Thermal Treatment of MSW - PowerPoint by stephan2

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									Thermal Treatment of MSW
Understanding the Facts




       Clarissa Morawski
         CM Consulting
   Policy and Decision Making
• “Sound science doesn’t always mean
  seaking an unequivocal and uncontested
  view of the world. As often as not, it
  means understanding different arguments,
  and the significance of different
  assumptions, and making judgments on
  the basis of ALL the available information
  rather than partial presentations of it.”
                       Source: A Changing Climate for Energy from
                       Waste? Hogg, D., Eunomia research and
                       Consulting
                     The Issues
• New technologies

• Thermal treatment and climate change

• Thermal treatment versus other disposal options

• Selling energy in Ontario from MSW thermal treatment facility

• Thermal treatment and efficiency

• Costs

• Pollution and thermal treatment of MSW
        About new technologies
• Almost no full-scale gasification plants currently
  operating.

• Proponent companies are promoting either technical
  ideas or extrapolating from very small facilities to the
  large-scale plants that they are proposing to build.

• The promise of gasification has not been matched by the
  reality of the operations of the technology.
                               Case Studies
    (Source: = Incinerators in Disguise: Case Studies of Gasification, Pyrolysis and Plasma in Europe,
                 Asia, and the US. Global Alliance for Incineration Alternatives, April 2006

•     Two of the highest profile and largest scale MSW gasification plants

•     Thermoselect MSW plant in Karlsruhe, Germany began trials in 1999 and
      full-scale operation in 2002. This plant was permanently closed at the end of
      2004 due to technical and financial difficulties. By the time it closed in 2004
      it had lost over $500 million US$.

•     The SWERF process, which was promoted by Brightstar Environmental and
      EDL Ltd, does not appear to have achieved commercial operation, resulting
      in a loss of greater than AU$128 million for EDL Ltd.

•     Neoteric Environmental Technologies and International Environmetnal
      Solution built a plasma arc/pyrolysis facility in Riverside County, CA. South
      Coast Quality Management District determined that the facility emits more
      dioxins, NOx, VOCs, and PM than two large existing incinerators in the LA
      area.
Pollution from New Technologies
  EPA emissions annual air emissions data for 36,500 tons per year.
     (Source: Blue Ridge Environmental Defense League, April 2002)
Thermal treatment and climate
           change
 Thermal Treatment
and Climate Change
Thermal treatment versus other
      disposal options
How does thermal treatment
 compare to other options?
A little more on stabilized landfill
•   Provides initial screening of waste to be landfilled – removes materials that should not
    be landfilled

•   Reduces quantity requiring landfill disposal

•   Further recovery of recyclables

•   Flexibility – adaptable to changes in feedstock more so than thermal treatment

•   Reduces vector problems (vermin, birds etc.)

•   Reduces gas generation

•   Reduces leachate generation

•   Waste is composted through anaerobic digestion versus aerobic composting

•   Biogas recovered and used for energy
              Off-setting
• “Energy from thermal treatment replaced
  energy from other sources like coal and
  natural gas”



• Must consider what source is being
  displaced.
 Ontario’s energy mix
today and in the future
        Selling energy
from MSW thermal treatment facility
•   The province’s planning authority for electricity, charged with developing an
    integrated plan for the entire electricity system in Ontario. The OPA has no
    commercial interest in any specific projects; its sole objective is to plan a system that
    delivers the best outcome for Ontario consumers based on the policy guidelines it
    has been given.

•   The OPA’s mandate is to undertake a long-term planning function to develop an
    integrated power system plans to meet Ontario’s electricity requirements.




                                                                    www.powerauthority.on.ca/
             Standard Offer Program
•   This document presents the Final Program Rules for the Renewable Energy Standard
    Offer Program. Before you consider applying for a Standard Offer Contract you
    should thoroughly review the Program Rules to determine if your project is suitable.

•   An eligible renewable energy project must be located in Ontario, must have a Gross
    Nameplate capacity of no more than 10,000 KW.




                                                                www.powerauthority.on.ca/
   “Renewable Biomass” (page 30)
• (73) “Renewable Biomass” means organic
  matter that is derived from a plant……,
  provided that:
  (a) such organic matter is not Municipal
  Solid Waste



                               www.powerauthority.on.ca/
                               Standard Offer Program –
                               Renewable Energy Program Rules-
                               page 30
      Clean Energy Standard Offer
               Program
• CESOP will support small clean-energy generating
  alternatives including combined heat and power or
  power only.
• Program has not been launched yet
• Strict principles:
   – the efficient and effective use of energy,
   – sustainability and environmental compliance,
   – the reliability of the electricity system,
   – a good value proposition, and
   – program simplicity.                   www.powerauthority.on.ca/
                                                 Clean energy Standard Offer
                                                 Program
    Why can't we construct small co-generation plants to
     supply power using local garbage and industrial
                         wastes?
•   A small component of electricity generated by biomass identified in the Preliminary
    Plan is produced with municipal waste. Since the technology is evolving, the IPSP
    includes provisions to increase its role in later stages of the planning horizon.

•   Consequently, the OPA will monitor the feasibility of greater electricity generation
    from waste, as well as other emerging technologies, going forward and will update
    future IPSPs accordingly.

•   Incineration or other forms of thermal treatment can be contraversial public issues,
    due to perceptions regarding air emissions, ashed, odors …..

•   Some of these concerns could be alleviated through proactive municipal ordinances
    and waste diversion programs that remove packaging wastes, HHW and other
    problematic components of MSW streams.



                                                                   www.powerauthority.on.ca/
                                                                   Discussion Paper 4- Supply
                                                                   Resources
   Independent Electricity System
         Operator (IESO)
       Administered System
• Subject to fluctuating prices – spot market
  pricing – unreliable revenues.

• Can negotiate with private company to
  purchase Kwh purchase over short-term or
  long term. Responsibility of the Thermal
  Treatment owner/operator.
Thermal treatment and
     efficiency
                                      Energy Output
                                       (in Mw h/tonne )


            3.00

            2.50

            2.00
Mwh/tonne




            1.50

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                                                                                         BC, Veolia facility.
                         Electricity (Mw h/ tonne)       Heat (MWH/ tonne)
                      Costs
• Costs have great range depending on size, up-front
  sorting, testing technology, operator training, ash
  management and thermal treatment process
  (technology).

• Ranges from $102 - $180+ per tonne.

• Energy revenues account for 30%-45% of cost off-set.
  (un-secured revenues may cause operating cost
  increases).

• World Bank estimates that the cost of thermal treatment
  is “an order of magnitude greater than” landfilling
          Pollution
from thermal treatment of MSW
    Where does the pollution come
               from?
•   STACK GAS
•   FLY ASH
•   BOTTOM ASH OR SLAG
•   SCRUBBER WATER
•   OTHER RESIDUES
•   FUGITIVE EMISSIONS
                          Source: Pat Costner, Senior
                          Scientist
                          Greenpeace International
                          From presentation: Penang,
                          Malaysia
                          17-21 March 2002
EVERY INCINERATOR IS A THREAT TO PUBLIC HEALTH
                                 • particulates
                                 • carbon monoxide
                                                     • asthma
•.                                    INHALATION
                                                     • heart/lung disease
                                                     • increased
                                                     hospitalizations
                                                     • school absences

                    DEPOSITION

                     • dioxin         ADULTS
                                                     • altered hormones
                     • lead                             - thyroid
                     • mercury                          - testosterione
                                                     •immune system changes
                                                     • reproductive problems




     INCINERATOR
                                                             INFANT & FETUS

              ASH
                     FOOD


                                         • cancer
                                         • altered immune system
                                  ADULTS • decreased testosterone
                                         • endometriosis
                                         • infertility

                                                                               (SWAT.A.06)
          How are People Exposed?
• Dioxins are omnipresent

• Majority of exposure (>95%) is via
  microcontamination of food
   – Meat, fish, dairy

• Sensitive Subpopulations with High Exposure
   – Subsistence Fishers and Hunters
   – Nursing Infants
   – Occupational Workers
      • Oral, dermal, and inhalation exposures


                                           •     Linda. S. Birnbaum, Senior expert for EPA on Dioxin
        MOST WIDELY KNOWN INCINERATOR
           POLLUTANTS OF CONCERN


• DIOXINS                                        •CHROMIUM
• PARTICULATE MATTER                             •LEAD
• ARSENIC                                        •MERCURY
• BERYLLIUM                                      •ACIDIC GASES
• CADMIUM                                        •PAHs
                                                                  Source: Pat
Source: National Research Council, 2000. Waste Incineration and   Costner, Senior
                                                                  Scientist
Public Health, Washington, DC: National Academy Press             Greenpeace
                                                                  International
 OTHER TOXIC POLLUTANTS IN INCINERATOR GASES AND
                    RESIDUES

METALS: In addition to the six metals previously listed, 19 other
metals have been identified in the wastes sent to incinerators or in
incinerator stack gas and/or ash.
ORGANIC CHEMICALS: In addition to dioxins, scientists have
detected innumerable organic chemicals in incinerator outputs.
Among these so-called products of incomplete combustion (PICs) are
hundreds of semi-volatile chemicals of which only 10-14 percent
have been completely identified. Semi-volatile PICs are likely to be
persistent in the environment and lipophilic (fat-loving).
                                                            Source: Pat
                                                            Costner, Senior
                                                            Scientist
                                                            Greenpeace
                                                            International
                            ON POLLUTION


• All incinerators are sources of persistent organic pollutants (POPs),
  such as polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs).

• All incinerators that burn materials containing chlorine in any form
  are also sources of POPs, such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins
  and dibenzofurans, known collectively as `dioxins‟, as well as other
  dioxin-like organochlorines, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)
  and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs).

• All incinerators that burn materials containing any form of chlorine
  and any form of bromine are also sources of polychlorinated,
  polybrominated, and mixed polyhalogenated dibenzo-p-dioxins,
  dibenzofurans, polyhalogenated biphenyls, and polyhalogenated
  naphthalenes.                                                        Source: Pat
                                                                           Costner,
                                                                           Senior
                                                                           Scientist
                                                                           Greenpeace
                                                                           International
    WASTE INCINERATORS ARE PART OF THE WASTE
                PROBLEM, continued
• Incinerators do not destroy metals.

• All metals fed into an incinerator are released in stack gases,
  fly ash, bottom ash or slag and/or other residues.

• Metal partitioning among these release routes vary according
  to …
  -- the specific metal
  -- other waste components (e.g., chlorine content);
  -- furnace design and operating conditions (temperature,
  residence time, etc.)
  -- type and efficiencies of air pollution control systems Source: Pat
                                                                Costner, Senior
                                                                Scientist
                                                                Greenpeace
                                                                International
                                                         Dioxins
• the most serious environmental and human health concern from
  the burning of plastics such as vinyl (PVC), which contain
  significant amounts of chlorine, is the production of hydrochloric
  acid and chlorinated chemicals such as chlorinated benzenes
  and polychlorinated dioxins and furans. (Source: Linda. S. Birnbaum, PhD, DABT)

• “Due to their extraordinary environmental persistence and
  capacity to accumulate in biological tissues, dioxins and furan are
  slated for virtual elimination under the Canadian Environmental
  Protection Act (CEPA), the federal Toxics Substances
  Management Policy (TSMP) and the CCME Policy for the
  Management of Toxic Substances.” (Source: 2001, the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment
    (CCME) released Canada-Wide Standards for Dioxins and Furans)
           HEALTH EFFECTS OF DIOXINS


•   Cardiovascular Disease        • Developmental
•   Diabetes                        –   Thyroid Status
•   Cancer Cancer: One dioxin
    (2,3,7,8-TCDD) is a             –   Immune Status
    known human carcinogen,         –   Neurobehavior
    while the other dioxins are     –   Cognition
    possible human
    carcinogens;                    –   Dentition
•   Porphyria                       –   Reproductive Effects
•   Endometriosis                   –   Altered Sex Ratio
•   Decreased Testosterone          –   Delayed Breast
•   Chloracne                           Devpt
•   Biochemical
     – Enzyme Induction
     – Receptor Changes
                                         •   Slide Source: Linda. S. Birnbaum, PhD, DABT
                                         •   NHEERL/US EPA
                                         •   Research Triangle Park, NC
                                         •   Saginaw, MI – April 13, 2005
                 INCINERATOR WORKERS:
 Biomarkers of contamination -hydroxypyrene, mutagens and thioethers
-- in workers’ urine with increased frequency and at elevated levels; Ma
et al. (1992); Angerer et al. (1992); Scarlett et al. (1990); Van Doorn et al.
(1981)
 Chemical contaminants in workers’ urine and blood at elevated
concentrations -- dioxins, PCBs, hexachlorobenzene, chlorophenols,
benzene, toluene, xylene, arsenic, lead, mercury, and nickel; Kitamura et
al.(2000); Schecter et al. (1999); Kurttio et al. (1998); Van den Hazel and
Frankort (1996); Wrbitzky et al. (1995); Papke et al. (1993); Malkin et al.
(1992); Angerer et al. (1992); Schecter et al. (1991).
 Increased death rates from cancer of the stomach, lungs and
oesophagus; Rapiti et al. (1997); Gustavsson et al. (1993); Gustavsson et al.
(1989)
 Increased death rates from ischemic heart disease; Gustavsson (1989)
Chloracne, hyperlipidemia, decreased liver function, altered immune
functions, altered sex ratio of offspring, hypertension, urinary
abnormalities, small airway obstruction of the lungs, and abnormal blood
chemistry. Kitamura et al. (2000); Schecter et al. (1999); Bresnitz et al.
(1992).
  PEOPLE WHO LIVE NEAR INCINERATORS
A newly published study of adolescent children who lived near
two incinerators found as follows (Staessen et al., 2001. Lancet
357:1660-1669):

 Elevated blood levels of PCBs, dioxins and metabolites of
volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were in the children’s blood.

 Delayed sexual maturation was noted among these children;
 Delayed breast development in girls was positively correlated
with serum concentrations of dioxins;

 Delayed genital development in boys was correlated with serum
concentrations of PCBs;

 Reduced testicular volume was found among the boys.
   PEOPLE WHO LIVE NEAR INCINERATORS

 Biomarkers    of toxic exposure - thioethers-- were elevated
in the urine of children living near a recently built incinerator.
Ardevol et al. (1999)
 Dioxin   levels in blood increased by 10-25 percent during the
two years following the startup of a new incinerator. Gonzalez
et al. (2000)
 PCB levels in the blood of children living near a German
hazardous waste incinerator were elevated. Holdke et al. (1998)
 Mercury   levels in the hair of people living near a waste
incinerator increased by 44-56% over 10 years and with
greater proximity to the facility. Kurttio et al. (1998)
 Elevated  dioxin levels in blood were found in communities
near incinerators in three studies, but dioxins were not
elevated in two other studies. Miyata (1998); Deml et al. (1996);
Van den Hazel and Frankort (1996); Startin et al. (1994)
PEOPLE WHO LIVE NEAR INCINERATORS, cont.

 Clusters of two cancers associated with dioxin exposure -- soft-
tissue sarcomas and non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas -- were found in one
intricate study. Viel et al. (2000);
 Increased rates of deaths from childhood cancer, all cancers
combined, cancer of the larynx, liver, stomach, rectum, and lung
were found in a series of studies, but one study found no increase
in death rates from larynx or lung cancer. Elliot et al. (2000); Knox
(2000); Knox and Gilman (1998); Michelozzi et al. (1998); Elliot et al.
(1996); Biggeri et al. (1996); Babone et al. (1994); Elliot et al. (1992);
Diggle et al. (1990)
 Six studies found elevated occurrence of various respiratory
effects near incinerators, while one study found asthma in children
was not elevated. Lee and Shy (1999); Legator et al. (1998); Shy et al.
(1995); Gray et al. (1994); ATSDR (1993); Wang et al. (1992); Zmirou et
al. (1984).
PEOPLE WHO LIVE NEAR INCINERATORS, cont.


• Elevated rates of congenital anomalies were reported in two
studies, while one study found eye malformations were not
increased; Ten Tusscher et al. (2000); Aelvoet et al. (1998); Gatrell and
Lovett (1989)
• Increased frequency of multiple births was reported in one study,
while another found no evidence of increased incidence of twin
births; Van Larebeke (2000); Rhydhstroem (1998)
•Altered sex ratios of births -- a deficit of male births -- was
found in one study; Williams et al. (1992)
• Lower levels of thyroid hormones were reported among children
near a toxic waste incinerator. Osius and Karmaus (1998)
                        On Testing
• Most thermal treatment facilities continuous monitor for NOx,
  SOx, CO, HCL, PM, O2, opacity, temperature and amonia.

• Other pollutants are monitored through stack tests, usually done
  once annually (as per A-7 guidelines). Municipalities may
  request more frequent testing.

• The test is scheduled. Facilities can plan for tests to be run
   during optimum conditions.
                        Due Diligence
• For continuous monitoring of heavy metals and dioxin – four technologies
  exist that are being tested by the US EPA.

• AMESA is a German technology used for sampling. Sampling periods run
  from 4 hours to 4 weeks. On average the sampling period is about two
  weeks. DMS is an Australian technology to measure amounts of Dioxins,
  PCBs and PAHs.. It is limited in measuring 0.0001 to 10 ng/cubic meter.
  There are 55 AMESA units and 5 DMS units currently operating worldwide.
  This technology is worth ~$100,000 US, or $4,000 per month to lease

• There are about 210 different types of dioxin. Stack test generally only test
  for one type.
                                                         Dioxins
• the most serious environmental and human health concern from
  the burning of plastics such as vinyl (PVC), which contain
  significant amounts of chlorine, is the production of hydrochloric
  acid and chlorinated chemicals such as chlorinated benzenes
  and polychlorinated dioxins and furans.

• “Due to their extraordinary environmental persistence and
  capacity to accumulate in biological tissues, dioxins and furan are
  slated for virtual elimination under the Canadian Environmental
  Protection Act (CEPA), the federal Toxics Substances
  Management Policy (TSMP) and the CCME Policy for the
  Management of Toxic Substances.” (Source: 2001, the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment
    (CCME) released Canada-Wide Standards for Dioxins and Furans)
               “Nanotoxicity”
• “Although these methods may be executed
  safely, formation of toxic combustion or reaction
  by-products is still a cause of concern…”

• “Fine particulate matter and ultrafine particulate
  matter, which have been documented to be
  related to cardiovascular disease, pulmonary
  disease, and cancer have more recently become
  the area of focus of research.”
                                              Environmental
                                              Health
                                              Perspectives, June
                                              2006
    Why we need to be more diligent than
      ever when it comes to pollution?
•   November 6, 2006, an Ipsos Reid poll confirmed that Canadians consider „the environment”
    should receive the greatest amount of attention from government leaders.

•   November 8, 2006, Dr. Philippe Grandjean, a leading health researcher and Professor of
    Environmental Health from the Harvard School of Public Health published a study which
    characterizes the loading of chemicals both known (201) and unknown (over 1,000) as “a silent
    pandemic that has caused impaired brain development in millions of children worldwide”.
    Grandjean urges governments worldwide to begin to strictly control these chemicals.

•   “Even if substantial documentation on their toxicity is available, most chemicals are not regulated
    to protect the developing brain…Only a few substances, such as lead and mercury, are controlled
    with the purpose of protecting children. The 200 other chemicals that are known to be toxic to the
    human brain are not regulated to prevent adverse effects on the fetus or a small child.”

•   January 3, 2007, Environmental Defense Canada released its findings of blood sample tests
    from four leading Canadian politicians. A total of 61 pollutants, of the 103 tested for, were
    detected in the four volunteers, including 18 PBDEs, 13 PCBs, 10 organochlorine pesticides ,
    seven PAHs, five PFCs, five metals and three organophosphate insecticide metabolites. Many
    of the pollutants discovered in the politicians' bodies are associated with cancer,
    developmental problems, respiratory illnesses, damage to the nervous system and hormone
    disruption. (Press Release Environmental Defense Canada, January 3, 2007)
  Clarissa Morawski
    CM Consulting
morawski@ca.inter.net
     (416) 682-8984
Comparing Emissions with Sweden
                         Sweden versus WastePlan
                               Air Emissions

      1.0E+00


      9.0E-01


      8.0E-01


      7.0E-01


      6.0E-01


      5.0E-01


      4.0E-01


      3.0E-01


      2.0E-01


      1.0E-01


      0.0E+00
                 Nitro gen      Sulphur      Hydro gen     M ercury    Cadmium        Lead
                  Oxides        Dio xide     Chlo ride    (g/to nne)   (g/to nne)   (g/to nne)
                (kg)/to nne   (kg/to nne)   (kg)/to nne


                                Niagara/Hamilton WastePlan              Sweden
Comparing Recycling Rates
                Household Recycling Rates in Canada and
                            Sw eden 2004


       120%




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