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					From ARPANET to LambdaGrid: The 1980s Eruption

Dennis Jennings

NSF Program Director for Networking (1985/86) ex University College Dublin

28 September, 2005

Slide 1

From ARPANET to LambdaGrid: The 1980s Eruption

• Background / Context
– The “Internet”
• concept invented; research phase completed. • no large scale demonstration.

– US (Academic) Research the driver

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Slide 2

From ARPANET to LambdaGrid: The 1980s Eruption

Start of the Decade

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Slide 3

From ARPANET to LambdaGrid: The 1980s Eruption • 1980
– – – – – – Telecomms: Low Cost, Low regulation Campus Networks: None Networks: ARPANET, MFENET, Usenet TCP/IP Implementations: BBN/ARPANET Routers: BBN/ARPANET Network Protocols: Proprietary - Decnet, SNA, VNET, Misc. – ARPANET success inspired – but access limited – PC / Workstations – yet to come
28 September, 2005 Slide 4

From ARPANET to LambdaGrid: The 1980s Eruption

1980 to 1984

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Slide 5

From ARPANET to LambdaGrid: The 1980s Eruption

• 1980 – 1984
– Telecomms: ***
• More competition / more deregulation • T1, T3 Circuits available and cost effective • Falling costs

– Campus Networks:
• Ad-hoc departmental • All standards – Ethernet (1980) • Few ubiquitous networks
28 September, 2005 Slide 6

From ARPANET to LambdaGrid: The 1980s Eruption

• 1980 – 1984
– Agency Networks:
• MFEnet – DECNET – 1976/1980 (ESNET 1985) • ARPANET – (TCP/IP 1983) *** • SPAN – DECNET – 1981

– Community Networks:
• Usenet • BITNET – VNET – 1981 • CSnet – TCP/IP – 1981 (+ARPANET) ***
28 September, 2005 Slide 7

From ARPANET to LambdaGrid: The 1980s Eruption

• 1980 – 1984
– TCP/IP (DARPA Protocol Suite) Implementations:
• • • • BSD 4.2 Unix – 1983 (DARPA) *** ARPANET – TCP/IP (1983) VAX: Wollongong (1984?) IBM: Wisconsin (1984?)

• Cray: None

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Slide 8

From ARPANET to LambdaGrid: The 1980s Eruption

• 1980 – 1984
– Main Protocols:
• DECNET – VAXen • SNA – Mainframe number crunchers
• TCP/IP – Unix Workstations – Sun ***

– Routers:
• BBN • Cisco/ Proteon/ Ungermann Bass (1984) • Ad-hoc
28 September, 2005 Slide 9

From ARPANET to LambdaGrid: The 1980s Eruption

1984

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Slide 10

From ARPANET to LambdaGrid: The 1980s Eruption • 1984
– Recognition:
• Networking important. • CSnet success • NSF’s Advanced Scientific Computing Initiative (OASC) – network required

– Budget:
• Allocated for supercomputer network (NSF – ~10%)

– Program Director
• Appointment made – to start 1 January 1985
28 September, 2005 Slide 11

From ARPANET to LambdaGrid: The 1980s Eruption

1985

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Slide 12

From ARPANET to LambdaGrid: The 1980s Eruption • 1985 – NSFNET Key Decisions
– NTAG
• To appoint a technical advisory group to advise (and, more generally, to build consensus among the US academic research community)

– General Purpose Network:
• to develop a general purpose national network for all (science and engineering) research, not just a specialised network for supercomputer users, in order to achieve the mission goals - i.e. to provide all of the science and engineering research community with access to supercomputing power (and by extension to all researchers/academics)
28 September, 2005 Slide 13

From ARPANET to LambdaGrid: The 1980s Eruption • 1985 – NSFNET Key Decisions
– An Internet:
• to develop a network of networks – an Internet – rather that a dedicated single supercomputer network.

– TCP/IP:
• to adopt the TCP/IP (DARPA) protocol suite – the Internet protocols. • to mandate that the TCP/IP protocol suite be adopted (in due course) by all existing supercomputer networks funded by the NSF’s Advanced Scientific Computing programme.
28 September, 2005 Slide 14

From ARPANET to LambdaGrid: The 1980s Eruption

• 1985 – NSFNET Key Decisions
– Architecture:
• to build a three-tier network – based on: – campus LANs, – Regional, Supercomputer, and community networks (e.g. CSNET, BITNET), ARPANET, and – a national backbone network - linking the national supercomputer centres/networks (and through them the regional and campus networks).
28 September, 2005 Slide 15

From ARPANET to LambdaGrid: The 1980s Eruption

• 1985 – NSFNET Key Decisions
– To fund mid level networks
• the supercomputer centre networks - the JvNC network, provided it was TCP/IP; * - the SDSC network, provided it migrated to TCP/IP in due course • the start-up of State and Regional networks (e.g. NYSERNET, SURANET, BARRNET, etc.) and to encourage local funding or these networks.
28 September, 2005 Slide 16

From ARPANET to LambdaGrid: The 1980s Eruption

• 1985 – NSFNET Key Decisions
– (To fund mid level networks)
• the start-up of a number of “high speed” (T1 – 1.5 Mbit) networks. • the CSnet Cypress project • the BITNET TCP/IP project

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Slide 17

From ARPANET to LambdaGrid: The 1980s Eruption

• 1985 – NSFNET Key Decisions
– Not to fund campus networks
• not to fund the campus networks, but to leave to the campuses the responsibility for the delivery of networking to the end users (Campus “Gateways” were funded).

– To fund the NSFNET backbone
• 17 September 1985

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Slide 18

From ARPANET to LambdaGrid: The 1980s Eruption

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Slide 19

From ARPANET to LambdaGrid: The 1980s Eruption

• 1985 – NSFNET Key Decisions
– Routers
• to use an interim router solution (Dave Mill’s Fuzzball) for the NSFNET backbone (to permit the industry time to develop routers that met the standard router specification). • to develop a specification for a standard router (RFC985).

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Slide 20

From ARPANET to LambdaGrid: The 1980s Eruption

• 1985 – NSFNET Key Decisions - continued
While all of these decisions may seem reasonably obvious with hindsight, none of these decisions was seen by everyone involved as obviously necessary or correct at the time, and all of the decisions were controversial, hotly debated, and contested.

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Slide 21

From ARPANET to LambdaGrid: The 1980s Eruption

1986

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Slide 22

From ARPANET to LambdaGrid: The 1980s Eruption

• 1986 – NSFNET Early Implementations
– – – – – – – Backbone (56Kb) Supercomputer Centre Networks (56/T1) Regionals (56Kb) (BARRNET at T1) ARPANET expansion (slow) Csnet Cypress Project BITNET – TCP/IP Project Campus Networks
Slide 23

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From ARPANET to LambdaGrid: The 1980s Eruption

1987 to 1989

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Slide 24

From ARPANET to LambdaGrid: The 1980s Eruption • 1987 – 1989: Rapid Growth
– NSFNET T1 Backbone – Professional Management (Merit/ IBM/ MCI) – Regionals – growth and interconnection – professional management – privatisation – commercialisation …. – Campus networks – NSFNET T3 Backbone planned – Everyone wanted to be on the network / Internet – US FCCSET coordination and planning
28 September, 2005 Slide 25

From ARPANET to LambdaGrid: The 1980s Eruption

• 1987 – 1989: The Engineering Phase
– – – – TCP/IP implementations Routing development Performance enhancement Tools for information discovery …..

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Slide 26

From ARPANET to LambdaGrid: The 1980s Eruption

• 1987 – 1989: The Commercial Phase
– Commercial router development – Commercial Networks
• UUNET (Commercial – 1989) • PSInet (1989)

– Everyone wanted to be on the network / Internet

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Slide 27

From ARPANET to LambdaGrid: The 1980s Eruption

… and By the End of the Decade

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Slide 28

From ARPANET to LambdaGrid: The 1980s Eruption

• 1990
– – – – The US National Research Network was in place The Internet was in place The Commercial Internet was beginning The stage was set - for the next Eruption……

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Slide 29

From ARPANET to LambdaGrid: The 1980s Eruption

……………………..

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Slide 30


				
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