Shrimp Training Final by Arefhamoud

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									Marine Science Research Center - Hodeidah




               GOPA                 Ministry of fish wealth         MSRC




               YEMEN FISHERIES MCS PROJECT


                                      Training Course
                             23 September, 2006-19 February, 2007




   Shrimps stock assessment, Survey and Monitoring Methods

                              TRAINING MANUAL




                                   Aref Abdullah Hamoud
                                         April 2007




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Marine Science Research Center - Hodeidah

                                                             Table of Contents

1.   INTRODUCTION........................................................................................................................3
  1.1      Objectives: ...........................................................................................................................3
  1.2      Methods: ..............................................................................................................................3
  1.3      Lecturer:...............................................................................................................................3
  1.4      Duration: ..............................................................................................................................3
  1.5      Participants and activities: ....................................................................................................3
  1.6      Preliminary Findings ............................................................................................................3
2. EQUIPMENTS USED IN THE SURVEY....................................................................................4
3. THE TRAINING AND SURVEY ................................................................................................4
  3.1      Survey Members (Trainees) and dates ..................................................................................4
  3.2      The training and Survey topics..............................................................................................4
  3.3      Objectives of training and survey..........................................................................................4
  3.4      The training and survey outputs ............................................................................................4
4. BIOLOGY OF KEY SPECIES, IDENTIFICATION PRACTICE.................................................5
  4.1      Species Definition, Systematics, and Taxonomy...................................................................5
     4.1.1      Species..........................................................................................................................5
     4.1.2      Taxonomy.....................................................................................................................5
  4.2      Crustaceans ..........................................................................................................................6
     4.2.1      Life Cycle of Penaeoid Shrimp .....................................................................................7
     4.2.2      Stages in Ovarian Development of P monodon..............................................................8
     4.2.3      Shrimp Measurements...................................................................................................8
     4.2.4      Some typical forms (Species) of shrimp ........................................................................9
       4.2.4.1 Name: Penaeus japonicus .........................................................................................9
       4.2.4.2 Name: Penaeus semisulcatus.....................................................................................9
       4.2.4.3 Name: Penaeus monodon........................................................................................10
       4.2.4.4 Name Metapenaeus monoceros ...............................................................................10
Appendix 1 ........................................................................................................................................11
Appendix 2 ........................................................................................................................................12
References .........................................................................................................................................17




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Marine Science Research Center - Hodeidah


1.     INTRODUCTION
        The training course in shrimp stock assessment aims at building the capacities of the MSRRC
researchers to participate in shrimp fishery management process and in the implementation of the
monitoring framework in the future and this course will provide a deeper understanding of shrimp
fishery, and methods of assessing and monitoring fisheries, biodiversity and ecosystem health
    On Saturday 23 of September we have started collecting the data from the landing sites on the
north and south Red Sea Coast of Hodeidah (As Salif, Al Gabbanah and At Taif)

1.1    Objectives:
       The objective of this research exercise is to gather data on the Red Sea Shrimp fishery in order
       to assist the stock assessment process for this important commercial species.
        Upgrade the national capacity in stock assessment research, monitoring and deepen the
       understanding of fishery management

1.2    Methods:
       Lectures in Arabic, Course Manual (English / Arabic, partly summaries)

1.3    Lecturer:
       Aref A. Hamoud (Researcher and director deputy of MSRRC, Hodeidah)

1.4    Duration:
       23 September, 2006-19 February, 2007, 6 am – 5 pm

1.5    Participants and activities:
       See List of Participants 3.1 and the appendix 2 for work plan

1.6   Preliminary Findings
      The total number of examined shrimps was 6471 of which 6300 Penaeus semisulcatus (3120
males and 3180 females) and the rest 137 were Penaeus japonicus, 28 Penaeus merguiensis, 5
Penaeus monodon and 1 Metapenaeus ensis.
         An extra care was made to records all species that might be found on each landing site but
probably some might have been missed especially those species not easily seen in limited and short
visits to the landing sites, The total species recorded in this survey was five species as follow:-
         - Penaeus semisulcatus
         - Penaeus japonicus
         - Penaeus merguiensis
         - Penaeus monodon
         - Metapenaeus ensis




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Marine Science Research Center - Hodeidah

2.       EQUIPMENTS USED IN THE SURVEY
         - GPS eTrex, Garmin Olathe, Kansas, USA.
         - OLYMPUS Digital Camera, C-8080 Wide Zoom, OLYMPUS, Melville, NY, USA. Number
         of waypoints and Pictures were taken during the survey.
         - Helmut D. 1988. Red Sea Reef Guide.
         - John Randall 1996. The diver's guide to Red Sea Reef Fishes
         - Pete H. & Alex M. 2000. A Guide to Penaeoid shrimps found in Thai waters

3.        THE TRAINING AND SURVEY
          During the period of 23 September 2006 – 19 February 2007 thirteen counterparts (researcher
      assistant from MSRRC) participated in a training program and data collection from the landing
      sites. The program involves both theoretical and field training on the following topics.

3.1    Survey Members (Trainees) and dates
Mr. Mortada Ahmad Alwan         Supervisor                         Sep. 23, 2006-Feb. 19, 2007
Mr. Aref Abdullah Hamoud        Expert                             Sep. 23, 2006-Feb. 19, 2007
Mr. Sami Suleiman Masslamani    Team Member & Trainee              23-30 Sept. 2006 & 1-7 Oct. 2006
Mr. Yahya Yahya Zaid Abu-Zaid   Team Member & Trainee              23-30 Sept. 2006 & 1-7 Oct. 2006
Mr. Khaldon Saif Mohammed       Team Member & Trainee              8-17 Oct. 2006 & 16-18 Dec.2006
Mr. Hazza Ahmad Kodaf           Team Member & Trainee              8-17 Oct. 2006 & 16-18 Dec.2006
Mr. Basem Abdullah Abdo         Team Member & Trainee              19-27 Dec. 2006 & 6-7 Jan. 2007
Mr. Anwar Hasan Al Abdali       Team Member & Trainee              19-27 Dec. 2006 & 6-7 Jan. 2007
Mr. Mohamed Hasan Fteini        Team Member & Trainee              Jan. 8, 2007, - Jan. 27, 2007
Mr. Ibrahim Mohamed Hadi        Team Member & Trainee              Jan. 8, 2007, - Jan. 27, 2007
Mr. Ibrahim Shockab             Team Member & Trainee              Jan. 23, 2007, - Feb. 3, 2007
Mr. Mohamed Makbol              Team Member & Trainee              Jan. 23, 2007, - Feb. 3, 2007
Mr. Abdullah Obeid              Team Member & Trainee              Feb. 4, 2007, - Feb. 12, 2007
Mr. Ali Saeed Ali               Team Member & Trainee              Feb. 4, 2007, - Feb. 19, 2007
Mr. Waleid Atheib               Team Member & Trainee              Jan. 14, 2007, - Feb. 19, 2007

3.2       The training and Survey topics
                  The national expert have conducted training course for national counterparts in:
        - Visual recognition of major benthic groups
        - Visual recognition of shrimp and major fish species and familiarization with major fish
         families
        - Identification practice of key species and sampling methods
        - Introduction to data entry
        - Survey and monitoring methods (training on stock assessment and data gatherings).
3.3       Objectives of training and survey
        - Improve skills in Classification.
        - To improve counterpart's capacity to manage the fisheries in the Red Sea.
        - Development of database and analyses of information.
        - Fixing permanent monitoring sites
3.4       The training and survey outputs
        - By the end of the project, trainees were able to collecting data from the landing sites.
        - Trainees could identify the common genera of shrimp, fish, cuttlefish, Sea cucumbers and
        crabs found along the Red Sea coast of Yemen.
        -Development of database and analysis of information.
        - Establishment stock assessment monitoring system for the shrimp fishery.
        - Increased public awareness about fishery management between the fishermen and the local
        communities' members in Hodeidah city, Al Gabbanah, As Salif and At Taif villages.


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Marine Science Research Center - Hodeidah

4.      BIOLOGY OF KEY SPECIES, IDENTIFICATION PRACTICE
        (From Zajonz et al., 2005).
4.1     Species Definition, Systematics, and Taxonomy
4.1.1 Species
        Species are the fundamental units in classifying the biological diversity. A biological species
can be defined as an ‘actually or potentially interbreeding population which is reproductively isolated
from other such populations. A primary goal of systematics is to group the species and higher taxa in
order of their phylogenetic (evolutionary) relationships and to define such a group by studying all of its
members. The final goal is to produce an organized, hierarchical system and evolutionary hypothesis
associated with these groups. An integral part of saystematics is Classification, which develops
ranking schemes in order show and to distinguish between the different levels of relationships, hence a
hierarchical system. The best classification is the most natural one that best represents the evolutionary
history of an organism and its relatives.

4.1.2   Taxonomy
        Taxonomy (‘naming the taxa’) focuses on the theory and practice of describing biodiversity
(including naming undescribed species), on arranging this diversity into a system of classification, and
on devising identification keys. Taxonomy assigned uniform endings to taxa names within the
different classification units, e.g. for order (-iformes), suborder (-iodei), family (-idae), and subfamily
(-inae). These names are always capitalized.
Seven basic categories (or ranks) are used in sequence to describe increasing levels of similarity in
attributes which are of diagnostic value. Additional intermediate categories exist such as tribe and
others are inserted by adding the pre-fix “sub-” (e.g. subclass), “infra-” (e.g. infraspecies), or “super-“
(e.g. superfamily). Taxonomy assigned uniform endings to taxa names within the different
classification units, e.g. for order (-iformes), suborder (-iodei), family (-idae), and subfamily (-inae).
These names are always capitalized.

     •   Kingdom: This is the category of primary division that distinguishes animals from viruses, bacteria,
         protozoans, plants and fungi.

     •   Phylum (plural: phyla): This is the highest category below Kingdom. It comprises groups with
         a long joint evolutionary history and profound similarities in basic structures and
         developmental characteristics. An example is the Phylum Cnidaria which includes all corals,
         jelly fish, sea fans, anemones and other related forms. Presently, they are 38 phyla described,
         34 of which contain marine forms. Each phylum is split into classes.

     •   Class: Classes are major categories of primary distinction. An example is the Class Anthozoa which in
         comparison to other classes within the phylum Cnidaria is the only group with only sessile polyp phases
         (no free-swimming medusae). Each class is divided into orders.

     •   Order: This is the next level down, and is the category that encompasses a group of closely related
         families. An example is the Order Scleractinia with solitary or colonial polyps which all secret an
         exoskeleton made of calcium carbonate (aragonite).

     •   Familiy: in the animal kingdom, the name of the family always ends with “…idae”. An
         example is the family Acroporidae.

     •   Genus (plural: genera): This category represents a group of closely related species. An
         example is the genus Acropora. Members of this genus all have a branching morphology with a
         continuously growing terminal polyp on each branch.




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Marine Science Research Center - Hodeidah

      •   Species: The most specific rank in the Linnean hierarchy. Sometimes subspecies are separated out next.
          An example is Acropora hyacynthus, a species which is abundant in upper parts of exposed reef slopes.
By convention species names are italicized and always consist of two parts: the name of the genus to which it
belongs is given first, followed by a unique identifier for the species. In addition generic names are capitalized,
while species names are always in lowercases. The species name is often derived from Latin or Greek and
commonly points out a characteristic feature of that species, names the place of first collection or honors a
person.
Modern phylogeny revealed that not all ranks are equal. For example, a family of corals may not be the same as
a family of sponges. Even within a group a family might not be of consistent rank, based on different number of
branches in their phylogenetic tree.

4.2       Crustaceans
         Crustacea are often called the "insects of the sea". Like insects, they are members of the so called
Arthropoda (meaning: jointed-leg). While on land insects are by far the dominant group within the arthropods
the sea is almost bare of them, while crustaceans are found in basically every part of the earth's seas

Crustacea are divided into a number of distinct taxonomic units (orders, families etc.) of which some of the
most important will be presented in short on the following pages.
          -   Copepods
          -   Cirripeds (Barnacles)
          -   Isopods (sea lice)
          -   Amphipods
          -   Stomatopods (Mantis Shrimps)
          -   Shrimps and prawns
          -   Lobsters See appendix 1
          -   Hermit crabs
          -   Crabs      See appendix 1

          -   See appendix 1 for Fish and the rest of associated species




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Marine Science Research Center - Hodeidah

4.2.1   Life Cycle of Penaeoid Shrimp
        In penaeoid shrimp the sexes are separate (From Somnuk and Supongpan, 1992).
In the males, the sperm duct leads from the testes to terminal ampoules which open on the basal
segment of the Last pair of pereopods.
In the females, the ovaries are connected by oviducts and open on the basal segment (coax) of the third
pair of pereopods.
Nauplius larva are released when the eggs hatch. In the genus Penaeus this may occur within a few
hours. Nauplii have only 3 pairs of appendages (antennules, antennae, mandibles) which propel the
larvae. There are 5-6 naupliar stages.
The next 3 stages are the protozoea which have a large, prominent carapace, slender segmented thorax
and an abdomen which may be segmented.
In the 3 mysis stages the carapace is closely fitting, with a rostrum which extends between the eyes.
Postlarvae are about 6-14 mm long and are shrimp-like in appearance.
The planktonic larvae are carried by current toward shore where they arrive as postlarvae about 3
weeks after hatching. The post larvae invade inshore, brackish waters, abandon their planktonic way of
life, and become bottom dwellers living in shallow littoral areas. In these rich nursery grounds they
grow rapidly, develop into juveniles and, as size increase, move gradually back toward the mouths of
estuaries or bays, where they become subadults. Soon the shrimp migrate offshore, continue growing,
and finally as adults reach the spawning grounds, where the mature females spawn and the life cycle is
repeated.

        Life cycle of shrimp




                                                           Juveniles

        Postlarvae
                                                                                  Adults


                               Mysis
                                                           Nauplius

                                            Protozoea                     Eggs




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Marine Science Research Center - Hodeidah

4.2.2   Stages in Ovarian Development of P monodon




        I Underdeveloped II Developing      III Nearly ripe   IV Ripe   V Post spawn
        And/or spent stage   stage               stage          stage




4.2.3   Shrimp Measurements

TL/ Total Length
BL/ Body Length
CL1/ Carapace Length 1/ excluding rostrum
CL2/ Carapace Length 2/ including rostrum




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Marine Science Research Center - Hodeidah

4.2.4 Some typical forms (Species) of shrimp
4.2.4.1 Name: Penaeus japonicus
Size: 20 cm males and 24 cm females maximum total length.            .
Habitat and biology: From the coastline to about 50m depth on sandy bottoms Adults bury in the substrate
during daytime
                                                                   3 bands

last band discontinuous, not reaching to ventral margin




                                                                        1 tooth on ventral margin of rostrum




----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

4.2.4.2 Name: Penaeus semisulcatus
Size: 18 cm (males) and 23 cm (females) maximum total length .                 .                           .
Habitat and biology: Found from the coastline to about 130 m depth, but most abundant to 60 m depth on mud,
sandy-mud or sandy-grit bottoms. Buries in the substrate during day time. Breeding occurs in January to May




                                                                 Antennae banded white and brown




groove reaching to beyond last tooth




                                                                 2 to 3 teeth on ventral margin of rostrum




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Marine Science Research Center - Hodeidah

4.2.4.3 Name: Penaeus monodon
Size: 27 cm (males) and 34 cm (females) maximum total length                 .
Habitat and biology: From the coastline to about 150 m depth, occasionally in deeper waters. Large
concentrations are found at about 60m on mud or sand Juveniles in mangrove swamps, estuaries and
backwaters.
                                           pale yellow and dark brown bars
3 to 4 teeth on ventral margin of rostrum




                                                      antennae uniform pink–brown
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

4.2.4.4 Name Metapenaeus monoceros
Size: 15 cm (males) and 20 cm (females) maximum total length
Habitat and biology: From the coastline to 70 m depth, but also reported from 170 m depth, on sandy,
mud or silt bottoms.

exopod absent on fifth pair of walking legs

          4 to 6 teeth




                                                                           long spine (in males)
                                                                           (        )
                                                                           distal part purple-blue


longitudinal Suture




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Marine Science Research Center - Hodeidah

Appendix 1

                              By Catch ( associated species)
Cuttlefish         Family         SEPIIDAE
                   Genus                             Sepia
                   Species                                          pharaonis

Sea Cucumbers                     Family             HOLOTHURIDAE
                                  Genus                             Holothuria
                                  Species                                          scabra

Shrimp             Family         PENAEIDAE
                   Genus                             Penaeus
                   Species                                          semisulcatus
                                                                    monodon
                                                                    japonicus

Crabs              Family         PORTUNIDAE
                   Genus                             Portunus
                   Species                                          pelagicus
                   Genus                             Scylla
                   Species                                          serrata

Lobster            Family         SCYLLARIDAE
                   Genus                             Thenus
                   Species                                          orientalis


Fish                         Himantura uarnak,
                             Rhinobatos punctifer
                             Lethrinus lentjan
                             Psettodes argenteus
                             Pomadasys stridens
                             Psettodes erumei
                             Platycephalus indicus
                             Lutjanus fulviflamma
                             Plectorhinchus Sp.
                             Remora remora
SPHYRAENIDAE                 Sphyraena Barracuda
HAEMULIDAE                   Diagramma pictum
ARIIDAE                      Arius thalassinus




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Marine Science Research Center - Hodeidah

Appendix 2
                                          Work plan during the period of 23 September 2006 – 19 February 2007
                                              Collecting Data for shrimp study, from the landing sites (Training and Survey)




No.            Name             Title
                                                                                                     September 2006

                                           1        2    3   4   5   6   7   8        9   10 11 12 12 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

      Area                                                                                                                              T   T   S   T G G            S

 1    Mortada A. Alwan       Supervisor

 2    Aref A. Hamoud         Expert
                                           Friday




                                                                             Friday




                                                                                                                               Friday




                                                                                                                                                            Friday
                                                                                                         Friday
 3    Sami S. Masslamani     Trainee

 4    Yahya Y. Zaid Abu-Zaid Trainee

 5    Hazza Ahmad Kodaf      Trainee

 6    Khaldon S. Mohammed    Trainee



        S = Landing Site in As Salif                    T = Landing Site in At Taif                G = Landing Site in Al-Gabbanah




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Marine Science Research Center - Hodeidah

                                          Work plan during the period of 23 September 2006 – 19 February 2007
                                            Collecting Data for shrimp study, from the landing sites (Training and Survey)




No.            Name             Title
                                                                                                         October 2006

                                           1   2    3   4   5   6        7   8   9   10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31

      Area                                 T G T        S G              S   T G T      S   G            S   T G S

 1    Mortada A. Alwan       Supervisor

 2    Aref A. Hamoud         Expert




                                                                Friday




                                                                                                Friday




                                                                                                                        Friday




                                                                                                                                        Friday
 3    Sami S. Masslamani     Trainee

 4    Yahya Y. Zaid Abu-Zaid Trainee

 5    Hazza Ahmad Kodaf      Trainee

 6    Khaldon S. Mohammed    Trainee



        S = Landing Site in As Salif               T = Landing Site in At Taif                    G = Landing Site in Al-Gabbanah




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Marine Science Research Center - Hodeidah

                                           Work plan during the period of 23 September 2006 – 19 February 2007
                                               Collecting Data for shrimp study, from the landing sites (Training and Survey)



No.           Name               Title
                                                                                                      December 2006

                                            1        2    3   4   5   6   7   8        9   10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31

      Area                                                                                                         S   T G   S G T            S   T G T   S

 1    Mortada A. Alwan        Supervisor

 2    Aref A. Hamoud          Expert
                                            Friday




                                                                              Friday




                                                                                                          Friday




                                                                                                                                     Friday




                                                                                                                                                              Friday
 3    Hazza Ahmad Kodaf       Trainee

 4    Khaldon S. Mohammed     Trainee

 5    Basem Abdullah Abdo     Trainee

 6    Anwar Hasan Al Abdali   Trainee



        S = Landing Site in As Salif                     T = Landing Site in At Taif                G = Landing Site in Al-Gabbanah




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Marine Science Research Center - Hodeidah

                                            Work plan during the period of 23 September 2006 – 19 February 2007
                                              Collecting Data for shrimp study, from the landing sites (Training and Survey)



No.            Name                Title
                                                                                                           January 2007

                                             1 2 3 4 5        6   7   8   9   10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31

      Area                                                    S   T   G   T   S   G                          T   S   G            S   T   G   S   T   G            S   G   T   S   G

 1    Mortada A. Alwan         Supervisor                                                      No Data

 2    Aref A. Hamoud           Expert

 3    Basem Abdullah Abdo      Trainee
                                                     Friday




                                                                                      Friday




                                                                                                                         Friday




                                                                                                                                                          Friday
 4    Anwar Hasan Al Abdali    Trainee
                                                                                               Travel to
 5    Mohamed Hasan Fteini     Trainee                                                          Aden
                                                                                               Travel to
 6    Ibrahim Mohamed Hadi     Trainee                                                          Aden

 7    Ibrahim Mohamed Shokab   Trainee
      Mohammed Mohammed
 8                             Trainee
      makbol



         S = Landing Site in As Salif             T = Landing Site in At Taif                       G = Landing Site in Al-Gabbanah




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Marine Science Research Center - Hodeidah

                                              Work plan during the period of 23 September 2006 – 19 February 2007
                                                    Collecting Data for shrimp study, from the landing sites (Training and Survey)




No.          Name           Title
                                                                                                  February 2007

                                       1   2        3   4   5   6   7   8    9       10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31

      Area                             T            S   G   T   S   G   T                  T     T   G                 T

1     Mortada A. Alwan    Supervisor

2     Aref A. Hamoud      Expert




                                                                                                                                                    Friday
                                           Friday




                                                                            Friday




                                                                                                              Friday




                                                                                                                                     Friday
3     Ibrahim M. Shokab   Trainee
      Mohammed
4                     Trainee
      Mohammed makbol
5     Abdullah Obeid      Trainee

6     Ali Saeed Ali       Trainee

7     Waleid Atheib       Trainee


         S = Landing Site in As Salif                   T = Landing Site in At Taif               G = Landing Site in Al-Gabbanah




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Marine Science Research Center - Hodeidah


References

Helmut Debelius. 1988. Red Sea Reef Guide. IKAN – Frankfurt, Germany. 321pp.
John E. Randall phd. 1996. The diver's guide to Red Sea Reef Fishes
Pete Harrison & Alex Misiewicz. 2000. Reef fishes and corals of the Red Sea
Somnuk Chaitiamvong and Mala Supongpan. 1992. A Guide to Penaeoid Shrimps found in Thai Waters.
      Project: Living Coastal Resources by the ASEAN, P.M.B No. 3 Townsville, Australia. 77pp
ZAJONZ, U, MICHAEL EISINGER, MICHAEL APEL & AREF ABDULLAH HAMOUD (2005, unpublished). Marine
      Biodiversity, Survey and Monitoring Methods Training Manual Report to the Environment Protection
      Authority, Yemen (World Bank-GEF Grant No. TF 023492). 66pp. MacAlister Elliott & Partners Ltd,
      U.K.; Scientific Council for Systems and Applied Science, Sana’a.




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