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FACILITY PERFORMANCE EVALUATION

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					      (REVISED) CELE ORGANISING FRAMEWORK ON EVALUATING QUALITY IN
                           EDUCATIONAL SPACES1



Background and purpose of the Framework

    The following statement summarises the conclusions of experts participating in three OECD
meetings in 2005-06 on “Evaluating Quality in Educational Facilities”:

          “All individuals have a right to a quality educational facility, a physical space that
         supports multiple and diverse teaching and learning programmes and pedagogies,
         including current technologies; one that demonstrates optimal, cost-effective building
         performance and operation over time; one that respects and is in harmony with the
         environment; and one that encourages social participation, providing a healthy,
         comfortable, safe, secure and stimulating setting for its occupants.”

     Governments have a responsibility to invest in quality educational spaces because the physical
environment can have a significant impact on the present and future professional, educational and
personal lives of students, staff and their communities. This Framework highlights the important role of
quality spaces in increasing access and equity for all in education, improving educational effectiveness
and promoting acquisition of key competencies, and optimising building performance and operation.

      The school is an essential component of a diverse and complex knowledge economy, and it must
respond to its changing needs and demands. In essence, we evaluate educational spaces to measure their
responsiveness to these changing needs and demands. Are governments prepared to challenge
traditional paradigms of school design, construction and operation – and invest in new ones – in order to
improve their schools to meet the needs of tomorrow’s knowledge economy?

     The objective of the CELE Organising Framework for Evaluating Quality in Educational Spaces
and the accompanying matrix is to demonstrate the inter-relationships over a facility’s life cycle
between the broad policy issues that both shape and respond to quality issues in educational spaces;
current conceptions of what defines “quality” in educational spaces; the demands and benefits of the
space to its numerous users and other stakeholders; and appropriate methods that can be used to evaluate
different aspects of quality.

     This Framework is not intended to serve as a checklist. It is a multi-dimensional, policy-oriented
tool that will be used in this OECD project to help discern the most appropriate means by which to
evaluate different aspects of quality in educational spaces in different countries at local, regional and/or
national levels. It can also be used by individual countries to assess “quality” in terms of their own goals
and priorities.

Components of the Framework

     The Framework consists of two dimensions. The first dimension addresses how “quality” is
defined within the context of policy issues. The second dimension presents important characteristics in




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the process of evaluating aspects of quality. A matrix is provided at the end of this document to
illustrate the relationships between these dimensions.

Dimension 1: Link between educational policy and educational spaces, and principles and criteria of
quality

     The following three issues reflect the contribution of quality educational spaces to key education
policy areas.

        Increase access and equity to education. The space provides equitable access to learning as
         stated in the “International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights” (United
         Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, 2002) and the six “Education for
         All” goals in “The Dakar Framework for Action: Education for All, Meeting Our Collective
         Commitments” (UNESCO, 2000), offering adequate space capacity in relation to demand.
         This issue acknowledges the fundamental right of all individuals to access an educational
         institution, and addresses the problems of over-occupancy, which can compromise building
         users’ comfort and safety, and under occupancy, which can have a detrimental effect on school
         ethos.

        Improve educational effectiveness. The space is agile, supporting diverse teaching and
         learning programmes and pedagogies. It also promotes acquisition of key competencies by
         facilitating the interaction of individuals in socially heterogeneous groups; empowering
         individuals to manage their lives in meaningful and responsible ways by exercising control
         over their learning environment; and providing an environment that encourages students to use
         tools interactively – both socio-cultural and physical tools such as computers and elements of
         the school itself. These three “key competences”, which are necessary for individuals to lead
         an overall successful life and for society to face the challenges of the present and the future,
         are defined in Key Competencies for a Successful Life and a Well-Functioning Society
         (Rychen and Salganik, 2003). This report is the product of the OECD’s interdisciplinary and
         policy-oriented research programme, DeSeCo Definition and Selection of Competencies:
         Theoretical and Conceptual Foundations.

        Optimise building performance, operation and cost-effectiveness. The space satisfies the
         performance and operational requirements of a school and demonstrates long-term cost-
         effectiveness.

      Within the context of these issues, the Framework defines five principles of quality and a number
of criteria for defining quality.

        The space is fit for purpose (relating to the benefit of the space to its users).

          Accessibility to all. The space is accessible for all young people and adults. It makes
           provision for students with special needs, including vulnerable and economically
           disadvantaged students and students with disabilities; it is accessible for pedestrians,
           bicycles, goods vehicles, private cars, public transport and safety services; and the
           structure is easy to understand for its occupants and offers sufficient points of recognition.1

          Student capacity. There are sufficient spaces in which students learn to adequately support
           the current and projected student enrolment.




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     Learning spaces. Learning spaces are agile, accommodating a range of educational
      programmes and pedagogies; multi-purpose; age-appropriate; of sufficient size to allow
      students and teachers to work, move around in the classroom and work with others; and
      have sufficient storage capacity to support the spaces in which student learn. Learning
      spaces are classrooms, the library or media centre, science and technology laboratories,
      and workshops and studios for performance, visual and industrial arts, and sports grounds
      and athletic facilities.

     Comfortable spaces. Quality of furniture and lighting; level of internal and external noise;
      levels of maintenance; and temperature and humidity control in the space do not hinder the
      learning process.

     New technologies. The space can host current information technologies.

     Social spaces. The space provides a variety of indoor and outdoor areas where students
      and staff can meet with friends and colleagues, sit quietly or engage in recreational
      activities.

     Staff spaces. The space makes adequate provision for workspace for teachers and school
      administration.

     Community use. The space is accessible to the community for use during or after-school
      hours, and monitored to ensure the safety and security of staff and students.

   The space is symbolic, visually pleasing and offers learning opportunities.

     Symbolic. The space, through its design, displays unique character and meaning to the
      school and its occupants, for example through its display of local architectural styles, use
      of innovative design solutions to accommodate new educational programmes, or
      incorporation of new technologies.

     Aesthetic appeal. The school and school site are visually pleasing.

     Educational resource. Aspects of the space offer learning opportunities for students.

   The space is fit for purpose (relating to the space's operational layout).

     Cost-effectiveness. The initial construction cost for a school, and the life cycle costs for
      capital improvements and maintenance are cost effective.

     Management and operation systems. The space is effectively and holistically managed and
      operated (i.e. through the use of flexible management systems by trained operators).

     Feedback loops. There is provision for feedback loops between the building brief and the
      completed building, and the space evaluation and the design brief.

     Design selection. There is a competitive design selection process, involving users.

   The space provides a healthy and safe environment.




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             Potable water. Drinkable water is available to staff and students in an adequate number of
              locations.

             Sanitary facilities. The space has clean, functioning toilets, which are available in
              sufficient number and locations, and separate facilities for males and females.

             Fire safety. The space has a functional fire alarm system and meets standards for the
              flammability of materials and egress for building occupants.

             Emergency lighting. The space has a functional emergency lighting system.

             Secure design. The space’s structure protects the physical security of the building’s
              occupants.

             Building system, material and condition. No building system (mechanical, electrical,
              plumbing or structural), material (e.g. asbestos, lead in paint) or condition (e.g. pervasive
              roof leaks) presents a health or safety hazard to its occupants.

             Vehicular and pedestrian traffic. Vehicle pick-up and drop-off zones, parking and
              pedestrian paths provide safe traffic patterns.

           The space is environmentally sustainable.

             Site planning. The space demonstrates environmentally responsible site planning.

             Sustainable systems. The space demonstrates effective and efficient use of water, energy,
              recycling, waste management and daylighting.

             Sustainable methods and materials. The space demonstrates use of sustainable
              construction methods and building materials.

Dimension 2: The evaluation process

     When undertaking an evaluation of one or a number of the abovementioned aspects of quality,
three aspects must be considered. Two additional essential provisos of any evaluation process are that
evaluation results must feed back into the building cycle and seek to raise awareness among those who
can influence funding and improve design, namely officials and decision-makers.

           Point in the school’s life cycle at which it is evaluated. Evaluation should be a continual
            process to ensure that the space remains fit for purpose throughout its life, as educational and
            building performance and operational requirements evolve and change. Quality should
            therefore be evaluated throughout the building’s life cycle:

             Pre-design phase.

             Design phase.

             Construction phase.

             12 to 24 months after initial occupation.




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              Any stage during the building’s use, following, for example, major renovation or
               restructuring work or a major change in educational policy affecting educational
               infrastructure.

            The stakeholder(s) evaluating quality. Involving the school community in the design,
             evaluation and use of the space can promote a sense of belonging and ownership among users
             of the space. Current qualitative approaches have focused on asking the users of the space –
             students, staff, parents, community members – how the space meets their educational, social,
             professional and other needs. Thus, the users of the space feel empowered to influence their
             physical environment. However, other tools have been used by other stakeholders, including
             asset and facilities managers, researchers and educationalists.

            Tool(s) used to evaluate quality. Although a number of methods have been used in different
             countries to evaluate quality in educational spaces, this OECD project will focus on four
             specific tools. These tools are not mutually exclusive, but will serve different purposes for
             different stakeholder groups in different countries.

              “Facility Performance Evaluation”. FPE is a methodology that uses a variety of
               qualitative research tools (e.g. walkthroughs, focus groups, interviews, observation) to
               assess the educational effectiveness and building and operational performance of a facility
               over the life cycle, from the perspective of the building’s users and other key stakeholders
               in the procurement process. A pilot FPE project will be developed as part of this activity
               involving a small number of interested countries.

              Educational statistics and indicators. Inventories have been developed in several
               countries as monitoring instruments for data collection on cost control, user satisfaction,
               etc. Although preparatory work by the OECD in 15 countries indicates that much national-
               level data exists, there is a dearth of international data on educational spaces. A small
               meeting involving the 15 CELE country contacts and other interested experts will take
               place in early 2007 to identify areas of common interest to countries.

              International school-level questionnaires. The OECD Programme on International
               Student Assessment (PISA), involving 15-year-old students, offers many possibilities for
               illuminating the relationship between spaces and educational outcomes. Although there are
               few facility-related items in existing PISA instruments, a number of proposals will be
               developed for presentation to the PISA Governing Board for possible inclusion in PISA
               2009.

              Performance standards. Standards can provide a useful yardstick against which
               performance can be compared and measured. The OECD project will look to developing
               performance standards for educational spaces that provide a desired result without a
               measurable standard; collecting data from countries on local standards; and comparing
               similar groups or clusters of similar institutions.

Notes

     1. This Framework is a collaborative effort by experts participating in three international meetings
on “Evaluating Quality in Educational Facilities” in Lisbon, Portugal, Telchac-Puerto, Mexico and
Paris, France. The revised Framework is the product of the most recent meeting in Paris from
18-19 September 2006, and the Secretariat would like to acknowledge the contribution of experts at this




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meeting, particularly those who submitted papers on the topic: Alastair Blyth, Christian Kühn, Geert
Leemans, Lutz Oertel and José Freire da Silva.




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                                   (REVISED) CELE ORGANISING FRAMEWORK ON EVALUATING QUALITY IN EDUCATIONAL SPACES

  LINK BETWEEN EDUCATION                      PRINCIPLE                              CRITERIA OF QUALITY                                         POINT(S) OF               EVALUATOR(S)              EVALUATION TOOL(S)
  POLICY AND EDUCATIONAL                     OF QUALITY                                                                                        EVALUATION IN                OF QUALITY              (i.e. stakeholder questionnaires,
          SPACES                                                                                                                                THE BUILDING                 (i.e. policy-makers,      focus groups, walkthroughs,
                                                                                                                                                   CYCLE                   students, teaching and      interviews and observation];
                                                                                                                                               (i.e. pre-design, design,     non-teaching staff,      statistics and indicators using
                                                                                                                                                 construction, 12 – 24              parents,             admin. data; international
                                                                                                                                                  months after initial          educationalists,      school-based questionnaires;
                                                                                                                                               occupation, any critical        financial bodies,        local, regional and national
                                                                                                                                                    stage during the       architects, spaces and         performance standards).
                                                                                                                                                     building’s use)         asset managers and
                                                                                                                                                                                 researchers)
Increase access and equity to                Fit for purpose    Accessibility to all. The space is accessible for all young people
education.                                   (relating to the   and adults. It makes provision for students with special needs,
The space provides equitable access to       benefit of the     including vulnerable and economically disadvantaged students and
learning. It should also have adequate       space to users)    students with disabilities; it is accessible for pedestrians, bicycles,
space capacity in relation to demand.                           goods vehicles, private cars, public transport and safety services;
                                                                and the structure is easy to understand for its occupants and offers
                                                                sufficient points of recognition.1
                                                                Student capacity. There are sufficient spaces in which students
                                                                learn to adequately support the current and projected student
                                                                enrolment.
Improve educational effectiveness                               Learning spaces. Learning spaces are agile, accommodating a
and promote acquisition of key                                  range of educational programmes and pedagogies; multi-purpose;
competencies.                                                   age-appropriate; of sufficient size to allow students and teaching
The space is agile, supporting diverse                          staff to work, move around in the classroom and work with others;
teaching and learning programmes and                            and have sufficient storage capacity to support the spaces in which
pedagogies. It facilitates the interaction                      student learn.
of individuals in socially                                      Comfortable spaces. Quality of furniture and lighting; level of
heterogeneous groups; empowers                                  internal and external noise; levels of maintenance and temperature
individuals to manage their lives in                            and humidity control in the space do not hinder the learning
meaningful and responsible ways by                              process.
exercising control over their learning                          New technologies. The space can host current information
environment; and provides an                                    technologies.
environment that encourages students                            Social spaces. The space provides a variety of indoor and outdoor
to use tools interactively – both socio-                        areas where students and staff can meet with friends and
cultural and physical tools such as                             colleagues, sit quietly or engage in recreational activities.
computers and even elements of the                              Staff spaces. The space makes adequate provision for workspace
school itself.2                                                 for teaching staff and school administration.
                                                                Community use. The space is accessible to the community for use during or
                                                                after-school hours, and monitored to ensure the safety and security of staff
                                                                and students.
                                             Symbolic,          Symbolic. The space, through its design, displays unique character
                                             visually           and meaning to the school and its occupants.
                                             pleasing and       Visually pleasing. The school and school site are visually
                                             offers learning    pleasing.
                                             opportunities.     Educational resource. Aspects of the space offer learning
                                                                opportunities for students.


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Optimise building performance,            Fit for purpose              Cost-effectiveness. Initial investments in capital,
operation and cost-effectiveness.         (relating to the             maintenance and repairs, and operations and staff
The space satisfies the                   space's operational          demonstrate long-term cost-effectiveness.
performance and operational               layout)                      Management and operation systems. The space
requirements of a school and                                           is effectively and holistically managed and
demonstrates long-term cost-                                           operated (i.e. through the use of flexible
effectiveness.                                                         management systems by trained operators).
                                                                       Feedback loops. There is provision for feedback
                                                                       loops between the building brief and the completed
                                                                       building, and the space evaluation and the design
                                                                       brief.
                                                                       Design selection. There is a competitive design
                                                                       selection process, involving users.
                                          Healthy and safe             Potable water. Drinkable water is available to staff
                                                                       and students in an adequate number of locations.
                                                                       Sanitary spaces. The space has clean, functioning              .
                                                                       toilets, which are available in sufficient number and
                                                                       locations, and separate spaces for males and
                                                                       females.
                                                                       Fire safety. The space has a functional fire alarm
                                                                       system and meets standards for the flammability of
                                                                       materials and egress for building occupants.
                                                                       Emergency lighting. The space has a functional
                                                                       emergency lighting system.
                                                                       Secure design. The space’s structure protects the
                                                                       physical security of the building’s occupants.
                                                                       Building system, material and condition. No
                                                                       building system (mechanical, electrical, plumbing
                                                                       or structural), material or condition presents a
                                                                       health or safety hazard to its occupants.
                                                                       Vehicular and pedestrian traffic. Vehicle pick-up
                                                                       and drop-off zones, parking and pedestrian paths
                                                                       provide safe traffic patterns.
                                          Environmentally              Site planning. The space demonstrates
                                          sustainable                  environmentally responsible site planning.
                                                                       Sustainable systems. The space demonstrates
                                                                       effective and efficient use of water, energy,
                                                                       recycling, waste management and daylighting.
                                                                       Sustainable methods and materials. The space
                                                                       demonstrates use of sustainable construction
                                                                       methods and building materials.
        1. See United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (2002), “International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights”, Geneva; and the six Education for All goals in The Dakar Framework for
  Action: Education for All, Meeting Our Collective Commitments (2000), Paris.

         2. See Rychen D.S. and Salganik, L.H. (Eds.) (2003), Key Competencies for a Successful Life and a Well-Functioning Society, Hogrefe & Huber, Göttingen. This report is the product of the OECD’s interdisciplinary and policy-
  oriented research programme, DeSeCo Definition and Selection of Competencies: Theoretical and Conceptual Foundations, which was launched at the end of 1997 as part of OECD’s INES Education Indicators Program. The report
  defines the three “key competencies” necessary for individuals to lead an overall successful life and for society to face the challenges of the present and the future: interacting in socially heterogeneous groups, acting autonomously, and
  using tools interactively.


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