Primary Flight Controls by malj



Primary Flight Controls
   1. Elevator – pitch or lateral
   2. Ailerons – roll or longitudinal
   3. Rudder – yaw or vertical
Secondary Flight Controls
   1. Elevator trim
   2. Aileron trim
   3. Rudder trim
   4. Trim Aid Device (TAD)
Propulsion System
   1. Provides power for thrust
   2. provides power for aircraft systems
            a. Electrical
            b. Hydraulics
            c. Fuel Pumps
Hydraulics System Operates
1. Landing Gear
2. Main Gear Doors
3. Flaps
4. Speed Brake
5. Nose Wheel Steering
Electrical System Provides
   1. Electrical power for aircraft systems
   2. Primary power from starter/generator
   3. Backup power from auxiliary battery
   4. External pwer through receptacle in left fuselage
Fuel System Provides
   1. Fuel storage
   2. Fuel feed to engine
   3. Automatically maintains balance between tanks
Environmental System Provides
   1. Acceptable cockpit environment in wide range of conditions
   2. Automatic temperature and pressurization control
Communications Systems:
   1. Radio Management Unit (RMU)
            a. UHF transceiver
            b. VHF transceiver
            c. Transponder
   2. Intercom system
   3. Emergency Locator Transmitter (ELT)
Navigation Systems:
   1. VHF navigation
   2. Distance Measuring Equipment (DME)
   3. Global Positioning System (GPS)
   4. Altitude Heading Reference System (AHRS)
   5. Naval Aviation Collision Warning System (NACWS)
Primary Instruments:
   1. Electronic Attitude Director Indicator (EADI)
   2. Electronic Horizontal Situation Indicator (EHSI)
   3. Airspeed Indicator
   4. Altimeter
   5. Vertical Speed Indicator (VSI) – also known as Vertical Volocity Indicator (VVI)
Standby Instruments:
   1. Airspeed indicator
   2. Attitude indicator - Electric
   3. Altimeter
   4. Turn and Bank Indicator - Electric
   5. Magnetic Compass
Canopy does the following:
   1. Side Opening
   2. Provides pressure and weather seal
   3. Fracturing system for ejection and emergency ground egress
   4. Protects pilots from birdstrike
Ejection Seat :
   1. Provides means of safe escape for student and instructor
   2. it is a Martin-Baker ejection seat
   3. Seat ejected from cockpit by gas cartridges
   4. Altitude provided by rocket motor fired at top of seat rails


Aircraft Flight Controls:
   1. Primary controls are manually operated using mechanical linkages
   2. Secondary controls are electromechanically operated and controlled
Aileron System :
   1. Has five components
            a. Left and Right aileron
            b. Two control stick
            c. Push-pull rods
            d. Bellcranks
            e. Component functions (?)
   2. Has a ground adjustable trim tab
   3. Balance
            a. Is mass balanced
            b. Regulates control pressures
            c. Prevent control flutter
            d. Improve control stability
Elevator System :
   1. Has seven components:
           a. Elevator
           b. Two control sticks
           c. Push-pull (interconnect) rods
           d. Bellcranks
           e. Elevator cable
           f. Downsprings
           g. Bobweight
                    i. Provides heavier stick force when G-loading increases
                   ii. Enhances control feedback to prevent overstressing the aircraft
   2. Forward stick causes a nose low and deflects elevator down… same for opposite
   3. Weights are installed in both elevator horns for balance
Rudder System:
   1. Has seven components:
           a. Rudder
           b. Two sets of rudder pedals
           c. Rudder cables
           d. Pulleys
           e. Bellcranks
           f. Tie rods
           g. Centering springs
   2. Has a handcrank located on the lower center console for positioning
   3. with left pedal deflection:
           a. static pressure increases on the left side of vertical stabilizer
           b. pushes tail right forcing nose to yaw left… right pedal does opposite
   4. Balancing achieved with weights in the rudder trim horn forward of hinge line
Trim System – Electromechanical:
   1. Purpose:
           a. Allows pilot to maintain primary control without applying constant force
           b. Reduces workload and fatigue
           c. Prevents over controlling
   2. Trim controls Roll / Pitch / Rudder trim
   3. Trim Interupt
           a. Pressing and holding
                    i. Interrupts power to trim actuators
                   ii. Disengages Trim Aid Device (TAD)
                  iii. Illuminates TRIM OFF annunciator
           b. When released, power is restored to actuators, TAD remains disengaged
   4. Trim Control
           a. Front and rear cockpit have control panels
   5. Trim Disconnect
           a. Switch labeled NORM and TRIM DISCONNECT
           b. When TRIM DISCONNECT is selected, entire trim system is turned off
                    i. TRIM OFF and TAD OFF will illuminate on annunciator panel
   6. Trim power supply and circuit breakers are located on the Battery Bus panel
           a. AIL/EL TRIM – aileron and elevator systems
           b. RUD TRIM – rudder trim system
Trim Aid Device (TAD)
   1. Assists pilots in maintaining directional trim by automatically adjusting rudder
       trim to compensate for airspeed and power changes
   2. TAD Components – computer inputs to the rudder system based on:
           a. PITCH RATE
           b. ALTITUDE
           c. AIRSPEED
           d. ENGINE TORQUE
   3. TAD Operation
           a. Inputs pre-calculated takeoff settings
           b. No inputs made until 80 KIAS and no Weight on Wheels (WOW)
           c. Pilot trim inputs are still required to keep properly trimmed
           d. Pilot inputs are additives to TAD settings
           e. The operation of the TAD is contolled by the TRIM AID switch
           f. When TAD is turned off, a green TAD OFF annunciator illuminates
           g. When the trim interrupt button is pressed, the switch will move to off
           h. The trim aid switch must have power to system to stay on
           i. Restore operation by moving switch to TRIM AID
Gust Lock
   1. prevents damage to the primary flight controls
   2. located only in front cockpit
   3. elevator will be in the nose down position


Hydraulics System
   1. Is a CLOSED-LOOP system
   2. fluid is preassurized to 3000 ± 120 psi
   3. how it works:
          a. pump produces hydraulic pressure
          b. electrical selector valve opens and releases pressure to operate actuator
          c. actuator uses mechanical force to move the desired aircraft component

Devices operated by the Primary Hydraulics System :
   1. Landing Gear and Main Landing Inboard Doors
   2. Flaps
   3. Speed Brake
   4. Nose Wheel Steering (NWS)
Service Bay
   1. If the indicator rod shows FULL (AC) or FULL (AD), system is fully serviced
   2. if outside of these areas, notify maintenance
Engine Driven Pump
   1. source of 3000 ± 120 pounds of pressure
   2. once power exceeds 1800 psi it is used to power :
           a. NWS
           b. Landing Gear
           c. Flaps
           d. Speed Brake
Engine Driven Pump 2
   1. located in engine compartment
   2. drive by engine accessory gearbox
Engine Driven Pump 3
   1. distributes pressure to the reservoir in the Power Package
   2. individual selector valves in the Selector Manifold
   3. Emergency System
Reservoir Piston
   1. reservoir provides pressurized fluid back to the pump
   2. fluid pressure going back to the pump must be reduced (3000 ± 120)
   3. piston steps down the return side of the reservoir to 50 psi
A Pressure Release Valve operates at 3250 – 3500 psi to help avoid damage.

1. A Slide Valve isolates hydraulic pressure from the engine-driven pump through the
   power package from the rest of the system when the landing gear emergency
   extension handle is pulled.
2. Pulling the emergency extension handle activates the emergency system and the slide
   valve moves to the closed position.
3. The main hydraulic system is then isolated and the emergency accumulator pressure
   is released to extend the landing gear and flaps
4. this prevents the hydraulic pump pressure from energizing any components except the
   nose wheel steering actuator
5. When the landing gear emergency extension handle is pulled, maintenance must reset
   the extension handle and emergency selector manifold.

Selector Manifold:
    1. located in hydraulic service bay
    2. contains an assembly of 5 electrical selector valves
Electrical Selector Valves:
    1. connects to an actuator that physically moves
    2. four valves in the hydraulic system:
            a. landing gear
            b. main inboard gear doors,
            c. flaps
            d. speed brake
  1. electrical signal sent to selector manifold
  2. selector manifold opens the appropriate electrical selector valve
  3. hydraulic pressure moves through the primary lines to the respective actuator
  4. the increased hydraulic pressure activates the actuators
  5. the actuators will extend forcing the system to work

Engine / Systems / NACWS Display
   1. the display is placarded HYDR PRESS and has an analog and digital counter
   2. the scale colors are :
           a. Green :        2880 – 3120 psi
           b. White :        1800 – 2880 (where green starts)
                             3120 – 3500 (where green ends)
                             1800 – 3500 TOTAL COUNTER
           c. Amber :        1700 – 1800 (where white starts)
                             3500 – 3600 (where white ends)
                             0 – 1790 and 3510 – 4100 TOTAL COUNTER

HYDR FL LO – annunciator light indicating RESERVOIR IS BELOW ONE QUART
           There is an audible tone with this light.

Emergency Hydraulic System
  1. it is independent from primary hydraulic system
  2. pressurized at engine startup
  3. used for emergency extension of the landing gear / flaps (after the gear)
  4. used under three circumstances :
          a. primary hydraulic system failure
          b. engine failure
          c. battery bus failure
  5. once used, the LG and Flaps can not be retracted until reset on the ground
          a. Also called Emergency Package
          b. No Pump
          c. Emergency Accumulator – where it gets it pressure
          d. Accumulator Bellows – compresses helium gas in emergency accumulator
  7. After the engine starts, the primary system keeps emergency package pressurized
      through a one-way check valve.
  8. Compressed helium provides PRESSURE WITHOUT ELECTRICAL POWER
  9. There are two selector valves :
          a. One for landing gear
          b. One for flaps
  10. the hydraulic lines are SEPARATE AND INDEPENDENT to ensure gear and
      flap operation
  11. Pressure Release Valve – automatically releases after 3500 psi
  12. Check Valve – prevents back flow from the emergency system to main system
          a. if there is a leak within the emergency package, a hydraulic fuse allows a
              maximum volume of 20-30 cubic inches (one pint) to pass and then shuts
              off any further flow to the emergency system.

EHYD PX LO – Emergency Accumulator is below 2400 ± 150 psi
          Gives a MASTER CAUTION and Audible Tone.
Landing Gear System
   1. Power
         a. Requires power from the hydraulic system
         b. Fully retractable tricycle landing gear
         c. Hydraulically actuated, electrically sequenced, mechanically opearated
         d. Circuit breaker LDG GR CONT on battery bus in front cockpit
   2. Components
         a. Four mechanically operated doors (nose doors, outboard main doors)
         b. Two hydraulically operated doors
         c. Each gear leg is an oleopneumatic shock absorber with folding strut
   3. Normal extension and retraction sequence takes approx six seconds

Controls and Indications :
   1. one landing gear control handle in each cockpit
   2. position indicator lights
   3. an unsafe gear aural warning tone
   4. gear position indicator (depicts three types of info about the LG)
           a. the extension or retraction is complete
           b. the landing gear and/or gear doors are in-transit
           c. the landing gear main inboard doors are open
   5. A red light in the gear handle (depicts two things)
           a. Main gear inboard doors are not closed
           b. PCL is approaching idle with gear handle up
   6. Wheel Indicator Lights (the three red and green ones) indicates :
           a. Gear or gear doors (main only) are in transit
           b. PCL is approaching idle and gear is up
           c. Green light only displays when gear is down and locked
   7. Ensure airspeed is 150 KIAS or below before extending the gear
   8. Aural Warning (three conditions) :
           a. Gear handle not down, PCL below mid-range, airspeed below 120 KIAS,
               flaps UP or TO
           b. All gear not indicating down and locked with flaps LDG
           c. there is a weight on wheels with the gear handle not down

Emergency Gear Extension Notes
  1. Must be below 150 KIAS
  2. Once down, it can’t be retracted
  3. will have three green and two red lights because of the inboard doors
  4. the selector valve is mechanically activated (must pull handle)
  5. extension time will take longer than 5-6 seconds

   1. Split Flaps – with inboard and outboard flaps
   2. Flaps TO – greatest amount of lift with minimal drag – shortens TO ground run
   3. Flaps LDG – maintain approach path while reducing speed – shortens landing roll
   4. FLAP CONT – battery bus circuit breaker
   5. System included:
          a. Two selector valves
          b. An emergency extension selector solenoid
          c. A flap actuator
          d. A flap torque tube (one for all flaps)
          e. Associated microswitches
   6. below 150 KIAS before operating flaps to maintain control
   7. Normal flap operation is unavailable if:
          a. Battery Bus Failure
          b. Aux Battery is the only source of power
   8. As flaps extend, the nose will Pitch Up (flaps cannot be visually confirmed)

Speed Brake System
   1. Allows you to decelerate (increases drag)
   2. Increases decent rate without increasing airspeed
   3. SPEED BRAKE – generator bus circuit breaker
   4. switch is located on the PCL (indicator light illuminates if on)
   5. Operational Constraints :
          a. Will not extend if flaps are already extended
          b. Once extended, will remain until :
                   i. Switch is moved forward
                  ii. Flaps are extended to LDG or TO
                 iii. PCL to MAX
   6. Responds to whoever makes the last input

Nose Wheel Steering (NWS)
   1. Three methods of steering on the ground
          a. Differential braking
          b. NWS
          c. Use of the rudder
   2. NWS – Generator Bus Circuit Breaker
   3. NWS is more sensitive. Allows 12° in either direction
   4. Parts of NWS
          a. Rotary Actuator – mechanically turns the nose wheel strut
          b. Selector Control Valve – provides hydraulic pressure to actuator
          c. Servo Valve – lever moves to turn the rotary actuator
          d. Centering Valve – returns wheel to centered position (before retraction)
   5. WARNING – engaging NWS at high taxi speeds can result in directional control
      problems due to increased sensitivity
Wheel Brakes
  1. Use an independent hydraulic system
  2. the master cylinders receive fluid from a reservoir
  3. each brake unit is a disk brake with six pistons and two disks
  4. pilot applying most force determines braking – stronger pilot wins!

Parking Brake
   1. prevents return of fluid to brake lines when pulled


VOR / ILS Introduction
   1. T-6 has the capability to navigate via VOR and fly VOR or ILS approaches
   2. A remotely mounted navigation receiver processes signals provided by antennas
   3. Controls and display is available to both pilots
VOR Frequencies
   1. VOR stations are line-of-site and range varies with altitude and receiving aircraft
   2. VORTAC stations transmit with a pairing scheme
   3. DME info from the VOR/DME or VORTAC is processed by a DME receiver
VOR Types
   1. VOR stations transmit beams called radials
   2. some VOR stations add DME information
   3. VORTAC facilities are collocated VOR and TACAN stations
           a. Provide VOR azimuth, TACAN azimuth and TACAN distance
VOR Radials
   4. VOR station broadcasts signal in every direction
   5. 360° of radials are available
   6. the 360° radial is oriented to magnetic north
   7. each radial represents a magnetic course away from the station
ILS Signals
   1. ILS is composed of three distinct signals
           a. Localizer – guidance to runway centerline
           b. Glideslope – maintain proper approach angle
           c. Marker Beacons – indications of progress on approach path
DME Operation
  1. DME equipment sends paired signal pulses on radio frequencies
  2. received by a ground station and retransmitted back to the aircraft
  3. Measures time required for the signals round trip
  4. Calculates the SLANT RANGE distance in nautical miles

Flight Instruments – three systems :
    1. Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS)
            a. Two five inch displays : EADI and the EHSI
            b. Attitude Heading and Reference System (AHRS)
    2. Air Data System (ADS)
            a. Three electronic instrument displays (EIDs)
                    i. Airspeed Indicator
                   ii. Altimeter
                  iii. Vertical Speed Indicator (VSI)
            b. All these receive data from the ADS and display it
    3. Standby Flight Instruments
            a. Standby airspeed indicator
            b. Standby attitude indicator
            c. Standby altitude indicator
            d. Turn and bank indicator
            e. Magnetic compass
    Sensor Data Sources :
            1. Tow independent pitot static systems (primary is on right wing)
            2. Primary static ports on both sides of rear fuselage
            3. ADC does not provide information corrected for temperature or position
            4. Secondary instruments receive info from secondary sources
    Fuses :
            1. EHSI and EIDs – generator bus
            2. ADC – generator bus
            3. EADI – battery bus
            4. Standby Instruments – battery bus
                 NOTE: with battery bus failure, stby inst are powered by aux batt
                 Activated with AUX BAT switch on the right forward panel

Electric Flight Instrument System (EFIS)
   1. Has two modes : Enroute & Approach (mode selection automatic based on RMU)
   2. Enroute Mode Displays four things :
            a. Roll scale and sky pointer
            b. Pitch scale
            c. Horizon line
            d. Aircraft reference symbol ( \/\/ )
            e. NOTE: E Mode 2 displays three white rectangles and rate of turn pointer
   3. EADI Unusual Attitude Displays :
            a. Pitch angle exceeds +30° or -20°
            b. Roll angle exceeds 65°
            c. Only the attitude presentation remains
            d. When it returns to +25° or -15° and < 60° bank, normal EADI resumes
 4. Recovery Cheverons
        a. Used to indicate nearest direction for level recovery
        b. Between 40° and 85° nose low
        c. Between 50° and 85° nose high
 5. EHSI Basic Indications (five formats available)
        a. Directional Gyro (DG) only
        b. HSI compass rose
        c. HSI map
        d. ARC compass rose
        e. Expanded navigation map
 6. EHSI Enroute Readouts
    (upper left corner)
        a. Distance to next selected point
        b. Aircraft ground speed
        c. Time to go to next point
    (upper right corner)
        d. Selected navigation course
        e. Aircraft heading dialed in under heading bug
    (left side vertical letters)
        f. Primary navigation source selected
    (bottom corners)
        g. Bearing pointer source and distance for number 1 and 2 nav sources

Air Data System (ADS)
    1. Vertical Speed Indicator (VSI)
           a. Indicates climbs or decents from 0 to 6000 feet per minute (FPM)
           b. Positive indicate a climb, negative indicate decent
    2. Air Speed Indicator (ASI)
           a. Indicates airspeed, mach number, and max operating airspeed (VMO)
           b. Increments of 5 below 316 KIAS
           c. Increments of 10 above 316 KIAS
           d. Mach indications begin at .40 Mach (blanked below this)
           e. As altitude increases, VMO decreases
    3. Altimeter
           a. Displays baro-corrected altitude
           b. 10,000 foot counter covered below 10K feet
           c. Baro set data displayed in Millibars (MB) and inches of mercury (IN HG)
    4. Failure Annunciations
           a. if ADC output is bad or a channel fails, EID shows ADC A (or B) FAIL
           b. if ADC fails, ADC FAIL will be displayed
    5. All instrument power is on Generator Bus

Standby Instruments
   1. Airspeed indicator displays airspeed from 60 to 350 KIAS
   2. secondary pitot info is not fed to the ADC
   3. if power goes out you will see a red flag on the attitude indicator
   4. You will get indications within 6° for at least nine minutes
   5. Red dot on the turn-slip indicator indicates info not available
   6. Instrument power is from battery bus – if failed, from Aux Batt.


Angle of Attack (AOA) Computer
   1. Computer is heart of system
   2. receives inputs from an AOA vane, flap position microswitch, and extended LG
   3. AOA computer sends signals to :
          a. AOA gauge
          b. AOA indexer
          c. Stick Shaker
   4. AOA Gauge Indications
          a. Maximum range – 4.9 units – white triangle
          b. Maximum endurance – 8.8 units – white diamond
          c. Normal Approach Speed – 10 to 11 units – green arc
          d. Stall – 18 units – red radial
   5. the higher the number, the greater the angle of attack
   6. Stick Shaker – provides warning at approx 5 to 10 knots above stall (15.5 units)
                      -- Small electric motor drives eccentric weight
                      -- No audible stall warning indications in the T-6
   7. AOA Tests
          a. Low Test – sets gauge to 10.5 units ± 0.25 units
          b. High Test – same as low and activates stick shaker
   8. AOA circuit breaker – battery bus
   9. AOA vane anti-ice – AOA HT – generator bus
   1. displays normal acceleration (G load) from 6 to +10 Gs
   2. has two resettable pointers to indicate maximum deviation above and below 1G

   1.   Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) in 24 hour format
   2.   Local time (LT) – selectable in 12 hour format
   3.   Resettable elapsed time (ET) – from 1 second to 99 hours, 59 minutes
   4.   Count down – from 1 second to 1 hour with flashing display alarm
   6.   The clock is hotwired to a hot battery bus with no circuit breaker.

Central Warning / Caution / Advisory and Annunciator System (CWS)
   1. In both cockpits
   2. Aural tone for major aircraft systems
   3. Tones are routed to pilot’s helmet audio connections
          a. LG position warning – 5 tones per second
          b. Overspeed warnings – 5 times per second
          c. NACWS landing mode – 6 tones per second for two seconds
          d. NACWC Enroute Mode – 3 tones per second for two seconds
          e. Master Warn/Caution/Fire – Decaying Tone
   4. CWS circuit breaker – redundant on battery and generator busses
              AURAL WARN – on the generator bus

   Flight Data Recorder
       1. Integrated Data Acquisition Recording System (IDARS) includes :
              a. Flight data recorder
              b. Data transfer module receptacle
              c. Recorder / maintenance annunciator
              d. Recorder maintenance connector
              e. All functions are software controlled
       2. located in left avionics bay (important side)
       3. Green MAINT annunciator indicates 80% full


Voice Communications
   1. both UHF and VHF capabilities
   2. primarily controlled by the Radio Management Unit (RMU)
   3. UHF backup is available if RMU fails or battery bus is lost

   1. UHF – 225.00 to 399.975, total of 7000 channels (GUARD is on 243.00)
   2. VHF – 118.00 to 151.95, total of 1358 channels (manually tune GUARD 121.50)
   3. Backup UHF has up to 20 preset channels

Modes for backup radio
  1. Main (MN) mode – TX and RX on selected frequency
  2. Both (MN and GD) – monitors on both, TX on selected frequency
Circuit Breakers
    1. UHF COMM – battery bus (power for backup also available through aux batt)
    2. VHF COMM – generator bus

Interocmmunications System (ICS)
    1. only available in rear cockpit
    2. HOT means both microphones are active
    3. COLD means you have to key in to talk
    4. Ground Crew Interphone location is on the left side of the fuselage
          a. This works anytime battery switch (either cockpit) is turned on
    5. AUDIO circuit breaker – battery bus

Audio Control Panel
   1. UHF / VHF comm.
   2. VHF nav (NAV)
   3. Marker beacon (MARKER)
   4. DME
   5. Interphone volume (INTPN)
   6. VHF Nav signals – V for voice only, R for recognition (morse), BOTH for both
   7. ALTN / NORM switch – ALTN bypasses amplifier and provides raw audio feed
   8. Marker Beakon – HI / LO is sensitivity level, TEST is to test the beacon function
   9. AUDIO – battery bus circuit breaker

Radio Management Unit (RMU)
   1. Five readouts
         a. UHF radio
         b. VHF radio
         c. Transponder
         d. Blank
         e. VOR navigation and DME
   2. Default location of cursor box is UHF field
   3. Transfer switches – white diamond
   4. Mode switches – white rectangle
   5. RMU – circuit breaker on generator bus (in both cockpits)

UHF Comm Display
  1. Active frequency
  2. Standby frequency
  3. Mode annunciator
  4. Memory channel annunciator
  5. Transmit message (TX)
  6. Squelch indicator (SQ)
  7. Guard mode annunciator (GUARD)

UHF Direct Tuning
  1. press UHF Comm transfer key for at least 3 seconds
  2. standby freq disappears and the cursor moves to the active freq spot
  3. use tuning knobs to get freq
UHF Backup
  1. REMOTE will display in the UHF field if the backup is enabled

UHF Memory
  1. can store 20 frequencies in memory
  2. when changing a memory, you must press ACCEPT to save the channel
  3. when you insert a freq, you will delete the last entry in the list

VHF Comm
  1. very similar to UHF comm.
  2. doesn’t monitor Guard, must be set to 121.50 in VHF radio

  1. Only has 10 memory channels (not 20)
  2. Can use the DME Hold if needed (DME freq in bottom left when enabled)

VHF NAV Display
  1. NAV indicator
  2. Current NAV frequency
  3. Standby frequency
  4. DME Hold annunciator

Transponder Modes
   1. STBY – no information is transmitted
   2. ON – only transponder code is transmitted
   3. ALT – both transponder code and altitude information are transmitted

Transponder Display
   1. ATC identifier
   2. Current transponder code (squak)
   3. Selected mode

Transponder Special Functions
   1. Stores a single code for recall (usually 1200 for VFR)


VOR / ILS – display available to both pilots

VOR Types
  1. stations transmit radials in all directions
  2. VOR receiver detects signals and displays radials on the EHSI
  3. some stations add DME (indicated as VOR/DME)
  4. VORTAC facilites
         a. Are collocated VOR and TACAN stations
         b. Provide VOR azmuth, TACAN azmuth, and TACAN distance (DME)
VOR Frequencies
  1. 108.0 to 117.95 MHz
  2. Line-Of-Site restrictions
  3. range varies with altitude
  4. there is VORTAC frequency pairing

  1. Arrow is on EHSI

VOR Antenna
  1. two combined NAV / GS / ILS on vertical stabilizer
  2. the signal is passed to and processed by the VHF NAV receiver in right av bay

ILS Signals
    1. Localizer – runway centerline – freq range of 108.10 to 111.95 MHz
    2. Glideslope – approach angle – freq range of 329.15 to 335.00 MHz
    3. Marker Beacon – progress on glideslope – ALWAYS ON 75 MHz

EHSI ILS Display
  1. Localizer distance and time-to-go (replaces VOR data in upper left corner)
  2. LOC (replaces VOR as navigation source)
  3. Glideslpoe scale displayed on right side

EADI ILS Display
  1. Glideslope scale and pointer on right
  2. Localizer and lateral position indicator on bottom
  3. Marker beacon annunciator at lower right corner (OM)

Circuit Breakers
    1. VHF NAV – generator bus
    2. EHSI and RMU – generator bus
    3. EADI – battery bus

DME Operation
  1. Line of site operation for up to 199 nautical miles (depending on altitude)
  2. antenna on bottom front and receiver in right av bay
  3. DME is automatically tuned when facility is DME equipped – info displayed :
         a. Distance (slant range)
         b. Groundspeed and time-to-go (if selected)
  4. DME – generator bus

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