LSAMP Indiana _ Midwest Crossroa

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					IUPUI, Nov. 10-12, 2005

              LSAMP/AGEP Conference 2005 - Oral Presentation Abstracts

Kim Andrews, Alexander H. Shelton and David R. McMillin*
Purdue University, W. Lafayette, IN 47907-2084
Graduate Student, Department of Chemistry

                 Cationic Porphyrins: Synthesis, Structure and Interaction with DNA

          A series of new sterically non-demanding, porphyrins were synthesized via one flask microwave
methodology and characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, 1H NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry.
Theses porphyrins are being used to identify, evaluate and characterize novel DNA binding motifs that vary
with the meso substituents on the porphyrins. The binding interactions depend upon the base composition
of the DNA and steric factors of the porphyrins. Hence, the decisive roles that structural rigidity and steric
factors play in shaping the adducts with DNA have become clear.
          The adducts formed by the cationic porphyrin systems were characterized by a number of physical
methods including absorbance, emission, CD spectroscopies as well as viscometry. The systems
investigated in this study included 5, 15-di (N-methylpyridinium-4-yl) porphyrin (H2D4), 5,15-di (N-
methylpyridinium-3-yl) porphyrin (H2D3), 5,15-di (N-methylpyridinium-2-yl) porphyrin (H2D2), 5-methyl-
10,15,20-tri (N-methylpyridinium-4-yl) (MePy3) and 5,10,15-tri (N-methylpyridinium-4-yl) (HPy3). The
cationic porphyrins continue to be the focus because of the promise that they have for use in photodynamic,
anti-viral and anti-cancer therapies.

Ashford O. Applewhite
IUPUI of Indianapolis
Junior, Biology
Mentor: Dr. Pierre-Andre Jacinthe, IUPUI School of Science, Department of Geology,
Indianapolis, IN 46202

                            The Effect of Clay on Survival of E. coli in Waters

          The presence of pathogenic E. coli in abundance in waters is a public health concern. This
abundance is often caused by runoff from manure-amended farmland after heavy rainfall. In the runoff, E.
coli are in a suspension containing clay particles onto which E. coli can be adsorbed. Attachment to clay
particles can provide E. coli with a protection mechanism against various types of abiotic inactivation, thus
prolonging the activity of E. coli in waters. Because E. coli can attach to clay particles, does clay
concentration affect its survival in contaminated waters? The fact that different types of clays have different
charge densities, does clay type affect the level of protection provided? This project proposes to compare
the survival of E. coli in suspension with two types of clays vermiculite and kaolinite. A control containing
clear water and E. coli will also be included. Samples will be analyzed using Standard Method 9222B to
measure total E. coli population in contaminated models. Data will be evaluated to determine if E. coli
population increase or decrease overtime, and the survival rate of E. coli will be established.

Zain Bengali and Lonnie D. Shea
Northwestern University
Graduate Student, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering
Principal Investigator: Lonnie D. Shea

                            Cellular Internalization and Distribution of DNA
                               Complexes from Cell-Adhesive Substrates

          Enhancing localized gene expression is requisite to successful application of gene delivery in gene
therapy, tissue engineering and functional genomics. Our approach to enhancing localized expression
involves improving the delivery system. Substrate-mediated delivery strives to overcome barriers in
localized gene transfer by immobilizing DNA in the cellular microenvironment, thereby increasing the
DNA concentration proximal to the cells. The challenge in substrate-mediated delivery is to immobilize
complexes for retention on the substrate while also allowing complex release for subsequent cellular
          We hypothesized that influencing the interaction between complex and substrate would enhance
transgene expression by increasing cellular internalization and improving the cellular distribution of DNA
complexes. Coating polystyrene substrates with serum yielded up to 1500-fold enhancement in expression
with polyethylenimine (PEI) polyplexes when compared to delivery from a non-coated substrate. The
delivery of Lipofectamine 2000 lipoplexes from serum-coated substrates enhanced the number of cells
expressing reporter gene. After 24 hours, 100% of cells had internalized polyplexes from serum-coated
substrates, whereas only 30% of cells had internalized polyplexes from uncoated tissue culture polystyrene
substrates. Lipoplexes delivered from the substrates had similar internalization distribution. Understanding
the mechanisms in substrate-mediated delivery will enhance the application of gene delivery in vitro and in

Karinna M. Campbell; Michael A. Watkins; Sen Li; Brian Winger; Hilkka I. Kenttämaa
Purdue University
Ph.D. Candidate, Dept. of Chemistry

Functional-group Selective Ion-Molecule Reactions: Mass Spectrometric Identification of the Amido
                     Functionality in Protonated Monofunctional Compounds

          Rapid identification of drug degradation products directly in a mixture is important in the
pharmaceutical industry. Elemental connectivity and functional group information of the components can
be obtained from spectroscopic techniques, such as IR and NMR. However, these methods require the
isolation of the individual components within the mixture before analysis. Further, due to the low
sensitivity of these spectroscopic methods, large sample amounts are required to complete the elucidation
process. Alternative mixture analysis techniques that allow for a more efficient and direct detailed
description of the functional groups within an unknown mixture are desirable. Mass spectrometry (MS),
when coupled to HPLC and ESI, circumvents the need for prior mixture component isolation and requires
only a small sample amount for analysis. Also, MS allows for the employment of structure characterization
methods, such as collision-activated dissociation (CAD) and exact mass measurements, which provide
connectivity and elemental composition information for the protonated mixture components. We report
here a new method which allows for the identification of the amido functionality in protonated
monofunctional analytes. A neutral aminoborane reacts in MS with protonated amides to derivatize the
amido functionality. Reactions of protonated amines and monofunctional-oxygen containing compounds
with the borane were studied – none of these compounds react with the aminoborane. Therefore, the ability
to distinguish protonated amides from other protonated nitrogen- and oxygen-containing functionalities is
possible via boron-derivatization reactions.

Bartunde Cola, Changrui Cheng, Tim Fisher, Xianfan Xu
Purdue University, W. Lafayette Campus
Graduate Student, Mechanical Engineering and Birck Nanotechnology Center
Mentor: Dr. Tim Fisher, Mechanical Engineering and Birck Nanotechnology Center

                           Thermal Resistance of Carbon Nanotube Interfaces
                               Measured by a Photoacoustic Technique

          The trend of increasing microprocessor power density accelerates the need for advanced heat
dissipation schemes. As a result of this trend, reducing the heat sink/processor chip interface thermal
resistance is pivotal in allowing for reliable chip operation. In this study carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays are
explored for their potential as a low resistance, dry thermal interface material.
A photoacoustic technique is used to investigate the resistance to heat flow of an interface created by
sandwiching a CNT array grown atop, and adhered to a silicon (Si) substrate between the Si substrate and a
copper (Cu) disk. The photoacoustic technique is a minimally intrusive technique that involves laser
heating of the sample, and the indirect determination of the samples temperature gradient from a pressure
(acoustic) signal. From this information the thermal resistance of the CNT interface is determined.
The thermal resistance of a Si-CNT-Cu interface is measured using a photoacoustic technique and
compares well with the literature. The addition of the CNT array to the Si-Cu interface is observed to
reduce the interface resistance by more than 100%. This reduction in resistance is thought to be the result
of the increased contact area provided by the CNT array, and the intrinsically high thermal conductivity of
the CNTs.

Kelly J. Cross, Sang-Yup Lee
Purdue University, West Lafayette Campus
Junior, Chemical Engineering
Mentor: Dr. Michael T. Harris, School of Chemical Engineering

              Microemulsion Synthesis Of Particles For Controlled Release Applications

Microemulsion is a convenient technique to prepare a thermodynamically stable, optically isotropic
solution of two immiscible liquids (such as water and oil). Microemulsions consists of micro domains of
one or both liquids stabilized by an interfacial film of surfactant. In this research, a reliable process for the
preparation of micelle structures encapsulating an aqueous KMnO4 solution and for the preparation of core-
shell structured silica micro particles from the prepared micelle is studied. A combination of non-ionic and
ionic surfactant is investigated to suspend the aqueous KMnO4 solution in the oily, organic continuous
phase. Various oily organic solvents and cosurfactants are analyzed to identify the most chemically
advantageous system for micellation. After the micelle formation, the cosurfactant concentration is
manipulated to achieve the desired particle size range. Finally a thin porous silica layer is coated on the
micelle via sol-gel method. A base catalyst, NH3, and TEOS solution were combined to construct the thin
layer coating. Characterization of the micelle and silica core-shell structured micro particles was performed
through TEM and dynamic light scattering to investigate the morphology and size distribution,

Gregory A. Garrett
Indiana University, Bloomington Campus
Senior, Informatics
Mentor: Kalpana Shankrar, School of Informatics

                       The Ethical Study of Implantable Microchip Technology

          The objective of examining the ethics behind implantable microchip technology is to answer the
fundamental question, “Are new technologies that have the capability to compromise basic human rights
still be useful to society.”
In order to capture proper and credible information about a new technology a literature review must be
done. For this research project a literature review on similar technologies, RFID Tags, GPS satellite
systems, and large databases are the three main technologies which make up implantable microchips. In
addition an extensive research study was conducted on the main corporation in which created the first
patent for this technology Applied Digital Systems.
In the findings of the research many of these previous technologies have ethical issues in which needs to be
addressed individually. However, with the proper use of these technologies steps can be made within the
production and creation of implantable microchips that do not allow extra unknown uses and misuses by
hackers and distributors alike. In addition checks and balances between these technologies will allow
proper use while discouraging improper uses.

Melissa Gholston, Brian O’Donnell, Misty Bodkins and Andrew Bismark
Indiana University, Bloomington Campus
Senior, Psychology
Mentor: Brian O’Donnell, School of Arts and Sciences

                 Clinical Predictors of Recurrent Mood Episodes in Bipolar Disorder

          The purpose of the study is to determine if neuropsychological or symptom measures are good
predictors of subsequent relapse in patients with bipolar disorder (BP). This is a longitudinal study that
includes 22 BP participants. Each participant received clinical and psychological evaluation at entry into
the study and was followed at monthly intervals with phone interviews. The clinical evaluations were
conducted at Larue D. Carter Hospital where neuropsychological testing, symptom measurement,
diagnostic interviews and electroencephalogram (EEG) tests were given.
After the initial evaluation, participants were contacted by phone once a month and asked about their
current emotional, occupational and mental state. Diagnosis of mood episodes was conducted using the
Structural Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Diagnosis (SCID-I).
At evaluation, 19 BP participants were euthymic, and 3 were in an acute episode. To date, participants
have been followed for 4 months. 9 / 22 participants had relapsed during the follow up period (3 at month
one, 4 at month two, 6 at month three and 9 at month four). Interviewer ratings of symptoms predicted
immediate relapse, whereas self reported measures predicted relapse later in the follow up period.
Neuropsychological performance at initial evaluation was not related to future relapse.

Maria E. Hernandez, Gail Hardy, Yves Brun
Indiana University, Bloomington, IN
Undergraduate, Senior, Biology
Mentor: Dr. Yves Brun

                  Purification and Characterization of the holdfast attachment protein
                                   HfaA from Caulobacter crescentus.

          Attachment is an important process for all bacteria to establish themselves in the environment or
in a host so it is important to understand the mechanism of adherence. The bacterium Caulobacter
crescentus uses a multistep process for adhering to surfaces. Caulobacter is an excellent model for studying
adherence because it is the only known function of the holdfast, an adhesive cell component comprised of
polysaccharides and proteins. The Hfa proteins are associated with the polysaccharide component of the
holdfast such that hfaA, hfaB or hfaD mutations result in release of the holdfast from the cell. It is not clear
what role the Hfa proteins play within the holdfast.
          HfaA is similar to bacterial fimbrial proteins, which are involved in attachment. I am defining the
biochemical properties of HfaA in holdfast attachment through overexpression and purification of HfaA
protein in Escherchia coli. Purified HfaA will also be used to generate HfaA-specific antibodies. We are
optimizing growth conditions for HfaA expression and determining the solubility of the HfaA protein for
purification using a nickel affinity column., Because HfaA forms aggregates, it has proven difficult to
isolate in a soluble form. Alternatively, a smaller portion of HfaA will be isolated for characterization.

Hobbs J.E., Zakarija A., Hymen E., Cundiff D.L., Doll J.A., Morrissey J., Soff G.A.
Northwestern University, University of Chicago

 Expression of alternatively spliced human tissue factor in human cancer cell lines and its effect on
                                       tumor growth in vivo.

Background: Tissue factor (TF) has been linked to tumor growth, progression, and thrombotic
complications. Recently, a 25 kDa alternatively spliced form of human tissue factor (asHTF) was
identified (Bogdanov et al. 2003). In asHTF, exon 5 is deleted, resulting in a frame shift, loss of the
transmembrane domain, and an alternative COOH-terminal domain. The function of asHTF in normal cells
and cancer cells is not known.
Aims: (1) To examine the expression of asHTF in human pancreatic cell lines; (2) to assess the
procoagulant activity of asHTF; (3) to determine the effect of asHTF expression on tumor growth in mice.
Materials & Methods: RNA was isolated from a panel of six human pancreatic cancer cell lines. RT-PCR
for TF, followed by sequencing, detected both wild-type TF (TFwt) and asHTF. Immunoblots were done
with anti-TF antibody (10H10) or a specific antiserum for asHTF. MiaPaCa-2 cells, which express no
detectable TF, were transfected to establish lines containing vector alone, TFwt, asHTF. A modified plasma
clotting assay was used to test serum-free conditioned media for procoagulant activity. Transfected
MiaPaCa-2 cells were subcutaneously injected into the flanks of nude mice, and tumor growth was
monitored. Mice were sacrificed and tumor tissue was harvested, fixed, sectioned and stained.
Results: asHTF and TFwt RNA and protein were expressed by a panel of pancreatic cancer and glioma cell
lines,. Transfectionof MiaPaCa-2 cells, which lack both asHTF and TFwt expression, indicated that the
TFwt conferred procoagulant activity to the conditioned media, but asHTF did not. Interestingly,
transfection of asHTF cDNA enhanced tumor growth of MiaPaCa-2 cells in nude mice, but transfection of
TFwt did not result in enhanced tumor growth.
Conclusions: We now show that asHTF is expressed in 5 of 6 human pancreatic cell lines. Further, the
asHTF protein has no detectable procoagulant activity. Although TF expression has been widely linked to
enhanced cancer growth in animals and humans, we saw no effect from TF wt on MiaPaCa-2 growth in

mice. However, asHTF expression did enhance tumor growth in mice. Investigation of the mechanism of
asHTF effect(s) on tumor growth and potential functions, and protein-protein interactions is in progress.

Micah Leestma
Purdue University, Calumet Campus
Junior, Biology
Mentor: Dr. Joseph Bularzik, Department of Chemistry and Physics

 Dehydration of Copper II Sulfate Pentahydrate (CuSO 4*5H2O) Using Thermogravimetric Analysis

          Previous research conducted at Purdue University Calumet investigated the dehydration of copper
II sulfate powder by means of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). TGA is a method of heating a sample,
and measuring the mass loss vs. temperature in real time. The results showed a mass percent vs.
temperature dehydration curve similar to the accepted curves from many literature sources. Samples of the
powder were dehydrated at elevated temperatures. The samples were then re-hydrated. These were
dehydrated, and the curves were different from the original. IR and X-ray were performed on the hydrated
and re-hydrated samples, and no differences in the peaks were noted.
The current research is investigating copper II sulfate crystals using the same procedure. The results
showed a mass percent vs. temperature curve similar to that of CuSO 4 powder. Re-hydration was achieved
for the crystals. These crystals were then dehydrated, and the curve was similar to the dehydration curve of
the re-hydrated powder
          Upcoming work will be to compare hydrated and re-hydrated crystals by X-ray, and by solution

Richard Lindsay
Student, Mechanical Engineering
Mentor: Dr. Patrick Gee

                                        Interactive Learning Tool

         To supplement instructional material and methods in the Purdue School of Engineering and
Technology (PSET), IUPUI Freshman Engineering Program, my research project focuses on creating and
implementing projects that could be used to help freshman engineering students learn by project based
work. Initially a spring constant measuring apparatus was built that could be used to observe the different
characteristics of a spring.Various problems involving a spring could then be solved using
Matlabprogramming software designed to write mathematical algorithms and functions to solve various
calculations. Following the first apparatus a robot or Boe-Bot was constructed. After building the Boe-Bot
from Parallax, Inc, different electrical problems are under investigation using the electrical circuit
components. The robot also has its own programming language for students to consider new coding
algorithms. These applications are being researched to maximize the freshman engineering student's
learning experience.

Christine Little and Dale Sengelaub
Indiana University, Bloomington, IN
Senior, Psychology Major
Mentor: Dale Sengelaub, Psychology Dept.

    Neuroprotective Effects of Testosterone in Motoneurons Innervating the Quadriceps Muscles

          Androgens have been shown to possess neuroprotective effects in motoneurons in sexually
dimorphic, highly androgen-sensitive areas of the spinal cord following partial motoneuron depletion. To
test whether androgens have similar effects in more typical motoneurons, we examined potential
neuroprotective effects in motoneurons
innervating two muscles of the quadriceps: the vastus medialis and the vastus lateralis. We injected saporin
conjugated to the cholera toxin B subunit (CTB-saporin) into the left vastus medialis muscle to selectively
deplete its innervating motoneurons. One group of saporin-injected animals were gonadally intact.
Another group of saporin-injected animals were castrated and given immediate testosterone replacement.
A group of same-aged untreated rats served as a control group. Four weeks following the saporin
injections, the left vastus lateralis muscle was injected with horseradish peroxidase conjugated to the
cholera toxin B subunit (BHRP) to retrogradely label the motoneurons. Gonadally-intact, saporin-injected
animals showed dendrites decreased in length. However, dendritic lengths of the saporin-injected,
testosterone-treated animals were comparable to those of normal control animals. These findings suggest
that testosterone has neuroprotective effects not only on highly androgen-sensitive motoneurons, but on
more typical motoneuron populations as well.

Mervin Matthew
Indiana University, Bloomington, IN
Mentor: Jerome Busemeyer, Cognitive Psychology

          Since Tversky and Shafir (1992) first discovered it, the disjunction effect, a violation of Savage’s
Sure-Thing Principle (STP; 1954), has raised much interest. Although Shafir and Tversky were able to
demonstrate it using a variety of methods (including two-step gambles and hypothetical situations), only
their study utilizing the prisoner’s dilemma was successfully replicated (Li and Taplin, 2002). We
reviewed the various explanations for why the effect surfaced, including a new possibility involving the
application of quantum theories to decision-making. We then used computer agents to successfully
replicate the prisoner’s dilemma disjunction effect (Shafir and Tversky, 1992) and evaluated the previous
explanations in light of our results.

Melissa Mertz, Megan Eealy, Donald Pappas, and Karlett Parra-Belky
Ball State University, Muncie, IN
Senior, Cell and Molecular Biology, Department of Chemistry

                            GFP & GST tagging of the V-ATPase subunit C

          The focus of this study is the subunit C of the yeast V-ATPase complex, an ATP-driven proton
pump responsible for organelle acidification. V-ATPases consist of two domains, V1, which hydrolyzes
ATP, and V0, that forms the proton pore. In the absence of glucose, V 1 and V0 dissociate from each other,
and the V1 subunit C completely dissociates from V1 (V1-C). Disassembly inactivates the proton pump
preventing energy expenditure when glucose levels are low. This event is reversible and addition of
glucose back to glucose-deprived cells triggers reassociation of V1-C, V0, and the subunit C.
          In order to determine the intracellular location of subunit C during disassembly and its potential
association with other cellular proteins in response to glucose availability, we are tagging subunit C. Two
constructs of subunit C were made in this study; C-GST-C and C-GFP-C. C-GST-C will be used for pull
down analysis and C-GFP-C for in vitro fluorescence labeling. We are currently characterizing protein
extracts from yeast cell cultures transformed with each construct individually. Expression and stability of
the tagged subunit was analyzed by SDS-PAGE and Western blots and the results from this study will be

Leon Nowlin
Sophomore, New Media
Mentor: Donald Huckleberry

                                 Analysis of Visual Effects through Time

          This summer I explored the change or lack of change in visual effects through time by comparing
and contrasting three sets of films. I began by choosing movies which were remakes of older movies with
at least 15 years between the original and the remake. First, I observed techniques used, taking into
consideration the time period and the success of the movie with emphasis on the effects and minimizing the
plot or storyline. Then through analysis of the techniques used I contrasted them to their counterparts,
noting the success or failure of the change and the relevance of time period. I obtained additional
information by researching documentaries, film commentary, literature (both online and hard copies), and
through the “behind the scenes” parts of the DVDs. The presentation will show these differences and
similarities and will include clips from each movie for examples.

                                              Godzilla (1956)
                                              Godzilla (1998)

                                               Titanic (1953)
                                               Titanic (1997)

                                                Dune (1984)
                                                Dune (2000)

Chinenye Gloria Odionye, Doug Evans
Indiana University Bloomington
Junior, General Education
Mentor: Dr. Ed Hirt, Department of Psychology

 Priming age group 18-25 mostly, student from Indiana University Bloomington. For the purpose of
                    change in mood after being exposed, to subliminal words.

          For many years psychologists have studied the effects of priming on human’s subsequent
impressions of others and the effects of these impressions. Priming refers to the incidental activation of
knowledge structures, such as trait concepts and stereotypes, by the current
situational context. Following the experiments performed by Bargh, Chen, and Burrows; on direct effects
of trait construct and stereotype activation. The experiments were used to find out if different racial groups
were primed with pictures or words that were derogatory to them if they will react. This article discusses
“whether priming people with the words of the elderly that is subliminal
messages (Florida, slow) have an effect on their mood”. Forty participants comprising of both males and
females were experimented on, to see if this kind of words will give a change in their mood level. Results
show that the ones that were flashed with subliminal messages had a change of mood due to the fact that
they walked slower and remembered fewer words than the ones that were not.

Anthony Pettes, Matt Maschmann, Placidus Amama, Tim Fisher
Graduate Student, Mechanical Engineering Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN
Mentor: Dr. Tim Fisher, Mechanical Engineering and Birck Nanotechnology Center, Purdue

                      Effects of Voltage Bias on Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes
                       Grown by Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition

         Current advances in nanofabrication and microscopy/spectroscopy have propagated significant
research focusing on the promising mechanical, electrical, and thermal properties of carbon nanotubes that
make them exceptional candidates for integration into microelectronic systems. In this study, high-quality
single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) have been synthesized from H 2–CH4 mixtures on a MgO-
supported bimetallic Mo/Co catalyst using microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition
(PECVD). The effect of substrate voltage bias during the PECVD process has been examined to assess its
influence on SWCNT synthesis. Raman spectroscopy and high-resolution field emission scanning electron
microscopy reveal that the selectivity, density, length, and predominant diameter of SWCNTs depend on
the varied substrate voltage bias. Results of this study can be used to optimize SWCNT synthesis
conditions and products and to improve understanding of the growth of SWCNTs by PECVD.

Tiffany M. Sanders, B.S. MSE
Purdue University, West Lafayette
Junior, School of Materials Engineering
Mentor: Dr. Kevin P. Trumble, School of Materials Engineering

                                      Niobium as a Raney Metal Catalyst
          Raney metal catalysts are used in industrial processes such as hydrogenation and reductive
alkylation reactions because they allow high activity at low temperatures by increasing the rate of reaction
which leads to milder reaction conditions. Due to the ability of niobium to form an aluminum rich phase,
NbAl3 that exhibits a BCT, DO22 crystal structure, niobium is considered for possible use as a Raney
catalyst. The purpose of this research is to determine if niobium can be used to form a Raney metal
          An alloy containing 40 wt% Nb and 60 wt% Al was cast for metallographic characterization. The
Aluminum-Niobium phase diagram was used to predict a eutectic and NbAl 3 as the two phases for the
given composition, however XRD showed NbAl 3 as the primary phase and an Al secondary phase. Optical
microscopy revealed that an alloy containing a volume fraction of 65% NbAl 3 can be prepared. Optical
microscopy also showed apparent second phase particles within the NbAl 3 phase. From the leeching
experiments, it appears that the aluminum within the alloy will react with a 20 wt% sodium hydroxide
solution; however, the reaction should be expedited by heating the solution between 70 and 90°C.

David Scott
Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis
Sophomore, Civil Engineering Technology
Mentor: Dr. Daphene Cry Koch, Civil Engineering Technology

                                           Concrete Admixtures

          Concrete can be manipulated by adding chemical compounds to its mixture to improve its
response to certain climates. These chemical compounds are called concrete admixtures or concrete
additives. I believe that by adding some of these compounds to a mixture of concrete can decrease the
compression strength of the cured concrete structure. In order to test this theory I had to narrow the
admixtures down to one or two. I decided to choose a mid range water reducer and a super plasticizer,
which is a type of water reducer, as my focus point of the experiment. The slump of the concrete, the size
of the concrete testing cylinder and the curing time must be consistent throughout the experiment. In order
to test the concrete for its compression strength, the concrete must be poured in a cylinder shape and cured
before it is set in the structural testing machine. The structural testing machine crushes the concrete and
records the maximum stress the cylinder shaped concrete can withstand. If my results indicate that adding
water reducers to concrete weakens its compression strength, then I would like to take it to a lab that
conducts biaxial stress and strain tests to see if the water reducers inhibit concrete in other ways besides

Renã A. Sowell, Katherine E. Hersberger, Thomas C. Kaufman, and David E. Clemmer
Indiana University, Bloomington, IN
Graduate Student, Analytical Chemistry
Mentor: Dr. David E. Clemmer, Department of Chemistry

            Clues from the Drosophila Aging Proteome for Influencing Organism Lifespan

           Organism lifespan is influenced by a number of factors. In particular, parameters such as caloric
intake, genetic manipulations, metabolic rate and environmental factors have been shown to affect lifespan
in yeast, worms, mice and flies. The goal of this study is to elucidate mechanisms at the protein level that
are implicated in the aging process. The ability to assess molecular changes with age through proteomics
measurements may provide clues that lead to systematic design strategies for lifespan enhancement in the
model organism Drosophila. Tryptic peptides from the heads of flies are analyzed by strong cation
exchange on-line reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RP LC) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) and
on-line RP LC coupled to gas-phase ion mobility spectrometry MS/MS. Relative abundances of each
protein over time are estimated by the number of unique peptides assigned to a protein and the peak
intensities associated with specific peptides. The relative abundance of prophenoloxidase encoded by the
Black cells gene, involved in immune response, decreased by an order of magnitude throughout the adult
lifespan. The effects of prophenoloxidase expression on adult Drosophila longevity will be determined.
In addition, the effects of environmental temperature on both the lifespan and the aging proteome will be

Sara Sorrell, Donald Pappas, Karlett Parra-Belky
Ball State University, Muncie, IN
Doctoral Student, Department of Chemistry
Mentor: Dr. Karlett Parra-Belky and Dr. Donald Pappas

                        Mutagenesis Analysis of the Yeast V-ATPase Subunit d

          The vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase) is an ATP-driven proton pump found in the endomembrane
system of all eukaryotic cells. V-ATPases are responsible for organelle acidification which is essential for
zymogen activation, calcium and phosphate storage, cytosolic pH regulation, and ion homeostasis. The
V-ATPase subunit d is a membrane protein highly conserved from yeast to human. In order to better
understand the function of this subunit, we made mutations in the most conserved regions of subunit d,
including the residues E285A, F192A, R181A, and Y188A. In this study, each residue was changed to
alanine by site-directed mutagenesis. We are currently characterizing these mutants by examining their
ability to assemble functional V-ATPase complexes in yeast.

Edem Gerard Tetteh
Purdue University, West Lafayette
Doctoral Student, Industrial Technology
Mentor: Dr. Niaz Latif, College of Technology

                 Evaluation of Obese Workers Risk Perception of Workspace Design:
                                      Case of Office Settings

          Workspace design plays an important role in ensuring worker’s safety and welfare. The
issue is more pressing in the manufacturing setting, where workers are in a standing position for a
long time. Any improvement of the actual conception of the workspace, related to a worker fitting
into his or her assigned space, will be an improvement for the entire occupational safety
          The United States population has been growing more diverse since immigration
regulations are becoming more lenient and the American economy more attractive to citizens from
other countries. Evidence shows that an increased number of population in the United States is
obese due to the change in eating habits. The prediction for the future does not give a better
forecast but an even more obese workforce. This situation is alarming and calls for a reassessment
of the available anthropometric data that is utilized for workspace design. This study used an
online survey to evaluate the perception of different categories of workers, such as people who are
underweight, normal weight, overweight and obese, of health-and-safety risk of office space
design. Results from this study will help in the design of workspaces that will better fit us all.

Diana Vasquez, Ricardo Decca, Merrell Johnson
Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis
Sophomore, Electrical Engineering
Mentor: Dr. Ricardo Decca, Electrical Engineering

                           Building a thermoelectric heating and cooling system

          Dr. Decca’s group is involved in the study of supported lipid bilayers. These are a first idealization
of cellular membranes. Membranes compartmentalize cells and the organelles therein, controlling all
communication between the inside and outside. At temperatures where the membrane forms a liquid
crystalline state, it is hypothesized that the components of the membrane form microdomains or rafts. The
membrane constituents can move within these domains, and it is believed that this diffusion and
organization is critical for cell membranes functionality. Thus, it is tremendously important to understand
the lateral diffusion of the components on the synthetic membrane. The material of the samples being used
present several phase transitions and, in order to gain a complete understanding of their physicochemical
behavior, it is important to be able to modify and precisely control their temperature. Another
undergraduate student designed and built a thermoelectric cooler/heater stage (TEC). The main goal of this
project is to build a controller for the TEC.
  To achieve this goal, the following steps will be taken:
  1. Monitor values of two thermistors that will be located close to the sample and to the TEC. The
        outputs of these units will be used to monitor the temperature of the sample.
  2. Complete and test the controller circuit based upon the specifications for this particular system.
  3. Build a chamber where the sample and other components will be encapsulated. In order to
        determine how the TEC distributes the heat, different measurements of temperature uniformity
        inside the chamber will be taken.

The thermistor that will be used to monitor the temperature of the sample was calibrated. The circuits of the
controller and driver have been successfully built. A layout of the board in which the circuits will be placed
is being designed. The success of the study of lipid bilayers could potentially depend on the temperature of
the sample, which can only be managed through a precise and efficient heating and cooling system.

Amanda Wilson
Indiana University, Purdue University Indianapolis
Sophomore, Biology
Mentor: Dr. Pamella Crowell, School of Science

                   The Effects of PRL-1 and PRL-2 on Cell Invasion and Metastasis

         The PRL-1, PRL-2, and PRL-3 tyrosine phosphatases are expressed in all normal cells. The three
protein tyrosine phosphatases share 76-87% amino acid sequence identity. Previous experiments have
shown that all three genes accelerate cell growth. PRL-1, -2 cause tumor formation in vivo and PRL-3 is
known to increase invasion and metastasis. Invasion assays were done on cancerous MIA PaCa-2 cells to
evaluate the invasiveness of cancer cells. To establish the effects of PRL-1, -2 on cell invasion and
metastasis, cell invasion assays will be done on MCF10a cells stably transfected with the PRL genes.

Sannah Ziama
Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis
Sophomore, Physics and Mechanical Engineering
Mentor: Dr. Ricardo Decca, School of Science

                            Determination of Energy levels in Quantum Dots

Quantum dots, sometimes called artificial atoms, can be assembled using different semi-conductor
materials. In our case we are using a system in which the inner layer, core, is made of Cadmium Selenide
(CdSe) and the outer layer, shell, is made of Zinc Sulfide (ZnS).Both analytical and numerical tools are
used to perform the computations of the equations that describe the parameters considered. Our interest in
investigating QDs stems from their fundamental properties and possibly their application in the
construction of quantum computers. We will create a generalized mechanism to accurately calculate the
energy levels of electrons in QDs. Results will be compared with ongoing experiments for the purpose of
verification. It is our goal to complete this project by the end of the summer and to provide the results to
future researchers who may be willing to advance the query.

            LSAMP/AGEP Conference 2005 - Poster Presentation Abstracts

Bridgett Coleman
Ball State University
Senior, Chemistry
Mentor: Dr. Patricia L. Lang

                    Synthesis and Investigation of Cadmium Selenide Nanoparticles

Our research involved modifying a procedure for the synthesis of cadmium selenide (CdSe) nanoparticles
written by scientists at Materials Research Science and Engineering Center at the University of Wisconsin
for the purpose of developing a new undergraduate physical chemistry lab. CdSe nanoparticles have
certain interesting and unique properties in the 1-10 nm dimensions. One property, photoluminescence,
occurs when an electron in a semiconductor is promoted from the valence band to the conduction band,
leaving a positively charged hole behind; the recombination of the electron hole pair emits a photon of light
that is a longer wavelength then what is originally absorbed. The synthesis of CdSe nanoparticles included
mixing a selenium solution in the presence of cadmium, and small samples were removed at increasingly
high temperatures. Using fluorometry and UV-VIS spectroscopy, the particles were characterized. The
results indicated that the wavelength of CdSe nanoparticles became longer as they grew larger in size. The
laboratory illustrates the synthesis and behavior of quantum dots, and uses quantum theory to model the
behavior. We plan to alter the procedure in the future to obtain larger particles.

Devon L. Collins, Phillip Penny
Ball State University
Senior, Pre-Medicine/Psychology
Mentor: Dr. Derron Bishop, Indiana University School of Medicine – Muncie

                          Synapse Loss and Reinnervation in the SOD1 Mouse
                               Model of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

          Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS or Lou Gehrig’s disease) is a disease that is characterized by
degeneration of the motoneurons that control muscles. The primary focus of this project is to better
understand the consequences of a mutation in the superoxide dismutase (SOD1) gene that has been shown
to cause motoneuron degeneration in a subset of patients with ALS. We used double transgenic mice that
express the mutated SOD1 gene and a gene for green fluorescent protein in their motoneurons to directly
view motoneuron degeneration using correlated confocal and serial electron microscopy. We found that
not all motoneurons degenerate at once. Rather, branchlets of motoneurons vacate some muscle fibers
while maintaining healthy connections to other fibers supporting the idea of a muscle-derived signal that is
toxic to axon branches. Surprisingly, we found evidence of reinnervation during asymptomatic and
symptomatic stages of the disease. Many muscle fibers exhibited escaped fibers that grew towards adjacent
denervated muscle fibers. Many fibers were also multiply-innervated suggesting mechanisms responsible
for reinnervation are intact. Together, these results suggest subpopulations of motoneurons are more
susceptible to the disease and Schwann cells are not likely to be the proximate cause of denervation and
synapse loss during ALS.

Nicole L. Crutcher, Kyle R. Gilbert, Zohreh Amoozgar
Ball State University Department of Chemistry
Junior, Chemistry
Mentor: Lynn R. Sousa, Professor of Chemistry

                  Progress on the Synthesis of a Symmetrical Dihydroxydibenzo-26-Crown-8

       Crown ethers complex selected metal ions, ammonium ions, and potentially, other electron deficient species.
With proper functionalization a crown ether might sequester and signal the presence of ions or electron deficient
molecules; or from the other perspective, complexed ions or molecules might alter the conformation and properties
of the crown ether. The target dihydroxydibenzo-26-crown-8 is designed to be an attachable jaw that can be
combined with one or two chromophores to produce fluorescent chemosensors. Progress towards the preparation of
this new 26-crown-8 will be presented. Known intermediates such as bis-1,2[2-hydroxyethoxy]benzene (1), bis-
1,2[2-(3-chloro-2-hydroxypopoxy)ethoxy]benzene (2), and bis-1,2[2-(2,3-epoxypropoxy)ethoxy]benzene (3) have
been synthesized using several different methods and purification techniques. Our approaches to the formation of
the “jaw” crown ether by reaction of 1 with 3 will be described..

Branly Eugene, Darrell Schulze, Brad Joern
Purdue University, W. Lafayette Campus
Master, Environmental Science
Mentor: Dr. Brad Joern, Agronomy

                     Inorganic and Organic Phosphorus Sorption by Iron Oxides

          Iron Oxides and hydroxides are highly reactive soil components that can largely control soil P
sorption. Our objective was to quantify the sorption of inorganic P and three organic P compounds
(adenosine triphosphate, glucose 6 phosphate, and inositol hexaphosphate) by both amorphous and
crystalline iron oxides. The P compounds were added either individually (noncompetitive) or in
combination with each other (competitive) using a 24 hour sorption isotherms. The results and implications
of this study will be presented in this poster.

Tony Gutierrez
Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis
Junior, Mathematics and Secondary Education
Mentor: Professor/Co-Author: Dr. Rafael Bahamonde

                   Biomechanical Analysis of the Regular and Smith Squat Exercises

         The squat exercise is an exercise which is primarily utilized for strength training amongst athletes.
Throughout this study, the types of squat exercises which we will be examining are the Regular and Smith
Machine Squats. The Regular squat uses an Olympic weight bar, and the lifter squats without constraints in
a linear motion. The Smith Machine squat requires the lifter to enter a machine which constrains their
lifting motion and does not allow for adjustment. These two exercises stimulate the lower leg and back
muscles including the quadriceps, gluteus maximus, and latissimus dorsi while exerting extensive forces at
the knee joint. By performing a biomechanical analysis of these exercises we want to determine which of
the two causes less stress on the body parts, and in turn is the better exercise. Twenty subjects, ten male and
ten female, will be videotaped from two separate angles while performing the two types of squats. Their
ground reaction forces will be recorded using two AMTI force platforms synchronized with the video. The
motion analysis software KWON-3D will be used to obtain the three-dimensional coordinates of the body
and to compute the mechanical parameters as well as analyze the forces and motions observed through the
captured video.

Brian Heiberger, Solomon Brown
Purdue University Calumet
Senior, Chemistry
Mentor: Dr. Libbie S. W. Pelter, Dr. Michael W. Pelter

                      Synthesis and Coupling of Halogenated Benzene Compounds
                       Useful In The Construction of Nanoelectronic Components

         The synthesis of individual organic molecules with designed nanoarchitectures and functional
groups incorporating key properties has become an intense area of research in molecular electronics. A
novel synthesis of 1-bromo-3,5-diiodobenzene was completed. This substrate provides the template for the
construction of nanoelectronic components such as switches and connectors. Further elaboration of this
substrate and the complementary 1-bromo-3-chloro-5-iodobenzene through Sonogashira coupling reactions
was also explored.

Azzari C. Jarrett
Northwestern University
PhD Candidate, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science
Mentor: Brian M. Dennis, Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS)

                    NusEye: Designing for Social Navigation in Syndicated Content

NusEye is an information system for syndicated content which is extended to support the collaborative activity
of users, also known as social navigation.
NusEye allows users to apply ad-hoc keywords, or tags, to sources of Web syndicated information.
Applied tags are visible to all users in the system. NusEye can identify the most popular tags and
webfeeds. The entire community benefits from the aggregation and collective tagging efforts of each
individual by being able to search tags and/or users in order to find new webfeed sources. Furthermore,
NusEye offers special content analysis based on keyword tags. Users can apply various dynamically
updated analyses on the content generated by groups of sources.
Key contributions include the selection of an interface in which social communities and networks can form
from the use of tags, content analysis that is beneficial for syndicated content, and the presentation of
analysis results.

Cameron Jiles
Indiana University – Purdue University Indianapolis
Junior, Computer Engineering
Mentor: Dr. Jose Ramos

                 Flow Regulation of a Two Tank System Using Actuators and Sensors

          Hydro systems are composed of multiple reservoirs. These systems regulate water flow. One
example of a hydro system is a water plant. The system controls water output due to changes in demand.
The purpose of this project is to design an experiment to control water levels in a two tank system. The
first tank receives an external inflow and releases its outflow into the second tank. The second tank will
then produce an outflow into the environment. An actuator will regulate external inflow to the first tank
based on an error signal produced from the controller. This error signal will be the difference between the
desired water level hD(t) and the water level of the second tank h2(t), which will be measured by a level
sensor. Various parameters must be found to design the experiment. These include areas of the tanks, tank
valve coefficients, the initial height of the lower tank, and the gain of the controller. Results of the
experiment will be h2(t) as an attenuated (or shrinking) sine wave that will fluctuate about hD(t), which may
be a step function. The key is to obtain hD(t) with minimal error. This will ensure optimal controller

Rohan E. Johnson
Purdue University Calumet
Senior, Chemistry/Pre-Medicine
Mentor: Dr. Harold W. Pinnick

                            Medicinal Uses of Cannabinoids Uses and Limitations

         The purpose of this project is to study the limitations and mechanistic implications for a new
method to make cannabinoids. Cannabinoids are being studied in the field of medicine for its properties as
anti-convulsive, anti-inflammatory and anti-fungal agents. This work shows the results collected from
making a cannabinoid analog starting with Citronellal. The intention of this experiment is to prove, or
disprove that, when mixed with various reagents, Citronellal compounds express carbon ring closures.
Ring closures in the Citronellal compounds will demonstrate characteristics of cannabinoid derivatives
leading to further testing of its medicinal properties. All results produced will be discussed as discovered.

Michele V. Manuel
Northwestern University
Ph.D. Candidate, Materials Science and Engineering
Mentor: Dr. Gregory Olson

                            Design of a Biomimetic Self-Healing Alloy Composite

The goal of this research is to use computational design methods to design a multifunctional biomimetic
self-healing alloy composite that can repair structural damage. The self-healing composite will be
composed of a controlled-melting alloy matrix reinforced by shape memory alloy (SMA) wires that
undergo thermoelastic martensitic transformation and provide crack-bridge toughening during cracking of
the composite. When the composite is heated above the reversion temperature of the embedded SMA
wires, a clamping force is applied by the SMA wires to provide crack closure and crack clamping.

Kwame N. Mensah, and Andreas Matouschek
Northwestern University
Ph.D. Candidate, Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Cell Biology
Mentor: Dr. Andreas Matouschek, Department of Biochemistry,
Molecular Biology, and Cell Biology

             Characterization of Degradation of Polyglutamine Proteins by the Proteasome

Protein aggregates are a common feature in the physiology of many neurodegenerative diseases. In the case of
Huntington’s Diseases (HD), the aggregates contain a large percentage of huntintin protein (htt) that has an abnormal
expansion of its polyglutamine (poly-Q) region. Wildtype htt typically contains a short glutamine stretch, typically 18-
36 residues. Mutated versions can have from 36 to upwards of 100 glutamine residues. The 26S eukaryotic
proteasome normally disposes of aberrant proteins such as these, but in the neurons of HD patients, its function is
diminished. Previous studies in our lab have shown that proteasome degradation is inhibited when it encounters low-
complexity (made up mostly of one residue type) region. Our results show that this behavior also applies to poly-Q
repeats. An interesting finding is that in order for effective proteasome inhibition to occur, a protein domain that is
difficult to unfold and degrade must follow the poly-Q region. In other words, the combination of an expanded poly-Q

region and a stable protein fold is necessary to facilitate inhibition of degradation. We are currently investigating the
structural elements and residue makeup of the portion of htt that contains its poly-Q region. Through these studies, we
hope to relate our findings to the possible mechanism of inhibition in vivo.
LaTasha R. Shobe
Ball State University, Department of Chemistry
Junior, Chemistry
Mentor: Dr. Patricia L. Lang, Chemistry

                           The Synthesis of Dithiol-Derivatized Gold Nanoparticles

In order to synthesize dithiol-derivatized gold nanoparticles, we first had to synthesize gold nanoparticles
bearing a surface coating of dodecanethiol via the use of a two-phase reaction, reported by Schriffin. First,
AuCl4- was transferred to toluene, using tretraoctylammonium bromide. The gold salt was reduced with
NaBH4 in the presence of dodecanethiol. The isolated, washed solid was analyzed by NMR and IR
spectroscopy. The NMR spectra indicated both CH2 and CH3 resonances; however, the alpha, beta, and
gamma hydrogens on the carbons closest to the gold nanoparticles were not apparent. It was assumed that
those broadened signals had been buried under the baseline. It also showed two broad resonances at 1.25
ppm and .89 ppm, due to hydrogens on the interior methylene carbons (C 4- C11) of the alkythiol chain, and
the protons on the terminal CH3 group, respectively. The IR spectrum showed an asymmetric methyl
stretch at 2958 cm-1, and methylene stretches at 2915 cm-1, and 2849cm-1. The CH2 rock at 719 cm-1 was
apparent as well. The data indicated that the thiol had been attached. Future work will involve exchanging
the dodecanethiol with a dithiol.

Adriana R. Uruena-Thomas, WenLin Sun, George V. Rebec
Indiana University, Bloomington, IN
Program in Neural Science

    Electrophysiology of behaving rats reveals dissociable roles within prefrontal cortex in cocaine

Neuroadaptations in the mesocorticolimbic circuit caused by repeated exposure to psychostimulants may
underlie compulsive drug-seeking behavior. Prefrontal cortex (PFC) has been implicated in the
development of sensitization, a widely used model for assessing drug induced neuroadaptations. To
examine the role of PFC neurons in sensitization to cocaine, we recorded the activity of individual PFC
neurons in freely behaving rats treated with multiple cocaine injections. Adult, male rats received daily
injections (ip) of cocaine for 1 week (15mg/kg on the first and last day and 30mg/kg on the intervening
days) followed by a cocaine challenge injection (15mg/kg) after a 10 day withdrawal period, when
sensitization is expressed. Control rats received saline for 1 week and 15mg/kg cocaine on the challenge
day. Neuronal and behavioral activity was recorded simultaneously each time the cocaine animals received
15mg/kg cocaine and on the first and last day of saline treatment. Sensitization increased the percentage of
cocaine responsive neurons in the pre-limbic region of PFC but not in the surrounding regions. Our
findings are consistent with lesion studies demonstrating heterogeneity within the PFC and the dissociable
roles that PFC subregions play in the development of sensitization.

Suzanne L. Ziegenhorn, Jennifer A. Croker , Robert A. Holmgren
Northwestern University
PhD. Candidate, Department Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, and Cell Biology
Mentor: Dr. Robert Holmgren, Department Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, and Cell Biology

                       Regulation of Cubitus interruptus by a conserved domain
                                      via interaction with Su(fu)

The Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway is a vital developmental program that regulates many aspects of
patterning in vertebrates and invertebrates. Much of our understanding of the pathway is derived from
studies in Drosophila. Hh acts on responsive cells through an undefined transduction mechanism which
controls the transcription of specific target genes via regulation of a cytoplasmic complex of proteins
containing, among others, the zinc finger transcription factor Cubitus interruptus (Ci). In Drosophila, Hh
patterns embryonic epidermis and larval imaginal discs by regulating Ci on three levels: proteolytic
cleavage into a repressor form, nuclear import, and activation. In this report, we characterize a highly
conserved domain of Drosophila Ci identified by sequence alignment with the vertebrate homologues,
GLI1, GLI2, and GLI3. This domain, which we term NR for “N-terminal Regulatory,” is located in the
center of the amino half of the protein. Deletion of this region generates a Ci molecule that is not properly
sequestered in the cytoplasm. Further, co-expression with Su(fu), another member of the cytoplasmic
complex, is unable to rescue this phenotype implying that Su(fu) interaction at this conserved domain is
necessary for the proper subcellular distribution of Ci. The number of conserved potential phosphorylation
sites in the NR domain is particularly striking, as analysis of the amino acid sequence of this domain
identifies a cluster of twelve perfectly conserved serines and one tyrosine. We propose that this region may
be modified, possibly by phosphorylation, to modulate interaction with Su(fu) and thus regulate Ci in
response to Hh signaling.