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					Workshop in Electronic Commerce
                       Presented by:
       Dr. Kelly Burke – UH Hilo School of Business
 Dr. Eric Jeschke – UH Hilo Computer Science Department

                                 Funded by:
        Department of Business, Economic Development, and Tourism
               University of Hawaii Hilo School of Business
Workshop in Electronic Commerce

   Objectives        The WWW            Payment

Business Problem      Planning          Marketing

  EC Models        Getting Started    Infrastructure

   EC Levels         Site Design     Site Performance

Facts and Forces          Security      Wrap Up
                                                              Kelly Burke
    Previous       Next                       University of Hawaii at Hilo
                        Workshop Objectives
   You are planning to establish an eBusiness in the
    future
   Whether you intend to:
       Plan and develop the site yourself
       Have an employee plan and develop the site
       Plan the site and have an ISP/Host develop it
       Have an ISP/Host plan and develop the site
   You need to understand
       what Electronic Commerce is,
       how it works,
       how to plan and manage it.


                                                                        Kelly Burke
     Previous           Next                            University of Hawaii at Hilo
                    Workshop Objectives

   What is EC?
   What forms can EC take?
   How can EC help?
   How do I get started?
   How do I build a simple web page?
   What is involved in building a full web site?


                                                            Kelly Burke
       Previous     Next                    University of Hawaii at Hilo
                  Workshop Objectives

   What are my options for doing E-Commerce?
   What software and hardware do I need?
   What makes a good web site?
   How do I market my site?
   What concerns should I have for security?
   How can I settle transaction payment?
   What future issues should I be aware of?

                                                      Kelly Burke
      Previous    Next                University of Hawaii at Hilo
  Defining Electronic Commerce


Use of electronic communications facilities to
conduct any part of a business (internal or
external) transaction.




                                                       Kelly Burke
   Previous     Next                   University of Hawaii at Hilo
                              Business Problem

   The world is attracted to the possibility of
    doing EC
        Media frenzy (business publications)
        Appears easy (seems like every one has a
         computer)
        Appears glamorous (look at the tech IPOs)
        Everyone is doing it / we can’t afford to miss out!!
   Opportunity is SEDUCTIVE

                                                                   Kelly Burke
        Previous       Next                        University of Hawaii at Hilo
                                    Business Problem

   Gartner group advises online companies to beware
       Within 2 years, 95 % of online dot.coms will fail
       e.g., boo.com
       e-Toys layoffs
   Misuse or misreading of opportunity can be costly
       e.g., Nor-Cal EMS experience – long term ―ill will‖
   Lesson: opportunity without understanding and
    prioritization of objectives = problem
   Implementation and Integration with business processes
    ARE King
       e.g., Northwest and United Airlines fare wars

                                                                              Kelly Burke
         Previous            Next                             University of Hawaii at Hilo
Models and Applications
       for E-Commerce
Models of Electronic Commerce
   Inter-organizational (B2B)
       EDI, supply-chain interaction, etc.
   Intra-organizational (B2E or BinB)
       E-portals, Lotus notes, etc.
   Business-to-consumer (B2C)
       Direct marketing, e-malls, etc.




                                                              Kelly Burke
     Previous         Next                    University of Hawaii at Hilo
    Models of Electronic Commerce
   Consumer-to-consumer, peer-to-peer (C2C,
    P2P)
        Auctions, electronic flea markets, etc.
   E-marketplaces
        Exchanges
   Non-business
        On-line communities (Geocities), news groups



                                                                   Kelly Burke
        Previous       Next                        University of Hawaii at Hilo
        Taxonomy of Applied Business
                             Models
 Brokerage (http://globalsources.com/)
 Advertising (http://www.altavista.com/)
 Infomediary (http://www.job-search-engine.com/)
 Merchant (http://www.etoys.com/)
 Manufacturer (http://www.hp.com/)
 Affiliate (http://s1.amazon.com/)
 Community (http://geocities.yahoo.com/)
 Subscription (http://prodigy.com/)
 Utility (http://prodigy.com/)


                                                                    Kelly Burke
       Previous        Next                         University of Hawaii at Hilo
                        E-Business Initiatives

   E-Commerce— selling more goods via the Web
   E-care for customers— providing all kinds of customer
    support on-line
   E-care for business partners— dedicated services
  providing faster, better information for these important groups
 E-care for employees— improving their effectiveness by
  making the right information and services available to them




                                                                    Kelly Burke
        Previous        Next                        University of Hawaii at Hilo
                E-Business Initiatives

   E-procurement— working closely with
  customers and suppliers to improve the
  tendering process and to better administer
  the huge number of transactions involved
 E-marketing communications— using
  the Internet to better communicate marketing
  stance


                                                        Kelly Burke
    Previous     Next                   University of Hawaii at Hilo
                         Electronic Commerce:
                          Planning Framework
   Management
        Strategy, planning, resources, monitoring
   Infrastructure
        Business services, information transfer, content, networks,
         interfaces
   Environmental constituents
        People, policies, technical standards, stakeholder
         organizations
   Business applications
        Catalogs, banking, procurement, auctions


                                                                         Kelly Burke
        Previous          Next                           University of Hawaii at Hilo
              Planning Your EC Path:
  Levels* of E-Commerce Development
         Minimal online presence
         On-line catalog
         On-line transactions
         Automated value chain
         Market site
         Super market site



*Adapted from www.dotcomadvisor.com – 2000                   Kelly Burke
           Previous             Next         University of Hawaii at Hilo
     Level I E-Commerce Development:
                            Minimal
         Motivation
             General pressure to ―get on the net‖
             Promote business entity
         Information
             Financial
             HR
         Technology issues
             Simple,
             In-sourced

*Adapted from www.dotcomadvisor.com – 2000                           Kelly Burke
           Previous             Next                 University of Hawaii at Hilo
     Level I E-Commerce Development:
                            Minimal
                                        Human
                                       Resources


                      Purchasing - Production - Sales



                                       Finance


*Adapted from www.dotcomadvisor.com – 2000                              Kelly Burke
           Previous             Next                    University of Hawaii at Hilo
   Level II E-Commerce Development:
                    On-line Catalog
     Motivation
          Pressure from customers and competitors
     Information
          Product
          Service
     Technology issues
          Searching, maintenance (e.g., changing product information)
          Customer personalization
          On-line activity tracking



*Adapted from www.dotcomadvisor.com – 2000                                  Kelly Burke
            Previous            Next                        University of Hawaii at Hilo
   Level II E-Commerce Development:
                    On-line Catalog
                               Human
                              Resources


                  Purchasing - Production - Sales   Marketing



                               Finance


*Adapted from www.dotcomadvisor.com – 2000                            Kelly Burke
           Previous             Next                  University of Hawaii at Hilo
Level III E-Commerce Development:
               On-line Transactions
        Motivation
            Exploit Internet as new channel of distribution
        Information
             Catalog / order
        Technology issues
            Interactivity
            Integration of core businesses functions (e.g., sales and
             accounting)
        Business issues
            Order fulfillment capacity
            Building site traffic

*Adapted from www.dotcomadvisor.com – 2000                                     Kelly Burke
             Previous           Next                           University of Hawaii at Hilo
Level III E-Commerce Development:
               On-line Transactions
                               Human
                              Resources


                Purchasing Production        Sales   Marketing



                               Finance


*Adapted from www.dotcomadvisor.com – 2000                             Kelly Burke
           Previous             Next                   University of Hawaii at Hilo
 Level IV E-Commerce Development:
             Automated Value Chain
     Motivation
          Customers and suppliers ―want‖ more info
          Reduce cycle times and costs
     Information
          Manufacturing, purchasing, shipping
     Technology issues
          Systems integration
          Outsourcing
     Business issues
          Sharing operational information with external entities

*Adapted from www.dotcomadvisor.com – 2000                                    Kelly Burke
            Previous            Next                          University of Hawaii at Hilo
 Level IV E-Commerce Development:
             Automated Value Chain
                               Human
                              Resources


                 Purchasing Production Sales   Marketing



                               Finance


*Adapted from www.dotcomadvisor.com – 2000                       Kelly Burke
           Previous             Next             University of Hawaii at Hilo
      Level V E-Commerce Development:
                          Market Site
     Motivation
          Product comparisons, e.g., http://www.amazon.com
     Information
          Competitor’s products/services
          Third-party product/service comparisons
     Technology issues
          Handling traffic loads
          Monitoring/mining traffic
     Business issues
          Corporate identity
          Objectivity of product comparisons


*Adapted from www.dotcomadvisor.com – 2000                                    Kelly Burke
            Previous            Next                          University of Hawaii at Hilo
 Level V E-Commerce Development:
                     Market Site

                                Human
                               Resources


 Reverse
                 Purchasing     Production Sales   Marketing
Marketing



                               Finance

                                Competitors                        Kelly Burke
      Previous          Next                       University of Hawaii at Hilo
 Level VI E-Commerce Development:
                Super Market Site
     Motivation
          Become the ―preferred‖ one-stop shop (i.e., marketplace), e.g.,
           http://www.sabre.com/
     Information
          Complimentary products/services
     Technology issues
          Integrating associates systems/information
     Business issues
          Managing customer AND supplier suggestions and requirements



*Adapted from www.dotcomadvisor.com – 2000                                    Kelly Burke
            Previous            Next                          University of Hawaii at Hilo
Level VI E-Commerce Development:
               Super Market Site
                          Complimentors
                            Human
                           Resources


 Reverse
                 Purchasing    Production Sales   Marketing
Marketing



                               Finance

                               Competitors                        Kelly Burke
      Previous          Next                      University of Hawaii at Hilo
Facts and Forces
 in E-Commerce
                    Benefits of E-Commerce
   Increase sales
       Distributed market exposure
       Target narrow segments
       Create virtual communities which become targets
   Reduce costs
       Sales inquiries
       Price quotes
       Product availability
   Enhance product value
   Benefits work both ways – selling or buying

                                                                          Kelly Burke
        Previous           Next                           University of Hawaii at Hilo
      Disadvantages of E-Commerce
   High ticket and perishables don’t work
   Costs / benefits can be hard to quantify
   Difficult to integrate with existing databases
   Fast pace of technology change
   Potential legal issues




                                                            Kelly Burke
       Previous      Next                   University of Hawaii at Hilo
           Big Business Survey Results

 Have a systematic, strategic approach to
  internet-based initiatives with top-level
  executive involvement (69% )
 Have full time units dedicated to e-business
  development (47%)
 Extent of e-business functionality isn’t beyond
  basic ―brochure ware‖ (25%)


                                                         Kelly Burke
     Previous      Next                  University of Hawaii at Hilo
           Big Business Survey Results
 E-business accounts for less than 5% of
  revenues (79%)
 Able to process payments online (25%)
 Creation of a convenient buying experience for
  customers on the Web is ―extremely important‖
  (80%)




                                                       Kelly Burke
     Previous     Next                 University of Hawaii at Hilo
On-line Transaction Completion


                  18%

                        Complete transaction

                        Do not complete transaction
           82%



                                                       Kelly Burke
Previous         Next                  University of Hawaii at Hilo
                       Reasons for Abandoning
                            On-line Purchases


              Did not like returns policy       16
                 Had to make phone call         16
              Could not specify product               24
                 Could not find product                          40
                   Web site malfunction                               42
Did not want to enter credit card details                                  46
        Too much information required                                            52

                                            0    20             40                      60
                                                      Percent

                                                                                     Kelly Burke
      Previous                  Next                                 University of Hawaii at Hilo
        Other Common Site Problems
 Navigation problem
 Finding information
       cdw.com
   Site too slow




                                             Kelly Burke
     Previous       Next     University of Hawaii at Hilo
          Forces Driving Online C2C
                          Shopping
 Convenience (75%)
 Cost (38%)
 Context – opportunity to buy at right time
  and right place (e.g., from work when I am
  thinking about that book)




                                                      Kelly Burke
    Previous    Next                  University of Hawaii at Hilo
                    The Typical Online Customer
             Age: 30-49
             Gender: Male
             Family status: Married with children
             Household annual income: $60,000
             Amount spent online per year: $460




Source: Harris Interactive, Nielson Netratings
                                                                        Kelly Burke
                Previous                         Next   University of Hawaii at Hilo
                    The Typical Online Customer
       Completed online transactions: 10
       Online sessions per week: 6
       Unique sites visited per week: 6
       Average surfing session: 31 minutes
       Time per site per week: 32 minutes
       Time online per week: 3 hours, 8 minutes



Source: Harris Interactive, Nielson Netratings
                                                                        Kelly Burke
                Previous                         Next   University of Hawaii at Hilo
The WWW and How it Works
         for E-Commerce
               The “Big Picture” In EC
   WWW architecture
   How the web works
   Internet protocol
   URLs / domain names
   Internet communication




                                                 Kelly Burke
    Previous      Next           University of Hawaii at Hilo
  Client
(Browser)
                         Web Server           Static
    Pages


    Pages
     Pages
      Pages            Commerce Server     Dynamic



                                        Secure
  Product         Shopping
                                      Transaction
  Database          Cart
                                        Server
                                                           Kelly Burke
     Previous   Next                       University of Hawaii at Hilo
                      How the Web Works:
                Uniform Resource Locators

   Browsers differ in the way they are programmed
   But if WWW is to be useful to many – we need standard
    way to identify a resource
   Example:
       http://www.hawaii.edu:2074/~kburke/494/ch_3.ppt
   URLs specify:
       protocol (e.g. http)
       host name (e.g., www.hawaii.edu)
       connection port on host (e.g. 2074)
       path on host to resource (494/ch_3.ppt)

                                                                          Kelly Burke
         Previous           Next                          University of Hawaii at Hilo
                      How the Web Works:
                      The Internet Protocol
 TCP / IP protocol for communicating
 IP addressing
 Network Information Center allocates blocks
       Class  Address         Network part        Host part
         A    18.155.32.5            18            155.32.5
         B    128.171.12.237      128.171           12.237
         C    192.66.12.56       192.66.12            56



                                                              Kelly Burke
         Previous      Next                   University of Hawaii at Hilo
                     How the Web Works:
                          Domain Names
 IP addresses are unfriendly
 Assign a human readable name to IP addresses
 Placed in a distributed, hierarchical, lookup
  system (DNS)
 Domains and Hosts - pahuleka.uhh.hawaii.edu
         Host    ||        Domain                ||
       Host_name Org_name_1 Org_name_2 Org_type
        pahuleka       uhh       hawaii     edu


                                                          Kelly Burke
         Previous    Next                 University of Hawaii at Hilo
                 How the Web Works:
          Protocols and Infrastructure
   Messages versus Packets
        i.e., connection vs. connectionless




HTTP               Message (example: Page)               HTTP

    TCP         Packet 3        Packet 2   Packet 1        TCP

    IP          Packet          Packet     Packet            IP
                                                                      Kelly Burke
     Previous            Next                         University of Hawaii at Hilo
  Client
(Browser)
                         Web Server           Static
    Pages


    Pages
     Pages             Commerce Server
      Pages
                         (Storefront)
                                           Dynamic



                                        Secure
  Product         Shopping
                                      Transaction
  Database          Cart
                                        Server
                                                           Kelly Burke
     Previous   Next   Back to Hosting     University of Hawaii at Hilo
Planning for
E-Commerce
                   Planning Your EC Path
   Identify your organizational objectives
       Want to increase effectiveness of salesperson’s time
   Identify ways EC can help achieve the
    objectives
       Permit customers to order online / salesperson can
        spend time showing new products
   Determine what resources are required
       Need: website, database, computer to process
        orders, trained user to process orders
       Sample planning checklist
                                                                 Kelly Burke
        Previous       Next                      University of Hawaii at Hilo
                    Planning Your EC Path
   Plan the implementation
       Select implementation strategies - e.g.,
        http://strategis.ic.gc.ca/SSG/ir01580e.html#imple
        mentation
       Outsource web site creation / maintenance, plan
        content, train users
   Determine how you will monitor EC results /
    performance
       Require periodic site reports from ISP, measure
        increase in new product sales

                                                                  Kelly Burke
         Previous       Next                      University of Hawaii at Hilo
           Planning Your EC Path:
Levels of E-Commerce Development
   Minimal online presence
   On-line catalog
   On-line transactions
   Automated value chain
   Market site
   Super market site



                                              Kelly Burke
    Previous     Next         University of Hawaii at Hilo
 Getting Started
in E-Commerce
                                   Getting Started
 Identify appropriate business model
 Make or buy?
       Do it in house or use a web site service provider?
   Connecting to the internet
       DSL, ISDN, Fractional T1
   Register a domain name
     Domain names are easier than IP addresses
     Search on Network Solutions' WhoIs directory

    http://www.networksolutions.com/cgi-bin/whois/whois

                                                                 Kelly Burke
        Previous       Next                      University of Hawaii at Hilo
               Obtaining a Domain Name
 Domain names are handled by DNS
  registrars
 There are many web-based services for
  looking up names and/or registering them
 Most of the popular names are taken,
  many by ―squatters‖
 Registration of a name requires an annual
  fee and agreements with third parties for
  name service referral

                                                     Kelly Burke
    Previous        Next             University of Hawaii at Hilo
                      Domain Names.
 Once you’ve registered a name, you have
  first right of renewal, unless…
 Disputes are arbitrated by ICANN; most
  established trademark names and brands
  are recognized




                                                    Kelly Burke
    Previous   Next                 University of Hawaii at Hilo
                                  Getting Started
   Components of the Firm’s Business Model
       Customer value
       Scope of products/services
       Price of value delivered
       Revenue sources
       Connected activities
       Implementation
       Capabilities
       Sustainability of advantage

                                                          Kelly Burke
        Previous       Next               University of Hawaii at Hilo
                             Getting Started
   ―Do-it-yourself‖ website services
       http://www.bigstep.com/
       http://store.yahoo.com/
   Hosting
       Understanding what ―hosting‖ means and your
        alternatives?
       Architecture?
   Target market?
       Market research

                                                            Kelly Burke
     Previous        Next                   University of Hawaii at Hilo
                              What is Involved in
                         Establishing a Web Site?
   Web site considerations
       The services wanted                 Training requirements
       How much your company can           Installation and server
        contribute to the site, from         maintenance
        manpower to electronic content      Programming
       Time to design your site            On corporate site hosting vs.
       Time to create and program           off-site
        your site                           Secure Server for financial
       Extra fees for software              transactions
        development                         Your bandwidth needs
       Fees for off-the-shelf              Your server capacity needs
        applications tools                  Location of your server at the
       The size of the site                 Web company or ISP company
                                             location
                                                                              Kelly Burke
           Previous         Next                              University of Hawaii at Hilo
          Getting Started: Web Hosting
   Identify what you have resources and time to do
   Identify what will be done ―outside‖ the firm
   Identify which external parties will be involved
       e.g., designer, ISP, web host? commerce provider?
   Identify how you will assess their performance
       Decision metrics – e.g., are they reliable?
       On-going performance metrics – e.g., is their ―uptime‖ what
        they claim?




                                                                         Kelly Burke
        Previous          Next                           University of Hawaii at Hilo
                              Getting Started:
                        The Marketing Process
Traditional Process
   Make Product                        Sell Product

        Design,                     Price,             Distribute,
      Procure, Make              Sell, Promote          Service


Value Creation
  Choose Value           Provide Value           Communicate Value
     Segmentation,        Develop Product,
        Selection,           Price, Source,             Promote
    Value Positioning     Distribute, Service
                                                                           Kelly Burke
        Previous          Next                             University of Hawaii at Hilo
Getting Started: Market Research
         Define problem / research objectives

               Develop research plan

                 Collect information

                 Analyze information

                  Present findings

                                                                Kelly Burke
  Previous         Next                         University of Hawaii at Hilo
                       Getting Started:
            Market Research Resources
   AMA
       www.ama.org
   CommerceNet
       www.commerce.net
   National Trade Data Bank
       http://www.stat-usa.gov/tradtest.nsf
   CIA World Factbook
       www.odic.gov/cia/publications
   On-line user survey data from Georgia Tech
       http://www.gvu.gatech.edu/user_surveys/




                                                                  Kelly Burke
     Previous           Next                      University of Hawaii at Hilo
                   Getting Started: Resources
   Hawaii
       State website: http://www.cochawaii.com/
       Dept. of commerce : http://www.state.hi.us/dcca/
       Registering your business:
        http://www.businessregistrations.com/home.html
       Chamber of commerce: http://www.cochawaii.com/
   Small businesses
       SBA: http://www.sba.gov/
       SBA PRO-Net (procurement network):
         • http://www.pro-net.sba.gov/

                                                              Kelly Burke
        Previous         Next                 University of Hawaii at Hilo
                    Getting Started: Resources
   Various (legal, articles, research, policies, etc.)
       http://www.gtlaw.com.au/ecomm/
   Federal government policy
       http://www.ecommerce.gov/
   Description of eFed (federal govt. interagency
    procurement system)
       http://www.sewp.nasa.gov/edi/hanson9711.html



                                                               Kelly Burke
         Previous      Next                    University of Hawaii at Hilo
Web Site Design Issues
      in E-Commerce
                                      Web Site Design
   Navigation
       Intuitive, predictable, consistent
       Longer pages - fewer links
       Site map - especially smaller sites (VISIBLE - TOP?)
         • Category names/descriptions MUST be meaningful
       Searchability - perhaps for large sites BUT 50% more likely to find
        information if no search - why?
         • Searching can be imprecise and frustrating
       Easy to ―quit‖
       Links and ―tabs‖ on top
         • http://www.businessweek.com


                                                                               Kelly Burke
         Previous            Next                              University of Hawaii at Hilo
                      Web Site Design

 Must distinguish between graphics design
  and web site design
 Graphics design: your business image
 Web site design: what’s on your site
 Don’t get these confused!




                                                    Kelly Burke
    Previous   Next                 University of Hawaii at Hilo
                            Graphic Design
   Don’t be tempted to skimp on developing your
    online image-your web site is your online
    storefront!
   Best to hire out the design of the graphics and
    layout, even if you are editing the pages yourself
   Some graphics design companies do web
    design, some do not yet; it may not matter.
   Vector graphics allow you to scale images for
    your use throughout the business: on and
    offline

                                                              Kelly Burke
    Previous       Next                       University of Hawaii at Hilo
                              Web Site Design
   Planning - layout, mapping
   Purpose of site on home page
   What’s new section
   Content should fit the customer
   Style guide
       For consistent content design -especially over time
   Feedback mechanism(s)
       Mailto, forms, request routing, auto responses

                                                                Kelly Burke
        Previous      Next                      University of Hawaii at Hilo
                Designing it Yourself
   KISS philosophy rules: make the design
    easy to navigate!
   Avoid clutter
   Avoid lots of graphics
   Avoid cutesy clip art
   Avoid lots of fonts
   Avoid long pages
   Provide site navigation tools

                                                     Kelly Burke
    Previous    Next                 University of Hawaii at Hilo
                              Web Site Design
 Loading time!!!
 Pictures of some products but not others
 Interactivity
       Forms, object manipulation, applet running
 Error handling - inform user about
 Being able to find out more about a particular
  item by a link in the cart
 Instructions - ordering, interacting, feedback


                                                                Kelly Burke
        Previous       Next                     University of Hawaii at Hilo
                             Web Site Design
 Backgrounds - readability and colors
 Too much white space perceived as
  ―complex‖
 Be aware of screen resolution and position
       ISPs and design gurus use Unix workstations
        with monster monitors
       Typical users have 15‖ monitors
       Design for a ―lowest common denominator‖
        monitor

                                                               Kelly Burke
        Previous      Next                     University of Hawaii at Hilo
                                  Web Site Design
   Place items in frame to:
       Keep them on-screen and
       To make display more effective
         • best banners on Netscape got 4% click-throughs
         • Placed in frames generated 30% click-throughs
       e.g.,
   Use of tables can simulate frames
       e.g., http://www.businessweek.com
   Examples of bad design
       e.g., http://www.webpagesthatsuck.com
                                                                       Kelly Burke
        Previous         Next                          University of Hawaii at Hilo
                               Web Content Design

   Content takes many shapes
       Will change dramatically
       More robust, comprehensive, and usable medium
   Challenges in developing a successful online
    storefront
       Choosing the right software solution for your site
       3 options
         • build your own software
         • purchase a commercial software product
         • rent from a Web host

                                                                    Kelly Burke
        Previous        Next                        University of Hawaii at Hilo
 Security Issues
in E-Commerce
                              Security Issues

     To maintain a successful online business, you
      MUST
      Secure your E-Commerce transactions
      Secure your servers and data
      Formulate, post and follow a customer
       privacy policy



                                                              Kelly Burke
     Previous       Next                      University of Hawaii at Hilo
                    Securing Transactions

    Need to secure communications between client
     (customer at a web browser) and server (your web site
     and beyond)
    What kinds of data need securing?
     Credit card data (card number, expiration date, etc.)
     Personal data (phone #, address, etc.)
     Order data
     Etc.



                                                                   Kelly Burke
     Previous         Next                         University of Hawaii at Hilo
    Secure Communications Mean
 Authentication: want to make sure that each side
  is actually dealing with the right host and not
  some impostor or "man-in-the-middle"
 Integrity: want to make sure that data is not
  altered during transit in any way
 Privacy: want to ensure that data is not snooped
  by a third party in transit
 Problem: how to achieve this on the insecure
  Internet?
                                                          Kelly Burke
    Previous     Next                     University of Hawaii at Hilo
                                 Encryption

 A secret "key" is used to encrypt ("scramble")
  and decrypt ("unscramble") any data passed
  between browser and server.
 The encryption technique and key are chosen
  so that it would be computationally infeasible to
  decipher the data without the key (i.e. break
  the code).


                                                           Kelly Burke
   Previous       Next                     University of Hawaii at Hilo
                                  Encryption

 If the key is kept secret, the "right" encrypted
  data can only be generated by the browser or
  the server. Encrypted data is meaningless to
  snoopers and cannot be altered without
  detection.
 This provides authentication, integrity and
  privacy.


                                                            Kelly Burke
   Previous       Next                      University of Hawaii at Hilo
                       Public Key Cryptography
               Public Keyreceiver                 Private Keyreceiver

            Original     Scrambled              Scrambled          Original
Message                   Message
                                     Internet    Message
            Message                                                Message

          Sender                                                Receiver

               Private Keysender                   Public Keysender

 Digital  Original       Scrambled              Scrambled          Original
                                     Internet
Signature Message         Message                Message           Message

          Sender                                                Receiver
                                                                       Kelly Burke
        Previous            Next                       University of Hawaii at Hilo
               Key Distribution Problem

   Problem: how to get the key to the other party
    over an insecure network like the Internet?
   Answer: public key encryption
   PKE uses two keys: whichever one is used to
    encrypt, the other one must be used to decrypt
   Typically, one key is made public, the other is
    kept secret.
   How does this help?

                                                            Kelly Burke
    Previous       Next                     University of Hawaii at Hilo
                                Session Keys
 If the browser can get the public key of the
  merchant, it could encrypt a one-time session key
  and send it over.
 Then the two sides could use the shared session key
  to encrypt and communicate securely.
 To get the merchant's public key, the server could
  send it over to the browser when it first connects.
 Problem: how does the browser know if it has the
  real public key and not a fraudulent one?
                                                            Kelly Burke
     Previous      Next                     University of Hawaii at Hilo
                             Digital Signatures
   A merchant's public key can be digitally signed.
   A digital signature is a token (a little bit of data)
    attached to the end of the key.
   Using encryption technology, it is possible to verify
    the authenticity of the key by examining the
    "signature".
   If you trust the key signer, you can trust that the
    key is valid.
   Who can be trusted to sign (vouch for) a merchant's
    public key?
                                                               Kelly Burke
       Previous       Next                     University of Hawaii at Hilo
                        Certificate Authority
 A certificate authority is a trusted third party that is
  in the business of signing public keys. A key signed
  by a CA is called a digital certificate.
 A merchant purchases a certificate and puts it on his
  server.
 When a browser makes a connection the certificate
  is downloaded. The browser verifies the signature on
  the certificate and extracts the public key.
 The browser encrypts a session key and sends it to
  the server. Both sides can now securely
  communicate.                                        Kelly Burke
      Previous         Next                        University of Hawaii at Hilo
                            Digital Certificates
 Certificates are available from a number of
  certificate authorities. One of the first, and biggest,
  is Verisign (www.verisign.com)
 Certificates start at about $150 and go up from
  there, depending on the expected use of the
  certificate.
 A certificate is dated and is only good for a certain
  time period. After that date a browser will reject it.
 To keep current, a merchant will need to purchase
  new certificates just before the old ones expire.
                                                               Kelly Burke
      Previous       Next                      University of Hawaii at Hilo
                                        Certificate
   Identifying the holder of a public key (Key-Exchange)
   Issued by a trusted certificate authority (CA)


                Name : “Richard”
                key-Exchange Key :
                Signature Key :
                Serial # : 29483756
                Other Data : 10236283025273
                Expires : 6/18/96
                Signed : CA’s Signature



                                                               Kelly Burke
     Previous        Next                      University of Hawaii at Hilo
                         Securing Your Site

 Disable all nonessential services, programs and
  user accounts
 Use complex passwords and change them
  reasonably often
 Keep up with the latest security bulletins
  (CERT) and software updates



                                                           Kelly Burke
   Previous       Next                     University of Hawaii at Hilo
                         Securing Your Site

 Monitor logs for suspicious activity
 Consider installing a firewall, monitoring
  software and/or secure communications
  software
 Have a periodic professional security audit
 Does your “Host” provide all of this?



                                                           Kelly Burke
   Previous       Next                     University of Hawaii at Hilo
                                Customer Privacy
    What does your company do with the data it collects
     from customers?
     Does not release customer data outside the company, under
      any circumstances, except to legal authorities
     makes names, addresses, etc. available to selected partners
      and third parties
     sells customer data to marketers
 These are all valid policies!
 Need to be up front: formulate a privacy policy, post
  it on your web site and follow it !
                                                                      Kelly Burke
        Previous         Next                         University of Hawaii at Hilo
      Payments
in E-Commerce
       Electronic Payment Protection

 Secure Sockets layer (SSL) or Secure
  Electronic Transaction (SET) protocols
 Certification Authority (e.g.,
  http://www.verisign.com)




                                                     Kelly Burke
    Previous   Next                  University of Hawaii at Hilo
     Secure Electronic Transaction
                   (SET) Protocol
   Cardholder, merchant, CA, payment
    gateway
       All entities have certificates
   Cardholder keeps a security certificate with
    them
       Either in their computer - not mobile - or
       In the form of an ―electronic wallet‖




                                                                 Kelly Burke
     Previous         Next                       University of Hawaii at Hilo
        Secure Electronic Transaction
                      (SET) Protocol
 Cardholder requests purchase from merchant
 Merchant requests from payment gateway:
       Payment authorization
       Payment capture
   Payment gateway obtains
       Authorization from card issuer
       Payment capture information



                                                         Kelly Burke
        Previous       Next              University of Hawaii at Hilo
          IC Card
           Reader                  Customer y
                       Customer x
                           With Digital Wallets
                                                  Certificate
                                                  Authority

 Electronic Shopping Mall

Merchant A    Merchant B                          Payment Gateway

                                                                Protocol
                                                                X.25

                                          Credit Card
                                               Brand


Entities of SET Protocol in Cyber Shopping
                                                                      95
    Secure Electronic Transaction
                  (SET) Protocol

 Merchant sends payment capture request
  to CA
 CA verifies information with acquiring
  (merchant’s) bank
 Merchant receives settlement from
  acquiring bank



                                                    Kelly Burke
    Previous   Next                 University of Hawaii at Hilo
                                      SET vs. SSL
Secure Electronic Transaction (SET) Secure Socket Layer (SSL)
Complex                              Simple

SET is tailored to the credit card   SSL is a protocol for general-
payment to the merchants.            purpose secure message
                                     exchanges (encryption).
SET protocol hides the customer’s    SSL protocol may use a
credit card information from         certificate, but there is no
merchants, and also hides the        payment gateway. So, the
order information to banks, to       merchants need to receive both
protect privacy. This scheme is      the ordering information and
called dual signature.               credit card information, because
                                     the capturing process should be
                                     initiated by the merchants.
                                                                      Kelly Burke
         Previous             Next                    University of Hawaii at Hilo
                           Electronic Payment
   Debit cards
       Used in B2C
   Electronic funds transfer (EFT) / E-checks
       Electronic version of paper checking
       Combines certificates and signatures with payment
       Used in B2B
       ePay by Visa, SafeCheck (see www.echeck.org)



                                                                 Kelly Burke
         Previous       Next                     University of Hawaii at Hilo
           eCheck Process Flow




                                         Kelly Burke
Previous   Next          University of Hawaii at Hilo
                                 Electronic Payment
   Stored-value cards, e-cash (e.g., Mondex,
    CyberCoin, VisaCash)
       permit cost-effective ―micropayments‖
       mondex smart cards
         •   battery operated card readers
         •   swipe card
         •   value transferred to retailer’s terminal
         •   no authorization required




                                                                        Kelly Burke
        Previous              Next                      University of Hawaii at Hilo
                           Electronic Payment

   Electronic wallet (Fujitsu, Mondex)
       can be used for Internet transaction settlement
       handheld terminal
       values are transferred from customer’s account to
        customer’s card or
       to merchant’s account via either the card or a Web
        connection
       can store values for different currencies
       http://www.mondex.com/

                                                                  Kelly Burke
         Previous       Next                      University of Hawaii at Hilo
                           Electronic Payment

   Closed e-cash system
       Values recharged (transferred) only by bank
       VisaCash
   Open e-cash system
       Values can be transferred between cards
       Mondex
   eMail-grams
       Pay money to or receive money from anyone with email
       e.g., www.Paypal.com


                                                                      Kelly Burke
     Previous           Next                          University of Hawaii at Hilo
Marketing Issues
 in E-Commerce
               Marketing Your Web Site

 One-to-one marketing
 Customer service
 Banner ads
 Search engines




                                                 Kelly Burke
    Previous       Next          University of Hawaii at Hilo
                    One-to-One Marketing
   Relationship marketing
       ―Overt attempt of exchange partners to build a
        long term association, characterized by
        purposeful cooperation and mutual dependence
        on the development of social, as well as structural,
        bonds‖
   ―Treat different customers differently‖
       Able to change the manner its products are
        configured or its service is delivered, based on the
        individual needs of individual customers

                                                                  Kelly Burke
        Previous       Next                       University of Hawaii at Hilo
                       One-to-One Marketing
   Customer loyalty
       Purchase behavior
       One of the most significant contributors to
        profitability
       Increase profits; strengthen market position; become
        less sensitive to price competition; increase cross-
        selling success; save cost, etc.
       Real world examples
         • 1-800-FLOWERS
         • Amazon.com
         • Federal Express (FedEx)

                                                                 Kelly Burke
         Previous          Next                  University of Hawaii at Hilo
                     One-to-One Marketing
   Building and maintaining customer loyalty
       Maintain continuous interactions between
        consumers and business
       Make a commitment to provide all aspects of the
        business online
       Build different sites for different levels of
        customers
       Willing to invest capital, both human and financial,
        in the information systems, to insure continuous
        improvement in the supporting technology as it
        becomes available
                                                                   Kelly Burke
        Previous        Next                       University of Hawaii at Hilo
                      One-to-One Marketing
   Building and maintaining customer loyalty
       Make a commitment to use the information collected
        about customers in an ethical manner
       Realistic managerial expectations in the payback
        period and cost recovery
       Set acceptable standards for response time in
        customer service (24-48 hours); Use intelligent
        agents to expedite and standardize responses
        whenever possible
       Ability to change and customize information and
        services quickly and inexpensively is a must
                                                                 Kelly Burke
         Previous       Next                     University of Hawaii at Hilo
                     One-to-One Marketing
   Customer service
       A new look and feel

                                Install Web servers
 Put the burden on the           which allow each
   customer to treat a           customer to create
problem or inquiry and         individual web pages
  receive information         that can be customized
        bit by bit              to record purchases
                                  and preferences

                                                           Kelly Burke
        Previous      Next                 University of Hawaii at Hilo
                      One-to-One Marketing
   Customer service
       Information can be directed to the customer efficiently
       Creation of a database which records purchases,
        problems, and requests is facilitated
       Information can now be traced and analyzed for
        immediate response
       If customer service options and solutions do not
        maintain the same level of excitement and interaction
        as the advertising and sales presentations, the level of
        intensity declines and the vendor runs the risk of losing
        customers
                                                                     Kelly Burke
          Previous        Next                       University of Hawaii at Hilo
     Implementing Customer Service
                     in Cyberspace
   Product Life Cycle
       Phase 1. Requirements : assisting the customer
                                to determine needs
       Phase 2. Acquisition :  helping the customer to
                                acquire a product or
                                service
       Phase 3. Ownership :    supporting the customer on
                                an ongoing basis
       Phase 4. Retirement :   helping the client to
                                dispose of a service or
                                product
                                                                Kelly Burke
         Previous      Next                     University of Hawaii at Hilo
    Implementing Customer Service
                    in Cyberspace
   Types of Customer Service Functions
       Answering customer inquires
       Providing technical and other information
       Letting customers track accounts or order
        status
       Allowing customers to customize and order
        online



                                                             Kelly Burke
    Previous        Next                     University of Hawaii at Hilo
Implementing Customer Service
                in Cyberspace

               Companies
            understand their
            customers’ needs
            and buying habits
                 better

                                   Companies
  Doing
                                 customize their
 business
                                future marketing
 via Web
                                     efforts
                                                        Kelly Burke
 Previous   Next                        University of Hawaii at Hilo
                Tools of Customer Service
   Personalized Web Pages
       Used to record purchases and preference
       Direct customized information to customers efficiently
   Chat Room
       Discuss issues with company experts; with other
        customers
   E-mail
       Disseminate product information, conduct customer
        inquiry correspondence
   FAQs
       Not customized, no personalized feeling, no contribution to
        relationship marketing
                                                                       Kelly Burke
     Previous           Next                           University of Hawaii at Hilo
                   Tools of Customer Service
   Help Desks and Call Centers
       A comprehensive customer service entity
       EC vendors take care of customer service issues
        communicated through various contact channels
       Telewebs
         • combines Web channels, such as automated e-mail reply,
           Web knowledge bases and portal-like self service with call
           center agents or field service personnel
       Internet
         • a medium of instant gratification
         • demand for both prompt replies and proactive alerts
                                                                         Kelly Burke
        Previous         Next                            University of Hawaii at Hilo
                   Marketing Your Web Site:
                               Banner Ads
   People don’t scroll sideways
       Get everything on one screen width
   Studies find the lower right corner to be most
    effective location for an ad
       http://www.webreference.com/dev/banners/
 Placing banners last is more effective than
  first
 Placing banners top and bottom is more
  effective than just top

                                                              Kelly Burke
        Previous       Next                   University of Hawaii at Hilo
                    Marketing Your Web Site
   Web malls
       Host sites and provide shopping ―portals‖
       e.g., http://store.yahoo.com/
   Search engines
       Passive strategy – ―meta‖ tags
         • e.g., www.sba.gov
       Active strategy – submit site to search engines
         • e.g., http://www.submitit.com/
   E-mail list rental
       Opt-in mailing lists (direct marketing)
       e.g., http://www.netcreations.com/main?page=welcome


                                                                          Kelly Burke
         Previous            Next                         University of Hawaii at Hilo
                     Publicizing your site
   Simply registering your domain name will not
    bring people to your ―door‖
   The ugly reality of search engines: pay to play
   How to get found in a billion web pages? Get
    mentioned on TV
   Use your ―bricks‖ to promote your ―clicks‖
   Develop relationships with other online sites




                                                               Kelly Burke
     Previous       Next                       University of Hawaii at Hilo
Infrastructure Issues
     in E-Commerce
     Infrastructure Requirements

   Internet service
   Site content
   Site Design
   Site / Commerce functionality
   Database




                                                    Kelly Burke
Previous       Next                 University of Hawaii at Hilo
  Client
(Browser)
                         Web Server           Static
    Pages


    Pages
     Pages             Commerce Server
      Pages
                         (Storefront)
                                           Dynamic



                                        Secure
  Product         Shopping
                                      Transaction
  Database          Cart
                                        Server
                                                           Kelly Burke
     Previous   Next                    Back to Hosting
                                           University of Hawaii at Hilo
                           Web Hosting Issues

   Bandwidth
   Capabilities and specifications
   Firewall system
   Wireless delivery
   Buy, rent, or lease
   Maintenance, upgrade, and service of the equipment




                                                             Kelly Burke
     Previous       Next                     University of Hawaii at Hilo
               Developing E-Commerce
                         Infrastructure

   Hosting the site
   Obtaining a domain name
   Graphics design and web site design
   Web site programming
   Secure transactions and purchasing




                                                      Kelly Burke
    Previous     Next                 University of Hawaii at Hilo
                                         Hosting

   Where will the site be hosted?
       Your premises
       Leased space at an ISP
       Rack mounted server at a professional hosting
        company
       Managed host at a hosting co.
       Custom outsourced site
       ―Template‖ outsourced site (e.g. Yahoo
        storefront)

                                                              Kelly Burke
     Previous        Next                     University of Hawaii at Hilo
                     Hosting: Doing it Yourself

       Buy servers and network equipment and lease
        bandwidth (―pipes‖) from Telco
       Advantages:
        Complete control over all aspects of site, including
         security, functionality, integration with existing business
         systems
        Cost savings once level of online commerce reaches a
         certain threshold
       Disadvantages:
        IT costs to manage equipment, systems
        Initial capital investment
        Physical infrastructure impact
                                                                             Kelly Burke
          Previous          Next                             University of Hawaii at Hilo
         Hosting: Lease Space at an ISP
       Rent space for your equipment to be hosted at an ISP
       Pay bulk bandwidth charges to ISP
       Advantages:
        Complete control over site
        Smaller start up expenses
       Disadvantages:
        Must manage your own systems, usually remotely
        Cost of purchasing equipment
        Harder to integrate with existing business systems


                                                                              Kelly Burke
           Previous         Next                              University of Hawaii at Hilo
                         Hosting:
Lease Equipment at Hosting Vendor

 Rent equipment at a professional hosting
  company
 Pay bulk bandwidth charges (sometimes rolled
  into hosting package)
 Advantages:
       Aging equipment is not your problem
       Smaller start up costs
   Disadvantages:
       Must manage your own system

                                                              Kelly Burke
         Previous      Next                   University of Hawaii at Hilo
                      Hosting:
Managed Host at Hosting Vendor
 Rent use of a system at a hosting vendor
 System is managed for you
 Can mix and match services (web, email,
  ordering, etc.)
 You are responsible for site content
 Advantages:
          System is managed for you
          You maintain control over site design, functionality
       Disadvantages:
          Ongoing expenses

                                                                           Kelly Burke
        Previous           Next                            University of Hawaii at Hilo
                                Hosting:
                   Custom Outsourced Site

 Outsource the development of the web site
 May be a different entity than hosting co.
  (e.g. consultant)
 Advantages:
          Custom designed site
          No web development or system management
           required on your part
       Disadvantages:
          Less control over costs

                                                             Kelly Burke
        Previous        Next                 University of Hawaii at Hilo
                                  Hosting:
                   Template Outsourced Site

 Use pre-designed ―templates‖ for
  building site from dot-coms catering to
  small business owners
 Advantages:
          Very low cost (some free!)
       Disadvantages:
          Cookie-cutter feel to sites
          Little control over site or design
          Customer service?

                                                                Kelly Burke
        Previous         Next                   University of Hawaii at Hilo
Web Programming: Implementing
     the Software Infrastructure

 Most E-Commerce sites are not a static
  collection of web pages, but dynamic
  interactive systems
 Need to develop the software infrastructure
  that drives the site: databases, business
  rules, secure ordering, web user interfaces,
  etc.
 Q: Do you need to interface your site to
  your existing IT infrastructure? Database?

                                                      Kelly Burke
    Previous    Next                  University of Hawaii at Hilo
    Web Programming: Implementing
         the Software Infrastructure
 There are ―turnkey‖ solutions for implementing
  some of this software infrastructure
 Unless you have a simple business, these probably
  won’t be satisfactory
 Reality check: custom software development takes
  time and money
 Programmers are not artists, and vice versa! Don’t
  hire programmers to write web pages and don’t hire
  webmasters to write sophisticated software.
 Don’t hire either one to design your corporate
  image!
                                                           Kelly Burke
     Previous     Next                     University of Hawaii at Hilo
Web Programming: Implementing
     the Software Infrastructure
   Electronic storefront must contain:
       A merchant system or storefront that provides
        the merchant’s catalog with products, prices
        and promotions
       A transaction system for processing orders
        and payments and other aspects of the
        transaction
       A payment gateway that routes payments
        through existing financial systems primarily
        for the purpose of credit card authorization
        and settlement

                                                              Kelly Burke
     Previous        Next                     University of Hawaii at Hilo
Web Programming: Implementing
     the Software Infrastructure
   Purchase a suite of software that claims to integrate
    storefront functions into a single box
       iCat Corp.’s Electronic Commerce Suite and Commerce
        Publisher
       Open Market’s Transact and LiveCommerce
        http://www.openmarket.com
       Microsoft Corp.’s Site Server Commerce Edition
       IBM Corp.’s Net. Commerce Pro
       Saqqara Systems’ StepSearch Professional




                                                                     Kelly Burke
        Previous        Next                         University of Hawaii at Hilo
       Web Programming: Implementing
            the Software Infrastructure
      Electronic Commerce Suites
        • Offer merchants greater
          flexibility, specialization,
                                                      Catalog              Catalog
          customization and integration in
                                                    Application            Database
          supporting complete front and              Customer
          back-office functionality                Management,            Customer
                                                   Registration,           Database
                                                  Profiles, Service         Order
                                                                           Database
                       Internet                   Order Capture,
                                                                          Fulfillment
                                                   Completion
   Web                                                                     Systems
  Browser                                 Web         Payment
                                                     Processing            Payment
                                         Server                            Database
                                                  (SET & Purchase
                                                       Order)              Financial
Open Market E-Commerce Server Architecture                                 Network
                                                                                      Kelly Burke
            Previous              Next                                University of Hawaii at Hilo
Web Programming: Implementing
     the Software Infrastructure

   Making a Web catalog into a multimedia
    extravaganza
      Not easy and expensive

      Lower end systems : begin at $25,000

      High end systems : $250,000 to $2

       million



                                                       Kelly Burke
    Previous     Next                  University of Hawaii at Hilo
Secure Transactions and Ordering

 Payment handling: one of the easiest things to
  outsource
 To handle it on your own web server, you need to
  obtain a certificate from a Certificate Authority (CA)
 Certificates allow authenticated, encrypted, trusted
  connections
 Certificates expire and must be renewed for an
  annual fee
 You probably should be concerned about secure
  transactions even if payment handling is
  outsourced
                                                                Kelly Burke
     Previous        Next                       University of Hawaii at Hilo
                         Review of
          E-Commerce Infrastructure

   Hosting the site
   Obtaining a domain name
   Graphics design and web site design
   Web site programming
   Secure transactions and purchasing




                                                      Kelly Burke
    Previous     Next                 University of Hawaii at Hilo
                             Review of
              E-Commerce Infrastructure

   Putting together a successful E-Commerce
    web site requires different skills from
    different people:
        Graphics designer
        Webmaster
        Programmer(s)
        Other business entities: marketing, etc.
   Few people have all these effective skills

                                                                    Kelly Burke
        Previous       Next                         University of Hawaii at Hilo
                             Review of
              E-Commerce Infrastructure
       The good news:
        there are many choices for hosting and
        outsourcing the infrastructure development
       Your choices will depend on:
          How central is the E-Commerce aspect of your business
           to the core focus of your business?
          What is your current investment in IT and existing
           infrastructure?
          What are your available resources for capital
           investment?



                                                                       Kelly Burke
        Previous          Next                         University of Hawaii at Hilo
         Outsourcing: Pros and Cons
   Pros
       Faster
       Resources readily available
       Competitive - many alternatives
       You can focus on what you do best
       You’ll learn as you go
   Cons
       Can be costly
       Always risky – need to do research before and
        monitor performance during and after

                                                              Kelly Burke
    Previous         Next                     University of Hawaii at Hilo
Monitoring Website Performance
   Log details
       Server log
       Access log
   Visit details
       Hits
       What pages do they visit?
       How long do they spend on a page?
       What ―areas‖ of a page did they scan?
       Relationship of hits/pages visited/orders
   Feedback survey
                                                                Kelly Burke
     Previous        Next                       University of Hawaii at Hilo
Future Developments to Watch
         For in E-Commerce
           Future Developments in EC
   Public portals
       Content
       Community
       Commerce
       e.g., http://www.ivillage.com
   Exchanges
       Industry sponsored
       Private
       Public

                                                        Kelly Burke
     Previous         Next              University of Hawaii at Hilo
              Future Developments in EC
   Enterprise E-Portals
       E-Commerce systems and legacy systems focus
        on transactions,
       Auctions focus on bringing together buyers and
        sellers
       Operational systems track orders and inventory.
       E-Portals tie together all of these disparate
        systems
       Enabling the flow of information to employees,
        customers and partners


                                                                Kelly Burke
        Previous      Next                      University of Hawaii at Hilo
              Future Developments in EC
   Wireless / Mobile Web Access
       Technologies
         • handhelds (e.g., http://www.palm.com/)
       Applications
         • CRM, commerce
       Implications
         • customer may shop your physical store, see long lines, order
           online for delivery to home (another state?)
         • have to cross market EC capability (e.g., in store marketing)



                                                                         Kelly Burke
        Previous          Next                           University of Hawaii at Hilo

				
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