Meagan Dudley REC 225 10/29/07 Activity Analysis Activity/Description: The activity that will be played is Kickball. The game requires two teams and the team to score the most “runs” wins. Target Population: The target population will be teens, boys and girls, who range in age from twelve to sixteen. These kids will have disabilities that include hearing impairments and a learning disability. Space Requirements: A softball‐sized area would suffice for the parameters of this activity. However, to maximize space and the quality of the activity, Kickball will be played on the soccer field of Prescott Field. Medium Group Activity: The amount of kids that can participate in this game can be from fourteen to eighteen. This is to make sure there is at least a pitcher, first, second, third baseman, and three outfielders on the field at all times. A shortstop and catcher can be added if needed or to add participation. Equipment Necessary: Equipment used for the activity will include mats to be used as bases and a kickball ball. Because this activity will be involving kids, a first‐aid kit will need to be included in the necessary equipment. Backup Equipment: An extra kickball ball would be helpful in the case that the one used for the game becomes damaged or lost. Starting Group Formation: To begin the game, it is a key point to choose teams. One team will take the field at all the positions necessary, the pitcher, the first, second, and third basemen, and three outfielders spaced equally among the field. The other team will line up to take their turns “at bat,” kicking the ball. Staff/Leadership Style: Leaders have very important roles in outdoor recreation. It would be recommended to have at least five staff members to keep control over the activity. One of the staff members should be a Therapeutic Recreational Specialist. The Therapeutic Recreational Specialist’s role in this activity is to make sure that the players are getting the benefits from the activity mentioned in the primary and secondary goals. Physical Skill Prerequisites: Physical skills involve ability to run and ability to watch the ball. Other key physical skills include ability to throw the ball, whether the individual is rolling the ball towards the “batter,” throwing the ball in towards the bases from outfield, or throwing the ball to get a player out at a base. Social Skill Prerequisites: Social skills include ability to work and play well with others. Interaction between teens is good, but it is also important that the staff members be role models for the teens and show the social qualities the individuals should exhibit, such as respect. Cognitive Skill Prerequisites: The ability to understand directions is a key part of cognitive skills. Making sure that every team member understands the rules to the activity and can take direction from staff and leaders is required. Affective/Emotional Skill Prerequisites: An important part of playing any game is understanding good sportsmanship. Because kickball is a game where generally one team wins and the other loses, good sportsmanship is very essential to exhibit among the players. Primary Goals: Primary goals of this activity are: 1. To increase or demonstrate cooperation skills, and 2. To increase awareness and knowledge of leisure. This activity will be able to accomplish this goal because kickball is a team sport. Team sports demand cooperation and sportsmanship. This activity will also raise awareness to leisure because it can be an outlet to those who do not regularly participate in such recreational activities. Secondary Goals: Secondary goals of this activity are just as important as the primary goals. Three goals that can be made during kickball include improved fitness, enhanced self‐esteem, and establishing a sense of control. Improved fitness can occur while playing kickball because it is a cardiovascular aerobic workout. Especially with prolonged play, physical fitness can be enhanced. Enhanced self‐esteem can transpire if team morale is shown. Sportsmanship and cooperation plays into this goal because self‐esteem is raised when teammates cheer each other on. A sense of control is established when team members control their own bodies. Individuals choose the rate of speed they run and choose how much effort they put into playing the team sport as well. Description/Procedures: Pre‐activity: Leaders will discuss rules of the activity to all participants. Leaders will also initiate a warm‐up activity to prevent injuries during the game. During‐activity: Leaders should be made available during the game to be able to provide any assistance for any player who requests it. Leaders will be familiar with the rules of the game and give reminders to players who may have forgotten any rules. Staff members will also be used as referees. Post‐activity: Leaders will conduct a discussion to find out participants opinions of game. Questions can be asked for players to evaluate their own performances during the game. Questions that could be asked may include: If you could change anything about the game, what would you change, if anything? Can you apply skills learned in activity to personal life? Specific Leadership Considerations: Knowledge of sign language is imperative when working with people who live with hearing impairments. Because this activity deals specifically with teens who have hearing impairments, the staff involved must have full knowledge of sign language, both understanding and ability to use their hands. Working with twelve to sixteen year olds can sometimes be a challenge, so previous experience working with teens is crucial when involved with this activity. Specific Safety Considerations: In the book, Outdoor Recreation Safety, Clarke says, “Obviously, there is no way to completely avoid risk in outdoor recreation.” If special precautions are taken, safety can be without worry. When working with kids, or even teens, who are performing physical activity outdoors, it is necessary to bring a first‐aid kit along. Staff members should all be knowledgeable in administering first‐aid. In addition, all staff members should be CPR (Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation) trained and certified. Hydration is important in any outdoor physical activity, so because of the nature of this activity, water should be provided to each team member as well as the staff. Variations for Different Disabilities: This activity works well for individuals who have hearing impairments and learning disabilities. In the case where other disabilities were present, other than the two previously mentioned, certain adjustments may need to be made in order for participants to fully benefit from the activity. For example, if the participants had visual impairments, a jingle ball should be used and it should be a vibrant color for more visibility. Another variation of the game could be made in order to accommodate team members who may have asthma. Instead of running, it might be easier for the participant to walk from base to base. This would allow the individual to still participate and benefit from the group activity. Variations can also be made for individuals who may have arm amputations or arthritis. Instead of throwing the kickball, it may be less problematic for the individual to actually kick the ball with their feet. If this variation is made, more individuals with different disabilities may partake and have fun in the game. References: Clarke, Kenneth. (1998). Safety in the Outdoor Environment. Outdoor Recreation Safety. Champaign, IL : Human Kinetics. Outdoor Pursuits Leadership—Role of the Leader. Chapter 10. Pgs. 192‐93. Snyder, D., Rothschadl, A., & Marchello, M. (2006). Inclusive Outdoor Recreation for Persons with Disabilities—Protocols and Activities. Enumclaw, WA: Idyll Arbor.
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