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Appendix A Glossary Access – A way or means of entry. low percentage of the site covered by Residential subdivisions and commercial buildings. or industrial sites are usually required to have direct access to a street or Auto-Oriented Village – A form of highway. Good access recognizes traffic development that corresponds to the safety as well as providing direct Auto-Oriented Major Activity Center passage for police, fire and emergency pattern, except that it is scaled to fit vehicles. within a village setting. Accessory Use – An activity or Average Annual Growth Rate – structure incidental or secondary to the Growth rates are calculated as annual principal use on the same lot. averages and represented as percentages. For example the average Affordable Housing – Housing units annual population growth rate in where the occupant is paying no more Chesapeake between 1985 and 1995 than 30 percent of gross household was 4.5%. The average annual growth income for housing costs, or up to 40 rate is not to be confused with the percent including taxes and utilities. annual rate of change measured at a one-year interval. Amenity – Characteristics of a development that increase its Best Management Practices – That desirability to a community or its combination of conservation measures, marketability to the public. Amenities structures, or management practices include swimming pools, tennis courts, that reduces or avoids adverse impacts bicycle and pedestrian paths, of development on adjoining site’s land, landscaping that compliments the water or waterways, and water bodies. environment, attractive site design, etc. Bioretention Area – Bioretention areas Auto-Oriented Major Activity Center are landscaping features adapted to – An area of development designed with treat stormwater runoff on the an emphasis on customers who use development site. They are commonly automobiles to travel to the site, rather located in parking lot islands or within than those with an emphasis on small pockets in residential land uses. pedestrians. This type of development Surface runoff is directed into shallow, usually has more than the minimum landscaped depressions that contain a required number of parking spaces. The combination of mulch and prepared soil main entrance of retail/commercial sites to act as a surface water filter. These is oriented to the parking area. In many depressions are designed to incorporate cases, buildings will have parking many of the pollutant removal between the street and the building. mechanisms that operate in forested Other typical characteristics are blank ecosystems. walls along much of building facades, more than one driveway to sites, and a Forward Chesapeake 2026 Comprehensive Plan Appendix A- Page 1 Blueway – A network of water trails CBPA – Acronym for Chesapeake Bay (e.g. rivers, streams, canals) linked Preservation Area. through integrated, coordinated plans. Like greenways, blueways provide Cluster Development – A development protection to natural systems and pattern in which residential, commercial, sensitive areas; enhance alternate industrial and institutional uses, or transportation options; increase combinations thereof, are grouped recreational and healthy lifestyle together, leaving portions of the land options; and help to coordinate undeveloped. Such development usually transportation planning and land use involves density transfer where unused development. allowable densities in one area are permitted in another. A zoning Brownfield – Abandoned, idled, or ordinance may authorize such underused industrial and commercial development by permitting smaller lot facilities where expansion or sizes if a specified portion of the land is redevelopment is complicated by real or kept in permanent open space. perceived environmental contamination. Compact Development – An Buffer – An area of land, including alternative development pattern landscaping, berms, walls, fences, and characterized by a dense growth pattern building setbacks, that is located inside a well-defined boundary, dense between land uses of different character but pedestrian-scaled neighborhoods; and is intended to mitigate negative activity nodes around transit lines, and impacts of the more intense use on a significant redevelopment and infill of residential or vacant parcel. older areas and waterfront. Business Improvement District – A Conditional Use Permit – A use special assessment district in which category of a zoning ordinance wherein property owners agree to have an the governing body may, on a case-by- additional charge placed on their tax bill case basis and subject to certain in order to fund special activities such as conditions, allow land uses that may capital improvements or business have some characteristics which are promotion. incompatible with adjacent uses. When the governing body reserves the right to CIB – Acronym for Capital grant such permits, guidelines or Improvements Budget. The CIB is a standards need not be contained in the schedule for financing and constructing zoning ordinance but the public major public improvements and facilities health/safety morals and general needed by a locality. The CIB covers a welfare and the public objectives of five-year period, is updated annually, zoning must be considered. Requests and extended another year into the for conditional use permits require public future. It includes major projects such notice and hearings before they can be as road and utility improvements which adopted. are expensive, have a long life and may need to be planned well in advance. Conservation District – A district The estimated annual operating cost of established to provide a means of operating and maintaining the facilities conserving and area’s distinctive to be constructed or acquired is also atmosphere or character by protecting included in the CIB. Because such or enhancing its significant architectural projects often generate land or cultural attributes. development, the CIB is an important tool for implementation of the Comprehensive Plan. Forward Chesapeake 2026 Comprehensive Plan Appendix A- Page 2 Density – The average number of GIS – Acronym for Geographic families, persons, or housing units Information System. GIS is a computer situated on a unit of land; usually system that stores and links non-graphic expressed as dwelling units per acre. attributes or geographically referenced data with graphic map features to allow Dispersed Development – An a wide range of information processing alternative development pattern and display operations, as well as map characterized by absence of urban production, analysis, and modeling. growth boundaries; unrestricted water and sewer line extensions throughout Greenway – A linear park, alternative the locality; possible loss of rural transportation route, or open space landscape; no new major activity areas conservation area approved by the are developed; the need for greater locality that provides passive environmental management at the recreational opportunities, pedestrian development plan stage; no new transit and/or bicycle paths, and/or the development; limited access conservation of open spaces or natural management on roadways; and some areas, as indicated in a greenway plan. redevelopment of older neighborhoods and areas. HRSD – Acronym for Hampton Roads Sanitation District – HRSD, a political Easement – The right to use property subdivision of the Commonwealth of owned by another for specific purposes Virginia, was created by public or to gain access to another property. referendum in 1940 to eliminate sewage For example, utility companies often pollution in the tidal waters of the have easements on the private property Chesapeake Bay. HRSD’s mission is to of individuals protect and enhance the environment through quality wastewater treatment in Floodplain – A relatively flat or low the Hampton Roads area. HRSD returns land area adjoining a river, stream, or treated effluent to nature in a way that watercourse which is subject to partial will continue to nurture the region’s or complete inundation; or, an area delicate ecosystems. subject to the unusual and rapid accumulation of runoff or surface waters Hydric Soil – Soil that is saturated, from any source. flooded, or ponded long enough during the growing season to develop an Floor Area Ratio (FAR)– A formula for anaerobic condition in the upper part. determining permitted building volume as a multiple of the area of the lot. FAR IDA – Acronym for Intensely Developed gives developers flexibility in deciding Area. This is a designated whether to build a low building covering redevelopment area within the most of the lot or a high building Chesapeake Bay Preservation Area covering only a small part of the lot, so Overlay District which incorporates long as the total allowed ratio is not portions of the RPA and RMA. The IDA exceeded. as displayed on the IDA Map includes areas in which development was Gateway – An entrance corridor that concentrated as of January 21, 1992, so heralds the approach of a new landscape that little of the natural environment and defines the arrival point as a remains, and where at least one of the destination. three conditions as described in Section 26-516.E of the Chesapeake City Code Gentrification – The rehabilitation and existed as of that date. resettlement of low- and moderate- income urban neighborhoods by middle- and high-income professionals. Forward Chesapeake 2026 Comprehensive Plan Appendix A- Page 3 Impermeable Soil – Soil that does not Lot – The basic development unit. An readily permit fluids or gases to pass area with fixed boundaries, used or through. intended to be used by one building and any accessory building(s) and usually Infill – The utilization of vacant land in not divided by a highway, street or previously developed areas for buildings, alley. parking lots, recreational facilities and other uses. Low-Impact Development – This environment is characterized by very Infrastructure – Public facilities and low-intensity land uses primarily related governmental services which support to natural resources use and diffuse the population of a community. The recreational development, relatively low term primarily includes the physical land values, relatively minor public and attributes of a loclality (e.g. streets, private capital investment, and/or water and sewer lines, parks), as well as relatively major biophysical development the services (e.g. police and fire limitations. protection). Major Activity Center – A form of land Landscaping – The modification of the use characterized by regional scale landscape for an aesthetic or functional retail, commercial, and industrial purpose. It includes the preservation of development that is oriented toward a existing vegetation and the continued recognizable corridor or area. Major maintenance thereof together with activity centers can be automobile- grading and installation of minor oriented or transit-oriented. structures and appurtenances. Mixed-Use Development – The Lane Mile – A unit of distance development of a tract of land or corresponding to actual lengths of building or structure with two or more roadway lanes, utilized for various different uses such as but not limited to transportation planning and engineering residential, office, retail, public, or purposes, including traffic management entertainment, in a compact urban form and capital cost planning. that can result in measurable reductions in traffic impacts. Level of Service Standard – An indicator of the extent or degree of Node – An identifiable grouping of uses service provided by, or proposed to be subsidiary and dependent upon a larger provided by, a facility based on, and urban grouping of similar or related related to, the operational uses. characteristics of the facility. Level of service shall indicate the capacity per Open Space – Land and water areas unit of demand for each public facility. retained for use as active or passive recreation areas or for resource Light Rail – Street cars or trolley cars protection in an essentially undeveloped that typically operate entirely or state. substantially in mixed traffic and in non- exclusive, at-grade rights-of-way. Ordinance – A law or regulation set Passengers typically board vehicles from forth and adopted by a governmental the street level (as opposed to a authority, usually a city or county. platform that is level with the train) and the driver may collect fares. Vehicles Overlay District – An overlay district is are each electrically self-propelled and a specific area that has been designated usually operate in one or two-car trains. to receive special consideration due to a unique or special circumstance. Overlay districts are typically found in the zoning Forward Chesapeake 2026 Comprehensive Plan Appendix A- Page 4 ordinance and provide supplemental Plat – A document, prepared by a development standards for unique registered surveyor or engineer, that circumstances. Examples of overlay delineates property lines and shows districts in the Zoning Ordinance include monuments and other landmarks for the the Chesapeake Bay Preservation Areas purpose of identifying property. and the Fentress Overlay District. Overlay districts may also be included in Point-Source Pollution – In reference the Comprehensive Plan as “policy to water quality, a discrete source from overlays” to provide special provisions to which pollution is generated before it a defined area. The Transportation enters receiving waters, such as a sewer Corridor Overlay District (TCOD) is an outfall, a smokestack, or an industrial example of a Comprehensive Plan waste pipe. Conversely, nonpoint overlay. source pollution is less definable and usually covers broad areas of land, such Pedestrian-Oriented Development – as agricultural land with fertilizers that Development which is designed with a are carried from the land by runoff, or primary emphasis on the street sidewalk automobiles. or connecting walkway access to the site and building, rather than on automobile Proffer – A condition voluntarily offered access and parking lots. In pedestrian- by a developer that limits or qualifies oriented developments, buildings are how the property in question will be typically placed relatively close to the used or developed. Proffers are made street and the main entrance is oriented under the terms of conditional zoning to to the street sidewalk or a walkway. lessen the possible negative effects of Although parking areas and garages an unrestricted zoning. The conditions may be provided, they are not given proffered must relate to the rezoning primary emphasis in the design of the itself and be in accord with the site. community’s comprehensive plan. Terms of any proffer must be submitted Permeable Soil – Soil having pores or in writing by the developer prior to a openings that permit liquids or gases to public hearing before the governing pass through. body. Upon approval, the conditions (proffers) become part of the rezoning Planned Unit Development (PUD) – and remain in effect even if the property An area for which a unitary development is sold. Proffers are subject to plan has been prepared indicating, but enforcement. not being limited to, the following land uses: open space, on-site circulation for Redevelopment – The process of both pedestrians and vehicles, parking, developing land which is, or has been, setbacks, housing densities, building previously developed. spacings, land coverage, landscaping, relationships, streets, building heights, Rezoning – An amendment to the accessory uses, and architectural zoning ordinance. Ordinarily, rezonings treatment. A PUD may also include can take three forms: (1) a cluster developments, which are a comprehensive revision or modification development design technique that of the zoning text and map; (2) a text concentrates buildings in a specific area change in zone requirements; and (3) a on a site to allow the remaining land to change in the map, e.g., an area zoned be used for recreation, common open for residential use is rezoned to space, or preservation of commercial use. Applications for environmentally sensitive areas. rezonings are reviewed by the locality’s planning staff and planning commission. After receiving a recommendation from the planning commission and holding a Forward Chesapeake 2026 Comprehensive Plan Appendix A- Page 5 public hearing, the governing body may Setback – The minimum distance by approve or disapprove an application for which any building or structure must be a rezoning. separated from a street right-of-way or lot line. Riparian Corridor – The area adjacent to a river, lake or stream, consisting of Site Plan – A plan, to scale, showing the area of transition from an aquatic uses and structures proposed for a ecosystem to a terrestrial ecosystem parcel of land as required by the and including vegetative and wildlife regulations. Includes lot lines, streets, normally associated with a riparian building sites, reserved open space, habitat. buildings, major landscape features – both natural and manmade – and RMA – Acronym for Resource depending on requirements, the Management Area. The RMA is an area locations of proposed utility lines. within the Chesapeake Bay Preservation Area Overlay District that includes those Special Taxing District – A subarea of lands contiguous to the inland boundary a community designated by city of the RPA which have a potential for ordinance to assess payments for degrading water quality or diminishing construction or installation of public the functional value of the RPA, if not facilities that primarily benefit the properly managed. The RMA is depicted property owners within the district. on the CBPA map and includes, but is not limited to, the following land use Sprawl – Low-density land-use patterns categories: floodplains; highly erodible that are automobile-dependent, energy soils, including steep slopes and highly and land consumptive, and require a permeable soils; and non-tidal wetlands very high ratio of road service to not included in the RPA. development served. The landscape created by sprawl generally has four RPA – Acronym for Resource Protection dimensions: (1) a population that is Area. The RPA is an area within the widely dispersed in low-density overall Chesapeake Bay Preservation development; (2) rigidly separated Area Overlay District that includes: all homes, shops, and workplaces; (3) a tidal wetlands; non-tidal wetlands network of roads marked by huge blocks connected by surface flow and and poor access; and (4) a lack of well- contiguous to tidal wetlands or water defined thriving activity centers such as bodies with perennial flow; shorelines; downtowns or town centers. Most other and a one hundred (100) foot vegetated features usually associated with sprawl buffer around each such feature and (e.g. the lack of transportation choices, around all water bodies with perennial relative uniformity of housing options, or flow. The buffer area is designed to the difficulty of walking) are the results retard runoff, prevent erosion and filter of these conditions. non-point source pollutants from runoff. The buffer area is also designed to Stormwater – The flow of water which achieve a level of 75% reduction in results from precipitation and which sediments and 40% reduction in occurs immediately following rainfall or a nutrients. snow melt. Rural Development – An alternative Streetscape – An area that may either development pattern characterized by abut or be contained within a public or sparsely developed areas where the land private street right-of-way or accessway is primarily used for farming, forestry, that may contain sidewalks, street resource extraction, very low-density furniture, landscaping or trees, and residential uses (e.g. one unit per 3 similar features. acres or less), or open space uses. Forward Chesapeake 2026 Comprehensive Plan Appendix A- Page 6 Strip Development – A pattern of that would have gone to other taxing commercial development located along bases and then uses the “tax one or both sides of a street which is increments” to finance the development generally one lot in depth and is costs. characterized by multiple and relatively closely spaced driveways, low open Trail – A way or path designed for and space and landscaping rations, and high used by pedestrians, equestrians, floor area ratios. cyclists using non-motorized bicycles, and others. Trails may include Subdivision – The division or redivision trailheads, which can consist of parking of a lot, tract, or parcel of land by any lots, drinking fountains, restrooms and means into two or more lots, tracts, signage. parcels, or other divisions of land, including changes in existing lot lines for Traffic Calming – A concept the purpose, whether immediate or fundamentally concerned with reducing future, of lease, transfer, or ownership, the adverse impact of motor vehicles on or building or lot development. built-up areas. Usually involves reducing vehicle speeds, providing more Suburban – The low- to medium- space for pedestrians and cyclists, and intensity development patterns which improving the local environment. surround the downtown or other more intense, urban areas of the city. Transit – Passenger services provided by public, private, or nonprofit entities, Sustainable Development – which may include the following Development that maintains or transportation modes: commuter rail; enhances economic opportunity and rail rapid transit; light rail transit; light community well-being while protecting guideway transit; express bus; and local and restoring the natural environment fixed route bus. upon which people and economies depend. Sustainable development Transit-Oriented Major Activity meets the needs of the present without Center – A form of development that compromising the ability of future maximizes investment in transit generations to meet their own needs. infrastructure by concentrating the most intense types of development around Swale – An elongated depression in the transit stations and along transit lines; land surface that is at least seasonally development in such areas is designed wet, is usually heavily vegetated, and is to make transit use as convenient as normally without flowing water. Swales possible. This type of development is direct stormwater flows into primary characterized by moderate and high- drainage channels and allow some of the density housing concentrated in mixed- stormwater to infiltrate into the ground use developments, making it convenient surface. for residents and employees to travel by transit, bicycle, foot, or car. Tax Increment Financing – A tool used by cities and other development Transit-Oriented Village – A form of authorities to finance certain types of development that corresponds to the development costs. The public purposes transit-oriented major activity center of TIF are the redevelopment of blighted pattern, except that it is scaled to fit in a areas, construction of low- and village setting. moderate-income housing, provision of employment opportunities, and improvement of the tax base. With TIF, a city “captures” the additional property taxes generated by the development Forward Chesapeake 2026 Comprehensive Plan Appendix A- Page 7 Tree Canopy – The area within the Wetland – Lands transitional between circumference of the drip line of the terrestrial and aquatic systems where tree. Canopy-generating trees are of the water table is usually at or near the the deciduous variety whose mature surface or the land is covered by shallow height and branch structure provide water. For purposes of this definition, foliage primarily on the upper half of the wetlands must have the following three tree. The purpose of a canopy tree is to attributes: (a) have a predominance of provide shade and protection to hydric soils; (b) are inundated or adjacent ground areas. saturated by surface or ground water at a frequency and duration sufficient to USGS – Acronym for United States support a prevalence of hydrophytic Geological Survey. The USGS, created vegetation typically adapted for life in by an act of Congress in 1879, is the saturated soil conditions; and (c) under sole science agency for the Department normal circumstances support a of the Interior. The USGS serves the prevalence of such vegetation. nation as an independent fact-finding agency that collects, monitors, analyzes, Workforce Housing – Workforce and provides scientific understanding housing is typically considered housing about natural resource conditions, for individuals whose income is between issues, and problems. Localities rely thirty and eighty percent of the area heavily on topographic maps produced median income. by the USGS, which show all principal physical features of an area, including Zoning – The legislative process by elevations. which a local government classifies land within the community into areas and Vehicle Miles Traveled (VMT) – VMT districts referred to as zones. Zoning is a transportation planning term. regulates building and structure Average vehicle miles traveled per day dimensions, design, placement, and use. are collected for various roadways based Requirements vary from district to on continuous traffic counts for specified district, but they must be uniform within periods. This indicator shows, in districts. combination with other transportation indicators, the extent of reliance upon automobile transportation. Assessing population growth alongside increases in vehicle miles traveled shows the extent to which the VMT growth results from more people driving or from people driving more miles. Village – A small, compact center of predominantly residential character but with a core of mixed-use commercial, residential, and community services. It often incorporates local-scale economic and social functions that are integrated with housing. A village typically has a recognizable center, discrete physical boundaries, and a pedestrian scale and orientation. This term does not necessarily refer to the form of incorporation of a municipality and is often smaller than a municipality. Forward Chesapeake 2026 Comprehensive Plan Appendix A- Page 8
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