AP World History: GUIDED READING OUTLINE
Chapter 26 The Earth and Its Peoples (Bulliet) pp.648-671
Directions. Answer all of the following questions on separate paper. Points will be deducted
if it is not typed. Use complete sentences that are concise. See question #1.Use the subtitles
below so that your document is in the style of a "complete sentence" outline.
I) Changes and Exchanges in Africa (Study the map on page 650 prior to answering these questions)
New States in Southern and Inland Africa
1) Which Empire did Shaka create? Where was it located? What methods did he use to
gain control? (answer format: Shaka, creator of the _________ Empire in _________
Africa, established control by ____________________________________________.)
2) Where was the Sokoto Caliphate? What religion was practiced there? Which tribes did it
3) Why was the Sokoto Caliphate significant?
Modernization/Expansion of Egypt and Ethiopia
4) Which European leader's army withdrew from Egypt in 1801?
5) Who was the successor to Napoleon's rule in Egypt? How long did he rule?
6) What methods did Muhammad Ali use to modernize Egypt?
7) How did Muhammad Ali's modernization affect society in terms of population and education?
8) What was the main religion in Ethiopia?
9) Which king united Ethiopia in 1889? How did this affect Ethiopia's boundaries?
European Invaders and Explorers
10) When did Napoleon invade Algeria?
11) After the fall of Napoleon (1815), France invaded Algeria again in 1830. To achieve
victory in this invasion what destructive methods did the French employ?
12) What were two goals of the peaceful European explorers who were privately funded?
13) Who was David Livingstone? What did he discover?
14) Who was Henry Stanley looking for? Where did he find him?
Abolition and Legitimate Trade in Coastal West Africa
15) What happened to trade between Africa and other Atlantic continents during the
period from 1730 to 1780, and during the period from 1780 to 1870? Which
commodities did Africa export?
16) What was the "legitimate trade"? Give an example.
17) What was the most successful new export from West Africa? What was it used for?
18) Who were the recaptives? How did mission life affect them?
19) When and why was the settlement at Liberia established? Why did its population
increase after 1865?
Slaves and Secondary Empires in Eastern Africa
20) Approximately how many slaves were taken from eastern Africa in the 1800s?
What was the destination for two-thirds of these slaves?
21) Where did Tippu Tip create his empire? What did he do to the "once peaceful"
center of Africa?
22) Why is his kingdom considered a secondary empire?
II) INDIA UNDER BRITISH RULE
23) Objective: Trace the development of British rule in India. When did French influence
in India end? When was the Dutch East India Company dissolved? When was the
last Mughal Emperor dethroned? After these events which country controlled India?
24) Who were the nawabs? Describe their political power.
25) Who were the sepoys? what purpose did they serve?
26) What was the "Black Hole of Calcutta"?
The Raj and the Rebellion
27) How did the British Raj (reign) attempt to remake India?
28) Which social class benefited from British rule? Why did the poor suffer even greater
hardships under the British? (Mention the term caste system in your response).
29) How was the Indian textile industry changed by the British between the 18th and 19th
centuries? (Or stated another way, how did cotton exports change with respect to
finished goods versus raw materials?)
30) In 1857, Indian soldiers (sepoys) were forced to tear open ammunition cartridges
with their teeth. Why did this offend both Hindus and Muslims? What rebellion
was caused by this? When did this rebellion occur?
Political Reform and Industrial Impact (Or how the British gained favor with Indian elites)
31) What were durbars, and what was their purpose?
33) Who made up the Indian Civil Service?
(Do you see the elaborate "divide and conquer" schemes the British set up through these means?)
Rising Indian Nationalism
31) Which Indian nationalist organization was formed in 1885? Whose interests were
represented by this organization? Why was it ineffective? Who later came along
to unite all of India's social classes in non-violent resistance against British rule?
III) BRITAIN'S EASTERN EMPIRE
Colonial Rivalries and Trading Networks
32) Locate the Cape Colony and Cape Town on the map on page 650. Why was this
region of strategic importance? (665) Which decision in 1834 alienated the Dutch
Afrikaners from the British?
33) When and why did the Great Trek occur? Where did the Afrikaners go? (To visualize
this, refer again to the map on page 650).
Imperial Policies and Shipping
34) Why was Great Britain considered a reluctant empire up to 1870? (665-666)
35) Why did the British replace their old mercantilist policy with a new free trade policy? (666)
36) What were clipper ships? Why were they innovative and useful?
Colonization of Australia and New Zealand
39) Which European adventurer first explored New Zealand and Australia?
40) What was the native population of Australia at the time of Cook's first visit?
41) What was the native population of New Zealand at this time? What was the name of the
native people of New Zealand?
42) What happened to the native populations of Australia and New Zealand by the late 19th
43) Who were the first British settlers in Australia? How many were there? Why did many
free European settlers flock to Australia in 1851?
New Labor Migrations
44) Britain ended slavery in 1834. Between 1834 and 1870, laborers from which three
regions helped Britain meet its demand for overseas labor?
45) What were contracts of indenture? What motivated these indentured servants to leave
CONCLUSION (One question per paragraph)
46) Summarize the perspective of "continuing exploitation" as stated in this paragraph.
(Hint: paraphrase the statement that begins "In this view...")
47) Summarize the perspective of the next paragraph. (One sentence).
48) Summarize the main idea of the next paragraph which comments on the increase in
African and Asian demand due to industrialization. (One sentence).
49) Between 1750 and 1870, the balance of power shifted to whose favor in Africa and Asia?
What were local cultures like at this time. (One sentence, possibly two)
50) In what ways did African and Asian leaders empower themselves at this time despite
the growth of European hegemony?