Ch 14 Water Resources Practice Multiple Choice Questions by tyndale

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									                        Ch 14 Water Resources Practice Multiple Choice Questions

Multiple Choice
Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

____    1. Only about _____% of the world's total water supply exists as uncontaminated fresh water on or close to the
           surface and readily available for human use.
           a. 0.0003
           b. 0.003
           c. 0.03
           d. 0.3
____    2. The hydrologic cycle will naturally purify and recycle fresh water as long as humans don't
           a. pollute the water faster than it is replenished.
           b. withdraw it from groundwater supplies faster than it is replenished.
           c. overload it with slowly degradable and nondegradable wastes.
           d. all of these answers.
____    3. During which of the following does water move in a direction different from the others?
           a. percolation
           b. transpiration
           c. infiltration
           d. precipitation
____    4. Porous water-saturated layers of underground rock are known as
           a. aquifers.
           b. recharge areas.
           c. watersheds.
           d. runoff areas.
____    5. Throughout the world, the most water is used for________________and the least amount is used for
           ____________________
           a. irrigation; public use
           b. industrial processes; powerplant cooling
           c. needs of animals and humans; transportation
           d. transportation; irrigation
____    6. In the western United States as compared to the eastern United States, the major water problem(s) is (are)
           a. flooding.
           b. insufficient water for some urban areas.
           c. chronic drought and insufficient runoff.
           d. pollution of rivers, lakes, and groundwater.
____    7. Water scarcity from drying up of the soil because of deforestation or overgrazing is
           called_______________while water scarcity from increasing numbers of people relying on fixed levels of
           runoff is called ______________
           a. water stress; aridity
           b. aridity; desiccation
           c. drought; water stress
           d. desiccation; water stress
____    8. Large dams and reservoirs
           a. reduce danger of flooding upstream.
           b. are inexpensive to build.
           c. cannot be used for outdoor recreation.
           d. can be used to provide electric power.
____    9. The term subsidence refers to
           a. failure of the groundwater supply.
           b. accumulation of silt behind a dam.
           c. sinking of ground when water has been withdrawn.
           d. intrusion of salt water into a freshwater aquifer.
____   10. Currently in the United States, groundwater is being withdrawn ____ times faster than it is being replaced.
           a. 2
           b. 4
           c. 8
           d. 10
____   11. Which of the following statements about desalination is true?
           a. The common methods of desalination are reverse osmosis and evaporation which require
                little or no energy.
           b. Desalination is expensive.
           c. The removed salt can simply be dumped back into the ocean without any environmental
                consequences.
           d. Desalination is the best approach to solving irrigation problems.
____   12. Irrigation efficiency can be improved by
           a. using traditional farming techniques.
           b. using computer-controlled systems that deliver water to crops as needed.
           c. planting salt-sensitive crops.
           d. planting only genetically engineered crops.
____   13. Humans increase the likelihood of flooding by
           a. building on floodplains.
           b. urbanization.
           c. removing water-absorbing vegetation.
           d. inceasing the impervious surface of an area
           e. all of these answers.
____   14. Which of the following conditions in the Himalayan watershed contribute(s) to flooding in Bangladesh?
           a. rapid population growth
           b. deforestation
           c. unsustainable farming practices
           d. low topography near the coast (i.e., low elevation above sea level)
           e. all of these answers
____   15. Floodplain management includes
           a. prohibiting building in high-risk zones.
           b. constructing floodways to minimize damage when flooding occurs.
           c. elevating buildings in flood-zones.
           d. all of these answers.
____   16. For drinking water, the World Health Organization recommends a level of _____ coliform bacteria colonies
           per 100 milliliters of water sample.
           a. 0
           b. 5
           c. 10
           d. 100
____   17. A body of water can be depleted of its oxygen by
           a. inorganic plant nutrients
           b. organic wastes.
           c. organic compounds such as oil, plastics, and solvents.
           d. A and B
           e. All of the above
____ 18.   Heat, organic wastes, and inorganic plant nutrients may all deplete dissolved _____ from water.
           a. nitrogen
           b. oxygen
           c. particulate matter
           d. minerals
____ 19.   The greatest source of water pollution in terms of total weight is
           a. fertilizers.
           b. sediments.
           c. oxygen-demanding wastes.
           d. water-soluble inorganic chemicals.
____ 20.   All of the following are nonpoint sources of water pollution except
           a. a sewage treatment plant.
           b. livestock feedlots.
           c. urban roads and lawns.
           d. croplands.
____ 21.   Which of the following is a point source of pollution?
           a. acid deposition
           b. urban streets
           c. oil tanker
           d. suburban lawns
____ 22.   Which of the following statements about lake stratification is true?
           a. Stratified layers of lakes are characterized by vertical mixing.
           b. Stratification increases levels of dissolved oxygen, especially in the bottom layer.
           c. Lakes are more vulnerable than streams to contamination by plant nutrients, oil, pesticides,
               and toxic substances that can destroy bottom life.
           d. Lakes have more flushing than streams.
____ 23.   Which of the following statements is false?
           a. Rivers are more vulnerable than lakes to contamination by plant nutrients, oil, toxins, and
               pesticides.
           b. Acid deposition and fallout represent a more serious hazard to lakes than rivers.
           c. Eutrophication is a natural process and can occur without the influence of humans.
           d. Human activities can induce cultural eutrophication
____ 24.   Which of the following developments of cultural eutrophication would occur last?
           a. fish kills
           b. blooms of algae
           c. increase in aerobic bacteria
           d. increase in anaerobic bacteria
____ 25.   All of the following strategies would help prevent cultural eutrophication except
           a. banning the use of phosphate detergents.
           b. preventing the runoff of fertilizer from agricultural fields.
           c. advance treatment of municipal sewage.
           d. stopping release of toxic heavy metal pollution.
____ 26.   Currently, the greatest problem facing the Great Lakes is
           a. point-source emission of toxins.
           b. phosphates in detergents.
           c. toxins found in runoff water as well as atmospheric deposition.
           d. oil spills from tankers using the St. Lawrence Seaway.
____ 27. Zebra mussels in the Great Lakes are least known for their ability to
         a. clog irrigation pipes.
         b. grow in masses on boat hulls.
         c. filter pollutants from the bottoms of lakes.
         d. deplete the food supply for other lake species.
____ 28. Groundwater
         a. has turbulent flows that dilute pollutants.
         b. has large populations of decomposing bacteria that break down degradable wastes.
         c. is cold, which slows down decomposition rates.
         d. may take 5 to 10 years to cleanse itself of wastes.
____ 29. Which of the following statements about underground contaminants is false?
         a. Degradable organic wastes do not decompose as rapidly underground as they do on the
             surface.
         b. There is little dissolved oxygen to aid in degradation of wastes.
         c. Waste products are diluted and dispersed quickly in underground aquifers.
         d. It can take hundreds to thousands of years for contaminated groundwater to cleanse itself
             of degradable wastes.
____ 30. Groundwater would be least protected by
         a. storing hazardous liquids above ground in tanks with leak-detecting systems.
         b. putting double hulls on tankers.
         c. monitoring aquifers near landfills.
         d. requiring liability insurance for underground tanks storing hazardous liquids.
____ 31. The majority of the oil pollution of the ocean comes from
         a. blowouts (rupture of a borehole of an oil rig in the ocean).
         b. tanker accidents.
         c. environmental terrorism.
         d. runoff from land.
____ 32. Which of the following would not reduce nonpoint source pollution?
         a. Require buffer zones of permanent vegetation between cultivated fields and surface water.
         b. Divert runoff of animal wastes into detention basins to be used as fertilizer.
         c. Establish wastewater lagoons.
         d. Use biotic control or integrated pest management.
____ 33. The Clean Water Act and Water Quality Act attempt to maintain the _____ integrity of U.S. waters.
         a. biological
         b. chemical
         c. physical
         d. all of these answers
____ 34. In 1995, using the strategy of controlling the air pollutant sulfur dioxide as a model, the EPA proposed to
         reduce water pollution through
         a. more regulations.
         b. educating the public to prevent water pollution.
         c. changing American lifestyles.
         d. a discharges trading policy.
____ 35. Which of the following types of sewage treatment are properly matched?
         a. primary-biological process
         b. secondary-mechanical process
         c. advanced-physical and chemical processes
         d. secondary-chemical process
____ 36. A change in the U.S. Safe Drinking Water Act that is least likely to be recommended by an environmentalist
         is
         a. banning all lead in new plumbing pipes, faucets, and fixtures.
         b. increased reliance on voluntary compliance to drinking water standards.
         c. strengthening public notification requirements of drinking water violations.
         d. reducing testing and administrative costs and improving treatment by combining smaller
             water systems into larger ones.
____ 37. To further sustainable use of water supplies, environmentalists are least likely to call for
         a. reduction of pollution sources.
         b. reuse of wastewater.
         c. decentralization of control of water supply and quality.
         d. moving from pollution treatment to pollution prevention.
Water Resources Practice
Answer Section

MULTIPLE CHOICE

      1. ANS:   B          OBJ: 14-2
         TOP:   SUPPLY, RENEWAL, AND USE OF WATER RESOURCES
      2. ANS:   D          OBJ: 14-2
         TOP:   SUPPLY, RENEWAL, AND USE OF WATER RESOURCES
      3. ANS:   B          OBJ: 14-2
         TOP:   SUPPLY, RENEWAL, AND USE OF WATER RESOURCES
      4. ANS:   A          OBJ: 14-2
         TOP:   SUPPLY, RENEWAL, AND USE OF WATER RESOURCES
      5. ANS:   A          OBJ: 14-2
         TOP:   SUPPLY, RENEWAL, AND USE OF WATER RESOURCES
      6. ANS:   C          OBJ: 14-2
         TOP:   SUPPLY, RENEWAL, AND USE OF WATER RESOURCES
      7. ANS:   D          OBJ: 14-3       TOP: TOO LITTLE WATER
      8. ANS:   D          OBJ: 14-3       TOP: TOO LITTLE WATER
      9. ANS:   C          OBJ: 14-3       TOP: TOO LITTLE WATER
     10. ANS:   B          OBJ: 14-3       TOP: TOO LITTLE WATER
     11. ANS:   B          OBJ: 14-3       TOP: TOO LITTLE WATER
     12. ANS:   B          OBJ: 14-3       TOP: TOO LITTLE WATER
     13. ANS:   E          OBJ: 14-4       TOP: TOO MUCH WATER
     14. ANS:   E          OBJ: 14-4       TOP: TOO MUCH WATER
     15. ANS:   D          OBJ: 14-4       TOP: TOO MUCH WATER
     16. ANS:   A          OBJ: 14-5
         TOP:   TYPES, EFFECTS, AND SOURCES OF WATER POLLUTION
     17. ANS:   D          OBJ: 14-5
         TOP:   TYPES, EFFECTS, AND SOURCES OF WATER POLLUTION
     18. ANS:   B          OBJ: 14-5
         TOP:   TYPES, EFFECTS, AND SOURCES OF WATER POLLUTION
     19. ANS:   B          OBJ: 14-5
         TOP:   TYPES, EFFECTS, AND SOURCES OF WATER POLLUTION
     20. ANS:   A          OBJ: 14-5
         TOP:   TYPES, EFFECTS, AND SOURCES OF WATER POLLUTION
     21. ANS:   C          OBJ: 14-5
         TOP:   TYPES, EFFECTS, AND SOURCES OF WATER POLLUTION
     22. ANS:   C          OBJ: 14-6
         TOP:   POLLUTION OF FRESHWATER STREAMS, LAKES, AND AQUIFERS
     23. ANS:   A          OBJ: 14-6
         TOP:   POLLUTION OF FRESHWATER STREAMS, LAKES, AND AQUIFERS
     24. ANS:   D          OBJ: 14-6
         TOP:   POLLUTION OF FRESHWATER STREAMS, LAKES, AND AQUIFERS
     25. ANS:   D          OBJ: 14-6
         TOP:   POLLUTION OF FRESHWATER STREAMS, LAKES, AND AQUIFERS
     26. ANS:   C          OBJ: 14-6
    TOP:   POLLUTION OF FRESHWATER STREAMS, LAKES, AND AQUIFERS
27. ANS:   C          OBJ: 14-6
    TOP:   POLLUTION OF FRESHWATER STREAMS, LAKES, AND AQUIFERS
28. ANS:   C          OBJ: 14-6
    TOP:   POLLUTION OF FRESHWATER STREAMS, LAKES, AND AQUIFERS
29. ANS:   C          OBJ: 14-6
    TOP:   POLLUTION OF FRESHWATER STREAMS, LAKES, AND AQUIFERS
30. ANS:   B          OBJ: 14-6
    TOP:   POLLUTION OF FRESHWATER STREAMS, LAKES, AND AQUIFERS
31. ANS:   D          OBJ: 14-7      TOP: OCEAN POLLUTION
32. ANS:   C          OBJ: 14-8
    TOP:   SOLUTIONS: PREVENTING AND REDUCING SURFACE-WATER POLLUTION
33. ANS:   D          OBJ: 14-8
    TOP:   SOLUTIONS: PREVENTING AND REDUCING SURFACE-WATER POLLUTION
34. ANS:   D          OBJ: 14-8
    TOP:   SOLUTIONS: PREVENTING AND REDUCING SURFACE-WATER POLLUTION
35. ANS:   C          OBJ: 14-8
    TOP:   SOLUTIONS: PREVENTING AND REDUCING SURFACE-WATER POLLUTION
36. ANS:   B          OBJ: 14-8
    TOP:   SOLUTIONS: PREVENTING AND REDUCING SURFACE-WATER POLLUTION
37. ANS:   C          OBJ: 14-9
    TOP:   SOLUTIONS: ACHIEVING A MORE SUSTAINABLE WATER FUTURE

								
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