade among member countries but each member is free to levy
different external tariffs against non-member nations.

Gender refers to the socially and culturally constructed roles, privileges,
responsibilities, power and influence, social relations, expectations and value
of men and women, girls and boys. There are significant differences in what
women and men can or cannot do in one society when compared to another.
In all cultures, the roles of women and men are distinct, as are their access to
productive resources and their authority to make decisions. Typically, in most
cases, men are held responsible for the productive activities outside the
home, while the domain of women are the reproductive and productive
activities within the home. In most societies, women have limited access to
income, land, credit, education, limited ownership and control over these

Gender and Development (GAD) approach originated from the analysis of
the social relations between women and men to explain why women were still
marginally benefiting from development processes despite the fact that their
specific contributions were being recognized. GAD approaches correlate
unequal gender relations and the unequal access to natural, social and
economic resources. This approach does not consider women, their roles,
needs and aspirations, in isolation from those of men.             Indeed, the
responsibilities assigned to women differ among households, communities
and societies but they are all determined in relation to those of men. It is the
social arrangements of these responsibilities between women and men that
are the main focus of GAD policies.

Gender empowerment is a process of awareness and capacity-building
leading to greater participation in transformative action, to greater decision-
making power and control over one's life and other processes. Empowerment
of women as a policy objective implies that women legitimately have the
ability and should, individually and collectively, participate effectively in

decision-making processes that shape their societies and their own lives,
especially about societal priorities and development directions.

Gender equality is based on the idea that no individual should be less equal
in opportunity, access to resources and benefits or in human rights than
others. It is based on the notion that "all people are created equal therefore
should have equal share of the worlds resources and benefits". In this case,
therefore, women and men have an equal right to access and control over
resources and benefits, participation in politics and decision making, gainful
employment, and so forth.

Gender equity, though often used interchangeably with gender equality, is a
very distinct concept. Equity programmes favour treating women and men
differently in order to achieve the equal status of women and men. Such
programmes are based on the premise that if women and men were treated
the same way (equally) there would be a risk of reaching unfair outcomes due
to original disparities.

Gender gap is any statistical gap between the measured characteristics of
men and women in areas such as educational attainment, wage rates, or
labour force participation.

Gender mainstreaming is defined by the United Nations as the: process of
assessing the implications for women and men of any planned action,
including legislation, policies and programmes, in any area and at different
levels. It is a strategy for making women's as well as men's concerns and
experiences an integral dimension in the design, implementation, monitoring
and evaluation of policies and programmes, in all political, economic and
societal spheres so that women and men benefit equality, and inequality is not
perpetuated. The ultimate goal is to achieve gender equality.

Gender-related Development Index (GDI) is a composite index using the
same variables as the Human Development Index. The difference is that the
GDI adjusts the average achievement of each country in life expectancy,
educational attainment and income in accordance with the disparity in
achievement between women and men.

Gender responsive budgeting asks if women’s and men’s needs and
interests are included. A gender budget demonstrates recognition of different
needs, privileges, rights and obligations that women and men have in society.
It recognises the differential contribution of men and women in production of
goods, services and human labor in mobilizing and distributing resources. It
is a tool of analysis in which the government budget is disaggregated and the
effect of expenditure and revenue policies-especially on poor-women is

Globalisation is the increasing integration of national economies into
expanding international markets.

Gross domestic investment refers to outlays for additions to fixed assets of
both the private and public sectors plus the net value of inventory changes.

Gross domestic product is the total final output of goods and services
produced by the country’s economy, within the country’s territory, by residents
and non-residents.

Gross domestic savings is the amount of gross domestic investment
financed from domestic output.

Gross national product is the total domestic and foreign output claimed by
residents of a country. It comprises gross domestic product plus net factor
income from abroad.

Gross national savings is the sum of gross domestic savings and net foreign

Health promotion means the process of enabling people to increase control
over, and to improve their health.

Human capital or human capabilities are the productive investments
embodied in human persons. These include skills, abilities, ideals, and health
resulting from expenditures on education, on-the-job training programmes and
medical care.

Human development is the process of enlarging people’s choices so that
they can live a long and healthy life, be educated, have access to resources
for a decent standard of living, enjoy political, economic, social and cultural
freedoms, and have human rights, self-esteem and opportunities for being
creative and productive.

Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite index based on three
indicators: longevity, as measured by life expectancy at birth; educational
attainment, as measured by a combination of adult literacy (two-thirds weight)
and the combined gross primary, secondary and tertiary enrolment ratio (one-
third weight); and standard of living, as measured by per capita GDP (in PPP

Human Poverty Index for developing countries measures deprivation in three
dimensions of human life; namely, longevity, knowledge and decent standard
of living.

Illicit drug trafficking means the offences set forth in Article 3, Paragraphs 1
and 2 of the 1988 UN Convention Against Illicit Drugs and Psychotropic

Illiteracy rate (adult) is calculated as 100 minus the adult literacy rate.

Import duties means customs duties or charges of equivalent effect imposed
on, or in connection with, the importation of goods consigned from any
Member State to a consignee in another Member State.

Indirect taxes are taxes levied on goods and services.

Infant mortality rate is the number of deaths among children between birth
and one year of age per 1,000 live births.

Inflation is the phenomenon of rising prices.

Infectious diseases are diseases that can be passed on from one person to

Informal sector is that part of the economy of developing countries
characterised by small competitive individual or family firms, petty retail trade
and services, labour-intensive methods, free entry and outside official
regulation and control.

Information means knowledge, statistics, reports, and various forms and acts
of expressions which are recorded or coded including books, audio, video
tapes and electronic digitalisation.

Integrated Committee of Ministers means the Integrated Committee of
Ministers established by Article 9 of the SADC Treaty.

Interest rate is the amount paid on credit or deposits.

Labour productivity is the level of output per unit of labour input, usually
measured as output per worker-hour or worker-year.

Life expectancy at birth is the number of years a new-born infant would live
if prevailing patterns of mortality at the time of birth were to stay the same
throughout the child’s life.

Macroeconomic convergence is a situation where two or more countries are
pursuing similar stabilisation policies and their principal macroeconomic
variables are moving towards equality.

Macroeconomic stability is a situation in which a country has low inflation
accompanied by falling budget and trade deficits and a low rate of expansion
of the money supply.

Mariculture is the breeding of fish in offshore ponds.

Maternal mortality rate is the annual number of deaths of women from
pregnancy-related causes per 100,000 live births.

Media means all means, vehicles or channels of communication including
print media, broadcast media, film, video and new information technology.

Money laundering means engaging directly or indirectly in a transaction that
involves money or property which is proceeds of crime or receiving,
processing, conceiving, disguising, transforming, converting, disposing of,
removing from, bringing into any territory, money or property that is the
proceeds of crime.

Monetary policy refers to activities of central banks designed to influence
financial variables such as money supply and interest rates.

Non-tariff barrier means any barrier to trade other than import and export

Organ means the Organ on Politics, Defence and Security Cooperation
established by Article 9A of the SADC Treaty.

Policy coordination refers to voluntary and largely unenforceable alignments
of national policies and measures in particular fields.

Policy harmonisation refers to agreement on the manner in which each
member state will exercise or use a particular instrument over which it retains

Portfolio investment refers to financial investments by private individuals,
corporations, pension funds and mutual funds in shares, bonds, certificates of
deposit and notes issued by companies and public agencies.

Poverty is the situation facing those in society whose material needs are least
satisfied. Inability to afford an adequate standard of consumption because of
low income is referred to as income poverty. If, apart from low income, a
country is characterised by malnutrition, poor health, low survival rates, low
literacy levels, inadequate housing and living conditions, etc., then there is
human poverty.

Primary health care means essential health care based on appropriate,
acceptable methods and technology, made universally accessible through
community participation.

Privatisation is the sale of public assets to individuals or private business

Protocol means an instrument of implementation of the SADC Treaty, having
the same legal force as the Treaty.

Public health means the effort of society to protect, promote and restore the
people’s health through health-related activities in order to reduce the amount
of diseases, premature death, and reduce discomfort and disability in the

Region means the geographical area of the Member States of SADC.

Regional Development Fund means the Regional Development Fund
established by Article 26A of the SADC Treaty.

Regional Indicative Strategic Development Plan means a plan, based on
the strategic priorities and SADC Common Agenda, designed to provide
strategic direction with respect to SADC projects and activities.

Reproductive health means the state of complete physical, mental, and
social well-being and not merely the absence of diseases or infirmity, in all
matters related to the reproductive system and to its functions and processes.

SADC Common Agenda means the set of fundamental principles and
values, referred to in Article 5A of the SADC Treaty, that will guide the
integration agenda of the organisation.

SADC National Committee means a SADC National Committee established
by Article 9 of the Treaty.

Secretariat means the Secretariat of SADC established by Article 9 of the

Shared watercourse means a watercourse passing through or forming the
border between two or more states.

Small arms include light machine guns, sub-machine guns, including
machine pistols, fully automatic rifles and assault rifles and semi-automatic

Substantive gender equality means genuine, actual or real gender equality;
in other words, gender equality that is not slight but substantial.

Summit means the Summit of Heads of State or Government of SADC
established by Article 9 of the Treaty.

Sustainable development is a pattern of development that permits future
generations to live at least as well as the current generation.

Sustainable use means use in a way and at a rate that does not lead to the
long-term decline of natural resources.

Terms of trade is the ratio of a country’s average export price to the average
import price; also known as the commodity terms of trade.

Transfrontier conservation area means the area or the component of a
large ecological region that straddles the boundaries of two or more countries,
encompassing one or more protected areas, as well as multiple resource use

Tribunal refers to the board constituted to ensure adherence to and the
proper interpretation of the provisions of the SADC Treaty and subsidiary
instruments and to adjudicate upon disputes referred to it.

Troika means the system referred to in Article 9 of the SADC Treaty.

Underdevelopment is an economic situation in which there are persistent low
levels of living in conjunction with absolute poverty, low income per capita, low
rates of economic growth, low consumption levels, poor health services, high
death rates, high birth rates, dependence on foreign economies, and limited
freedom to choose among activities that satisfy human wants.

Underemployment is a situation in which persons are working less than they
would like to work.

Unemployment is a situation in which people are without jobs either because
they are unwilling to accept available jobs or because there are no jobs

Value addition is the amount of a product’s value in final or semi-processed
form over and above the value in its raw form.

Wildlife means animal and plant species occurring within natural ecosystems
and habitats.


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