History of Athens

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					                     History of Athens                                 into the country. In the years to follow, Athens changed “rulers”
                          By Aaron Korf                                many times. One of the notably rulers was Draco and his
                                                                       Draconian Laws. Draco put in place very strict laws that had
        Athens is a city that has history imbedded into its everyday   punishments ranging up to death. It wasn‟t long before he was
life today. The city is about 3500 years old but has a history of      overthrown by another one of Athens rulers Solon. There were
over 5000 years and possibly is the oldest inhabited city in           many rulers after Solon and it is said that it was during this period
Europe. Its history is very rich in content and has been studied by    of changes that the groundwork for the future Athenian Empire
historians and archeologists for decades. Athens is known as the       was laid. In 494 BC, a Persian army sent by King Darius invaded
birthplace of democracy. The minds and personalities that came         parts of Greece and eventually came upon Athens. For the next
through Athens in history adds to its tourist appeal today.            few decades there were many altercations between the Athenians
        Early in history, Athens was a small village that was          and Persians. One of the more famous battles was at Marathon
independent to other villages in that area of Greece. Towards the      and then a navel conflict at Salamis. The final victory for Athens
end of the Bronze Age (around 1500 BC) Athens and neighboring          over the Persians was at the Battle of Plataies. After the conflicts
villages had started to come together and the beginning of the         with Persia were done, Athens rulers spent time strengthening the
Mycenaean period of Athens history began. It was named after           city. The democracy of the city was the first thing to be
King Minos. Minos was a legendary Crete king to the Greeks             strengthened with the Athenian army and navy being strengthened
who was the son of Zeus. At this time, Athens began to grow            shortly after. At this time, 440 B.C, the construction of the
with the influences of Crete culture. It was during this time period   Parthenon was commissioned by Pericles. For the last 30 years of
that the city took on the official name Athens. Legends say that it    the 5th century B.C., the Peloponnesian wars broke out in Greece
was named after the Greek Goddess Athena, the goddess of               resulting in the destruction of Athens and Sparta when it was all
wisdom in Greek mythology, after she beat Poseidon in a contest.       over. However, the Athenian people were able to rebound and
Some other historians believe that Athena could have been named        rebuild their city. It was at this time that some of the great minds
after the city itself, and that she personifies the city as a whole.   from this era (Plato, Socrates, and Aristotle) lived in Athens. The
Not much else is known about this time period but one story that       city continued to grow and change rulers for the next few
has been passed down is the Trojan War.                                centuries. A few of the more notable rulers to control Athens in
        After the Mycenaean period, Athens went through what           history are Alexander the Great as well as Demetrius.
historians call a Dark Age. With wars from a northern village                  It wasn‟t until the 1800‟s when Athens wasn‟t under the
(The Dorians) villages around Athens were destroyed. However,          rule of other countries. In 1821, Greece started to fight for their
Athens was spared from being totally over run and destroyed.           independence as a nation and won it in 1829. The city of Athens
Towards the end of the Dark Age, Athens and numerous more              has been it‟s official capital since this time but the country has be
distant villages banded together to extend the cities power further    invaded and ruined numerous times, including the World Wars,
but has been able to rebuild to become a vibrant city today. When
walking around Athens, there are the footprints of many structures
from the cities seasoned past that can be seen with in the ever
expanding city.

The following are a few of the notable sites that may be of interest
to us on our trek through Athens.

                    Temple of Olympian Zeus

Construction began in the 6th century BC but wasn‟t complete till
the 2nd century AD. It is located roughly a quarter mile southeast
from the Acropolis. It was dedicated to the Greek god of Zeus
(the king of the Gods). Only a few of the columns still stand                                Temple of Hephaestus
                                                                       Constructed in 499 BC, it is the best preserved Greek temple and
                                                                       is still fully intact. It is sometimes referred to as the Theseion
                                                                       because of the legend that the bones of the legendary hero
                                                                       Theseus where buried here.
                        Syntagma Square

Central Athens surrounded by the extensive National Gardens.
Because the square is located just west of the Greek parliament it
is a popular site for political demonstrations. Every hour, the
Changing of the Guard ceremony, performed by the Presidential
Guard is conducted in front of the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier
on the area between the Square and Parliament.

                                                                                           Kallimararo Stadium

                                                                     Located in downtown Athens, it is fully made of white marble
                                                                     mined from Mount Penteli. It was used in ancient times to host
                                                                     the athletic portion of the Panathenaic Games held in honor of the
                                                                     Greek Goddess Athena. It was fully rebuilt in 1895 to host the
                                                                     first modern Olympic Games, held in 1896.
                    Odeon of Herodes Atticus

It was built in 161 AB by Herodes Atticus in memory of his wife.
It is a Stone theater structure located on the south slope of the
Acropolis of Athens. The Odeon has traditionally been used as a
venue for music concerts. However, since restoration in the
1950s, the Odeon has hosted the theatrical, musical, and dance
events of the Athens Festival.


                    Athens Olympic Stadium

Originally built in 1980, it was the host of the 2004 Summer
Olympic games. It was the host for many European Athletic
championships but was renovated after Athens lost the bid for the
1996 (100th year anniversary) summer games to Atlanta, GA. Its
unique design and roof make it a stunning site for engineers.
                            Tolo, Greece                                known for its picturesque beaches and surrounding mountains.
                                                                        The cities history goes as far back as Homer‟s Iliad. It has been a
Tolo is a small fishing village that is popular among tourists. It is   navel port for many different countries. It offers many
located in the south-eastern Peloponnesian region of Greece. Its        opportunities for shopping as well as food.
convenient location too many of the historical sites in the region
make it a great place to stay when visiting for a few days. It is
                    The Acropolis in Athens                      from the basin, and the surface measures about 300 meters by
         In Athens we will be visiting the Acropolis. The        150 meters. We will be seeing many ruins that date back to the
Acropolis in Athens, also called the “Sacred Rock”, is one of    4th century BC.
the most fascinating sites in Athens. In Greek „Acropolis‟
literally means “the highest point in town.” At the “highest     The Propylaia:
point in town” we will be on a rock that rises about 70 meters          The first structure we will see when going to the
                                                                                              Acropolis is The Propylaia. The
                                                                                              Propylaia was built around 432
                                                                                              BC right before the Peloponnesian
                                                                                              wars. When entering the
                                                                                              Propylaia it will be divided into 2
                                                                                              wings, one to the east and one to
                                                                                              the west. Part of the reason why
                                                                                              the Propylaia looks the way it
                                                                                              does now is because it was struck
                                                                                              by lightning in 1645.
                                                                                                          A few interesting math
                                                                                              facts about the Propylaia:
                                                                                                               The ratio of 3:7
                                                                                                                  was used in the
                                                                                                                  construction of
                                                                                                                  the Propylaia.
                                                                                                               The width of
                                                                                                                  the Propylaia is
                                                                                                                  equal to the
                                                                                                                  length of the
                                                                                              The Parthenon
                                                                                                      The Parthenon is pretty
                                                                                              much the main attraction at the
Acropolis and was constructed between 447-432 BCE. The                 that are set up next to each other they naturally appear to
Parthenon was built as a temple for the goddess Athena Pallas          contract at the top. So to counteract this, the architects made
or Parthenos. Athena was the Greek goddess of wisdom, war,             the base of each column a little thicker. Also, the top part of
the arts, industry, justice and skill as well as the favorite          the columns would naturally appear to slant outwards because
daughter of Zeus.                                                      of the triangular outline of the roof, but to counteract this each
        The main purpose of the Parthenon is it used to shelter        column leans inward slightly so that they would meet if they
a large statue of Athena made out of gold and ivory. However           were extended one mile into the sky. Another illusion deals
even though the Parthenon housed a great statue of Athena it           with the construction of the steps. Since horizontal lines
was only designed to be seen from the outside. When visitors           appear to dip in the middle the steps are raised slightly upwards
came to the Parthenon could not enter the temple. Over the             at the center to make them appear level from a distance.
years the temple has been used as a church, a mosque, and an           Fibonacci and the Parthenon:
arsenal.                                                                        Fibonacci‟s Phi can be seen in many of the dimensions
             The Dimensions of The Parthenon:                          of the Parthenon. The width is Phi times the height, as well as
                  The outside is 8 columns wide by 17                 many other sections that can be seen in the diagram. However,
                     columns long                                      no original plans from the Parthenon remain, so it is unsure
             Interesting tidbits about the Parthenon:                  whether the golden ratio was used intentionally or not.
                  The ratio of 9:4 was commonly used in the           Pythagoras and The Parthenon:
                     construction of the Parthenon.                             Along with Fibonacci there were also elements used in
                  8 columns wide by 17 columns long (9:4)             the construction of the Parthenon that came from Pythagoras.
                  9:4 ratio also seen in the vertical and             With the ratio used of 2:3 and it‟s square 4:9 the Parthenon can
                     horizontal construction                           be broken up into 3 equal rectangles with sides of 3 and 4, with
Illusions at the Parthenon:                                            a diagonal of 5. To ensure that the right angles of the temple
        When looking at columns that are set up next to each           the 3:4:5 Pythagorean triangle could be used.
other they naturally tend to look narrower in the middle than at                Now, some of you may be asking, “How come the
the top and bottom. To counteract this, the architects of the          Parthenon is the way it is??” Well in
Parthenon used a technique called Entasis, which means that            1687, during the Venetian siege of the
that there is a bulge in the middle of each column to make them        Acropolis, General Francesco Morosini
                                                          look         attacked the Parthenon with cannon fire.
                                                          straight.    During this time the Turks were using the
                                                          Also         Parthenon as an arsenal and when the
                                                          when         Parthenon was hit, it went…BOOM! The
                                                          looking at   explosion took out the roof and much of the inner structure
                                                          columns      along with 14 of the outer columns.
The Erechtheion:                                                         Rooms 4 & 6:
         The Erechtheion is situated on the most sacred site of              o Contains a collection of korai.
the Acropolis. The Erechtheion is said to be the place where                 o Korai were statues of maidens offered to
Poseidon left his trident marks in a rock, and where Athena‟s                   Athena.
olive tree sprouted during their epic battle for possession of the       Rooms 7 & 8 contain:
city. It was built between 421 and 406 BCE and named after                   o A metope from the south side of the Parthenon
Erechtheus, one of the mythical kings of Athens. However the                    that shows the battle between the Lapiths and
Erechtheion was almost completely destroyed by the Turks in                     centaurs.
1827. The building uses Ionic architecture.                              Room 9 contains:
The Temple of Athena Nike:                                                   o 4 Caryatids from the Erechtheion south porch.
         The temple was built between 426-421 BCE to                         o The Caryatids are the only ones displayed in
commemorate the Athenian‟s victories over the Persians. It is                   Athens and are kept in a temperature controlled
also believed to be the place from which King Aegues threw                      environment.
himself into the sea after hearing that his son Theseus had been
killed in Crete by the Minotaur. The temple contains 4 Ionic         Ionic & Doric Columns:
columns that stand 13 ft. high. The Temple of Athena Nike                    As you are looking at the different buildings at the
was reconstructed in 1834 after being destroyed by the Turks in      Acropolis it might be helpful to know a bit about the difference
1686.                                                                between Ionic and Doric columns. Ionic and Doric are two of
                                                                     the orders of columns. The order refers to the column and it‟s
                                                                     top. A Doric Column is the simplest kind of column that rests
The Acropolis Museum:                                                on the bare floor and is topped by a single piece of marble. An
There is a museum located below the level of the Parthenon at        Ionic Column normally stands on a base and consists of a more
the southeast corner of the Acropolis that contains many relics      elaborate design than Doric Columns. Ionic columns are more
from the Acropolis. Here is a list of interesting things that the    slender than Doric.
rooms in the museum contain:
     Contains pieces of the Parthenon frieze.
     Rooms 1-3 contain:
           o Statues of mythological scenes
     Room 5 contains:
           o Pediment from the Old Temple of Athena that
               shows Athena and Zeus battling giants.
               Represents the Greek triumph over primitive
                               Corinth                                   became acquainted with Aquila and Priscilla, who became
         Corinth was a major Greek city in the 6th-8th century           partners in Paul‟s ministry in the city. During Paul‟s second
BCE. It was one of the most advanced cities and had quite a              visit to Corinth he stayed for only three months. After Paul‟s
bit of power. One reason that Corinth was such a powerful city           visits to Corinth he wrote two letters to the Christian
was that they are located in a great position to be a port city.         community there (1st and 2nd Corinthians). It is also believed
Because of their great position on the sea Corinth had one of            that during Paul‟s second visit to Corinth he wrote his letter to
the leading naval powers as well as a rich commercial city               the Romans which is the book of Romans in the Bible.
helped them to be able to establish colonies in Syracuse on the          The Corinth Canal:
island of Sicily and on Corcyra. Another reason that they were                    One of the most fascinating landmarks in the city of
so powerful was the fact that they had control of the diolkos.           Corinth is the Corinth Canal. The Canal links the Ionian and
The Diolkos was the stone-paved roadway that connected the               Aegean Seas and separates the Peloponnese from mainland
Saronic Gulf with the Gulf of Corinth. It could be said that             Greece. Before the canal ships had to be lifted out of the water
Corinth isn‟t as great of city as it used to be, but it still contains   and put on wheels and rolled down the diolkos. It took many
quite a bit of interesting history.                                      years to build the canal and took huge amounts of work to
         Because of many things like the Diolkos and the great           finish.
location of Corinth it was a highly sought after city by large                    Many people including Alexander the Great and Julius
military powers. It was conquered by Philip II of Macedon in             Caesar wanted to build the canal, however there were too many
338 BCE. However, Philip was assassinated and Alexander                  obstacles in their way. One myth about why Caesar didn‟t
the Great took over the leadership of the city. In 336 BCE               build the canal was that Poseidon, god of the sea, stopped him
Alexander the Great was chosen to lead the Greeks in battle              from building it because he opposed the canal. The first actual
against the Persians. The city was mostly destroyed by the               attempt to build the canal came from Nero in 67 AD. To start
Romans in 146 BC. Then in 44 BCE Julius Caesar rebuilt                   off the construction of the canal Nero himself used a gold
Corinth as a Roman city.                                                 shovel for the groundbreaking. He had approximately 6,000
Temple of Apollo:                                                        slaves working on the project. However even after great
         The temple was constructed for Apollo in 550 BCE                determination the canal was never finished by Nero.
which was a time of great wealth for Corinth. The building                        After many years and many failed attempts to build it,
itself is not very impressive due to the fact that only 7 of the 38      the Corinth Canal was finally completed in 1893 by the Greeks
original doric columns are still standing.                               and the French. The canal is 4 miles (6-km) long and is still
The Apostle Paul & Corinth                                               used today. However, many newer boats are too large to fit
         The Apostle Paul visited Corinth two times during the           through the canal.
50s AD. Throughout his visits he worked as a tentmaker                   Corinth Today:
converting as many Jews and pagans as possible. During his                        Today Corinth is still used as a port city. It is also a
first visit to Corinth Paul stayed for 18 months. At this time he        major transportation center. A few of the major exports of
Corinth are olives, tobacco, raisins, and wine. The current          •
population is around 35,000 which is likely smaller than it was      ml
around the fifth century BC.                                         •
The Weather in Corinth:                                    
            The average range for temperature in Corinth in         •
                May is 52-74 F.                                    Art.html
            Generally there is not much precipitation in the        •

                month of May.                                        greece.html

                              Archimedes                             Durbin, Marc. Greece: Athens & The Mainland. 2007. DK
         Many people say that Archimedes was one of the most         Eyewitness Travel. New York. 94-99.
influential mathematicians of all time. Over his life he came
up with numerous inventions and war machines. Many of his
formulas were groundbreaking and way ahead of their time.
         Archimedes was born sometime around 287 BCE in
Syracuse, Sicily. He studied at Euclid's school in Alexandria.
Archimedes lived in Syracuse until 211 or 212 BC when he
was killed by a Roman soldier who didn‟t know who
Archimedes was.
Here is a list of just a few of Archimedes Achievements:
              Defined pi between 3.1408450704 and
              Discovered the Law of Hydrostatics:
                     o any object immersed in fluid, is buoyed
                          up by a force equal to the weight of the
                          fluid displayed by the object.
References Used
The Agora, Nafplio and the Palamidi Fortress, and Greece Info
                    By Hannah Stevens
                        The Agora
Agora means a place of meeting. The area was first used
around 3000 BC as a private residential area before becoming a      Temple of Apollo Patroos – 7
public area in the early 6th Century BC when Athens was ruled       Erected around 340-320 BC, this temple honors Apollo, the
by Solon. At this time, fountains and a drainage system were        Father of the Ionian race. The Ionian race is one of the Greek
constructed; the pipes from this system are still visible today.    tribes. A statue of Apollo used to stand in the center.
During the Byzantine Era the area became residential again.
The agora was discovered during the construction of a trench        Metroos - 8
for the Athens-Peiraeus Railway. Restoration began in 1834          Constructed in the 5th Century BC. The Boule (Council of 500,
and is ongoing even today. The restoration involved the             kind of like a modern day city council) held their meetings
destruction of 400 modern buildings. The pathway running            here. When replaced by the Bouleuterian, it was used as a
diagonally through part of the Agora is the Panathenaic Road, a     sanctuary of the Mother of the Gods. The state archives were
sacred path followed by processions of people honoring              stored here under her protection.
                                                                    Bouleuterian - 9
Temple of Hephaistos - 1                                            Erected 2nd Century BC to replace the metroos as the meeting
Constructed in 449 BC, it sits atop the hill of Kolonos             place for the Boule.
Agoraios. It was dedicated to the gods Hephaistos and Athena
with bronze statues of them formerly standing in the center of      Tholos – 10
the temple. It was a richly decorated temple and was at one         Built in 460 BC, this circular building was where the chairmen
time fully landscaped. It is the most prominent and best            of the Boule dined and slept. A set of standard weights and
preserved temple in all of Greece, it is the only one that still    measures were also stored here.
has it‟s original roof.
                                                                    Monument of Eponymous Heroes - 14
Stoa of Zues Eleutherios – 6                                        Constructed during the second half of the 4th Century BC, it is
Stoa means a covered walkway or portico with a columned             comprised of an oblong pedestal enclosed by a fence. Ten
entrance. Constructed at the end of the 5th Century BC, it was      bronze statues stood on the pedestal. Each statue was a hero
built in honor of those who fought for the freedom and safety       for one of the tribes of Attica, the peninsula Athens lies on.
of the city. Socrates and Plato are said to have frequented here.   This place was also used as a notice board of sorts for the city.

                                                                    Altar of 12 Gods - 17
Erected in 520-521 BC, this fenced-in altar was the heart of the   A relief of Democracy crowning the people over and inscribed
city. All distances were measured from this milestone. The            stele. It symbolized law vs. tyranny.
majority of the area is now covered by they Athens-Peiraeus        Arbylllos: a vase of an athletic boy kneeling and tying a
Railway, which lies just to the north.                                ribbon/award around his head.
Odeion of Agrippa - 18                                             Roman Agora
Built in 15 BC by Agrippa, this auditorium with a two-storied      Some of the constructions are newer, having been erected
portico originally seated 1000. It was destroyed in 267 AD and     while Greece was ruled by the Roman Empire. Two of the
a gymnasium was built in its place in 400 AD. The north side       more prominent structures are the East Propylon from 19-11
is adorned with 4 huge tritons, which are half god/half fish       BC and the Gate of Athena Archegetis from 11 BC.
mythical creatures.
                                                                          Nafplio and the Palamidi Fortress
Stoa Basileios (Royal Stoa) –
Constructed in 460 BC, a statue of either Themis or                Control of the city of Nafplio went back and forth between the
Democracy formerly stood in front of the building. The Laws        Turks and the Venetians for many years. The city was key in
of Solon were displayed here, and it was the headquarters of       the War of Independence in which the Greeks fought for
the Royal Archon, the ruler and kong of religious affairs (such    independence from the Turks. After a 15 month long siege led
as murder). It was in this building that Socrates was charged      by Kolokotronis, the city was liberated in 1821. Nafplio then
with impiety. It is said that if you were in the Agora when a      became the center for the revolution. In 1829, the Greeks won
case was being heard in the court of law, you were eligible to     their independence and named Nafplio the capital of their
be a juror. The police frequently wandered the Agora looking       country. This changed in 1834, when the capital was moved to
for jurors.                                                        Athens. Bourtzi, a fort built by the Venetians in the 15th
                                                                   Century and now stand empty, can be seen in the harbor.
Stoa of Attalos – 19
Currently houses the Ancient Agora Museum, with exhibits           The Palamidi fortress lies on a hill east of Akronafplia, the
that directly relate to the functioning of Athenian life. There    oldest part of the city. It was constructed in 1714 by the
are models of the Agora, and the statue from Apollo Patroos.       Venetian engineers Giaxich and Lasalle. There are 999 steps
Some artifacts that can be seen here:                              leading up the fortress, or you can take a bus up a back road.
Clepsydra: a water clock measure time as water flows from a        The castle is comprised of eight bastions surrounded by walls.
    clay pot                                                       St. Andrews church occupies one of the bastions, while the
Ostraca: Stones used to ostracize politicians                      Prison of Kolokotronis is occupies another. He was
Bronze ballots: used when making decisions for the city            imprisoned in 1834 for treason. Greece was ruled at the time
Other objects that can be seen:                                    by King Otto I and his Bavarian ministers, who Kolokotronis
A marble kleroterion used when vesting plots of land.              disagreed with. He was pardoned in 1835.
                 Basic Info on Greece                                             Getting Around in Athens
Greece‟s government is a presidential parliamentary                  There are several ways you can travel around in Athens:
democracy. The president, who serves as chief of state which         metro, tram, bus, or taxi. Here is some info for each mode of
is basically a figurehead, is Karolos Papoulias, and the prime       transportation.
minister, who serves as the head of the government, is
Konstandinos Karamanlis. The population of Greece is 10.7            Metro:
million, of which 3.2 million live in Athens. The geographic         Closed from midnight to 5 am
area of Greece is slightly smaller than the state of Alabama.        A one way ticket is € 0.80 (possibly € 0.40 with student ID)
Greece has been an EU member since 1981, and uses the Euro
as its currency. The economy is a capitalist, with tourism as its    Tram:
number one industry. The unemployment rate there is 9.2%,            A one-way ticket is € 0.60 (possibly € 0.30)
compared to 4.8% in the US. 98% of the populations religion
is Greek Orthodox. While we are in Greece, we should expect          You can buy tickets that are good for more than just one way:
tempertures to be in the 70‟s with very little rainfall. Greece is   € 1 for 90 minutes on all modes of transportation
8 hours ahead of Central Time Zone.                                  € 3 for one day on all modes of transportation

                         Language                                    Taxi‟s:
                                                                     There is a minimum fee for taxi‟s. In Athens this is € 2.50, and
Good morning ……………Kalimera                            1: meea        elsewhere in Greece it is € 2.70. Within the Athens city limits,
Good afternoon………......Kalispera                      2: deeo        you will be charged € 0.34/km, and outside the city limits it is
Do you speak English?......Milate Anglika?            3: treea       € 0.64/km. There is also a fee of € 0.65 for traveling by taxi
I don‟t understand..............Den milo.             4: tettera     between midnight and 5 am.
Please.................................Parakalo       5: panda
Thank you………………..Efkaristo                            6: ex          You want to stay away from the National Gardens at night. If
Miss……………………...Despeena                               7: eptah       possible, try to avoid being directly in Omonia Square at night
Madam……….…………..Kiria                                  8: octo        (This may be difficult since our hotel is one block away from
Sir………………………..Kirie                                   9: ennaa       it, just be aware).
Yes…………………….....Neh                                   10: deka
No…………………..……Oki                                                     Dr. Ed Schmoll recommends the gyro‟s that you can be from
Where is…the bathroom?..Pee eeneh… toalett?                          the Petros Café at 28 Kidathenaron St. in the Plaka. It is best if
I need a doctor………..….Hraazomeh eeatro.                              you don‟t go inside and just order from the street window.
Water……………..………Naro                                                  According to him, they are tasty as well as cheap!
 National Archaeological Museum
 Athens, Greece
 By Amy Hintermeyer

         Construction on the National Archaeological museum was started in 1866 and was completed in 1889 after the West addition in
 1874, the North addition in 1881, the South addition in 1885, and the East addition in 1889. The original architect was Ludwig Lange, and
 Panages Kalkos, Harmodios Vlachos and Earnst Ziller made modifications. The most recent remodeling of the museum was in 1999 due to
 an earthquake and preparation for the tourism fueled by the 2004 Olympics.
         This museum is Greece‟s most important archeological museum and it ranks in the top 10 museums in the world! It contains
 prehistoric items, sculpture, pottery, jewelry, bronzes, Egyptian art, along with other temporary exhibits. There are many famous artifacts at
 the museum that you should watch for, including the Mask of Agamemnon, the Jockey of Artemision, Kouros statues, the sculpture of
 Aphrodite and Pan, along with the Antikythera Mechanism.
 The mask of Agamemnon is a gold funerary mask that was found in a                       grave circle at Mycenae. It was excavated by Heinrich
 Schliemann, and is dated around the 16th century B.C.
Spencer                                     P.M. Harrington once said,                   “The Mask of Agamemnon from grave V is the most
                                            famous. „I have gazed on                     the face of Agamemnon,‟ Schliemann is said to have
                                            telegrammed a Greek                          newspaper on first seeing the mask. In fact, he himself
 never                                      identified it as belonging to                Agamemnon, but since it was the finest of the
                                            specimens it became                          associated with the hero […] the masks and gold
                                            jewelry Schliemann found                     at Mycenae brought him world fame; he was
                                            henceforth known as the                      Father of Mycenaean Archaeology.”
 The                                        Jockey of Artemision is made of Bronze and is estimated to be from around 140 B.C. during the
                                            Hellenistic Period. The work was found in a shipwreck off of Cape Artemision and is assumed to
 have                                       had reigns in his left hand and a whip in his right hand at one time.
The national archaeological museum also houses some kouros statues. This one is a votive statue that stands 3.05
meters tall (approximately 10 feet). It was found in the Sanctuary of Poseidon in Sounin and is from around 600 B.C.
There are certain characteristics that statues must possess to be classified as a kouros statue. They always are in a
frontal pose with the left leg forward. They are sculpted symmetrically and are always nude. This is one difference
                         from many Egyptian statues. Some Egyptian statues may look similar, but they are often
                         wearing clothes. Kouros statues are also usually pretty close to life size. The proportions of
                         the bodies tend to have a 1:7 ratio with the body being 7 times the size of the body.
                         The sculpture of the group of Aphrodite and pan is a marble sculpture from 100 B.C. that was
                         found on Delos, which is considered the island of Apollo. It depicts Aphrodite, the goddess of
                         love and beauty, threatening pan, the god of fertility, with her sandal. Above the two, the
                         viewer can see Eros flying. Eros is a winged cherub that is known for crazed, blind love. The
                         word “erotic” stemmed from his name. Most know him better in Roman mythology, where he is called cupid. Pan is
                         known for attempting to seduce nymphs; in fact, the word “panic” stemmed from his name, so we can see why
                         Aphrodite would react in such a way.
                         One of the most cherished treasures of the National archeological museum is the Antikythera Mechanism. Sponge
                         divers found this mechanism on a ship near Antikythera. The wreck was discovered in 1900, but the artifact actually
wasn‟t found until 1901 because it was buried with sediment . The date of the shipwreck is estimated to have occurred between 85 and 60
B.C. The artifact itself is believed to originate from around 100 to 150 B.C and is considered to be the first artifact of underwater
archaeology. It is a bronze mechanism with a complex arrangement of around 30 gears, and the inscriptions on it relate to the months and
the zodiac. It is described as a sophisticated mechanism that “operates as a complex mechanical „computer‟ which tracks the cycles of the
solar system”. This “astronomical phenomenon” helps us to understand what the ancient Greeks and ancient Babylonians were capable of
and is proof of their math and engineering competencies. This mechanism is truly ahead of its time, in fact, other mechanisms with similar
standards are not seen again for another millennium!

      At the museum:
      •Large bags must be checked into the coatroom
      •Photography is ok, but turn off the flash
      •No Filming
      •Maps can be found at the admissions desk
      •Suggested length of time – 2 hours
Greeks and the Irrationals
By Amy Hintermeyer

While in Greece, it is good to keep in mind some of the remarkable mathematical discoveries that have
been made over its history. Look around. Do you see it in use? The Pythagoreans were group of
intellectuals that formed the Pythagorean Brotherhood at the end of the 6th century B.C. basing their
beliefs off of their founder, Pythagoras. The brotherhood‟s inner circle made vows of secrecy to protect
their findings and so that the Pythagorean brotherhood as a whole would get credit, not just the individual                                   that
made the discovery. They took oaths of commitment to the brotherhood and they also promised to have a strict vegetarian diet. This
brotherhood founded their beliefs in Mathematics, meaning they believed that mathematics was the cornerstone of life. Their perception of
the universe, their religion, and their traditions were based off of their mathematical mysticism. In fact, they believed that all quantities
could be explained with whole numbers and their ratios. Their number mysticism is still being studied today. They classified the number
system into different kinds, for example, friendly numbers are number pairs in which the sum of the proper divisors is the other number, and
perfect numbers are numbers where the sum of the proper divisors returns the original number.
         The phythagoreans made gains in terms of the study of music in relation to mathematics. They discovered that when strings have an
equal tension, an octave can be heard when the ratios of the two strings are 2:1, a fifth can be heard when the ratios are 3:2, and a fourth can
be heard when the ratio is 4:3. The most famous discovery that the Pythagoreans were known for, of course, is the Pythagorean theorem.
The originator of this theorem is not known because of the Pythagoreans vow of silence, but it is believed that Hippasus is a probable person
to give the credit. This theorem states that given a triangle with sides A, B, and C where C is the hypotenuse The square of the hypotenuse
on a right triangle is equal to the sum of the squares on the two legs. In other words, A2+B2=C2.
         This rocked the boat for the Pythagoreans! If this was true, then their belief that all quantities could be explained with whole
numbers and their ratios was false. One example is that if the 2 legs of a triangle have a length of 1, then the hypotenuse has a length of √2,
which is an irrational number. The Pythagoreans called irrational numbers “unutterable numbers” because they did not fit into their belief
system. In fact, when one of the members of the Pythagorean brotherhood wanted to tell the public of this finding, he was immediately put
to death! Once word got out, this discovery changed the math world forever.
         Mycenae is an archeological site south of Athens. It was once thought to only exist in ancient Greek legend and in the poetry of
Homer. In 1870, Heinrich Schliemann found the fabled city using landmarks from Homer‟s Iliad; this caused many to believe that Homer‟s
works were more than just myths.
         In the second millennium BC, Mycenae was one of the major centers of Greek civilization. It was a military stronghold which
dominated much of southern Greece. Mycenae reached its height around the sixteenth century BC, but was abandoned around 1200 BC for
unknown reasons.
         The acropolis at Mycenae was surrounded by massive Cyclopean walls. These walls received their name as a result of their size.
The blocks were so massive they were thought to have been the work of the one-eyed giants, the Cyclops.
         The main entrance into the citadel at Mycenae is known as the Lion Gate. It is a stone carving of two lions that stand on an alter as
sentries. The lions are built in the form of a „relieving triangle‟ to support the weight of the stones over the entrance. Although many
people have always                                                  assumed that the stone carvings at the Lion Gate are lions, further
investigation has led                                               scholars to believe that they might actually be griffins, creatures that have
the body of a lion, but                                             the head and wings of an eagle. Both of these creatures, however, symbolize
authority, power, and                                               the domination of the Mycenaean people.
         Other famous                                               sites at Mycenae are the Tomb of Clytemnestra, the wife of King
Agamemnon, and the                                                  Treasure of Atreus (also know as the Tomb of Agamemnon). Both of these
tombs are good                                                      examples of the architectural type know as tholos, an alternative name for
the Beehive tomb                                                    typical of the late Bronze Age. The Treasure of Atreus was constructed
around 1250 BC and                                                  was the tallest dome in the world until the Pantheon was constructed.
         The grave                                                  circles found at Mycenae are also an impressive sight. There are two grave
circles, Grave Circle A and Grave Circle B                                   (outside the citadel). Grave Circle A revealed impressive wealth. It
was here that Schliemann discovered the                                      Mask of Agamemnon on what he thought was the remains of the
body of Agamemnon. The mask is                                               currently displayed in the National Archaeological Museum in

         Epidaurus is presumed to be the birthplace Apollo‟s son, Asklepios, the healer. The Sanctuary of Asklepios, also known as the
asclepieion, was the most celebrated healing center of the classical world. People from all over would travel to the asclepieion to find a cure
for their ailments. They would spend the night in a big sleeping room and in their dreams the gods would give them advice as to what to do
to regain health. Since snakes were regarded as sacred to Asklepios, they were often used in healing rituals. Non-poisonous snakes were
left to crawl on the floor of the great sleeping hall.
         The prosperity of the asclepieion enabled the construction of famous Theater at Asklepieion. The theater was built around the fourth
century and can hold 15,000 spectators. As usual for Greek theaters, the view of the lush landscape is an integral part of the theater itself.
The theater is also                                               known for its exceptional acoustics, it provides almost perfect intelligibility
to all of the spectators,                                         even those in the back rows!
         For centuries the                                        theater was covered by thick layers of dirt. Excavations began in 1881 by P.
Kavvadias. From 1954                                              to 1963 there was a large-scale reconstruction of the destroyed sections and a
partial restoration of the                                        monument. The Theater at Asklepieion is one of the best preserved
structures from ancient                                           Greece and still hosts Greek dramas today.


By Amy Hintermeyer

“The Center of the World”
“Where Heaven and Earth Met”
“The Place where Man is Closest to the gods”
“The Most Beautiful Place on Earth”
Sounds good, right? Delphi has been called all these                                                    things… along with “The navel of the
world”. Why would it be called that? Well according to Greek mythology Delphi was the sacred land of the earth goddess Gaia and was
guarded by Python. In the meantime, Zeus wants to find where the center of the world is, so he releases two eagles from the ends of the
earth (the East and the West) and the meet at the exact spot of Delphi, where the omphalos stone marked it. Being the center, this spot
became “the navel of the world”. The story continues that Zeus‟ son Apollo leaves Mount Olympus and comes to Mount Parnassus to slay
Python. He accomplishes his task, but then repents of his sin and goes to Crete to purify himself. When he was purified, he returned to
Delphi to build his temple. He placed the Omphalos stone on the place where Python was killed. He went to Crete and took the form of a
dolphin so he could bring sailors back to become priests in his temple. The Greek word for dolphin is Delphis, which is where the name
Delphi originated.
While at Delphi, there are many sites that are available to see. The first is the temple of Apollo. It was built in the 7th century BC and
construction continued throughout 330 BC because of damage and reconstruction. There were six columns on the front and 15 columns on
the sides. Visitors will be able to see the outer colonnade foundations and it is said that there is a chamber for the oracle and the omphalos
stone under the back room. Another site that can be seen is the sanctuary of Athena Pronaia, The older temple was built in 510 BC, the
newer temple was built in the 4th century BC, and the Tholos was built in the 3rd century BC. There are a couple treasuries at the sanctuary
of Athena Pronaia. One is the Ionic Treasury of Massilia which was built in 530 BC, and the other is the Doric treasury built in the 5th
century BC.
                                              Visitors can also                                      go see the ancient theater. It was built in the
                                     4th century BC. It faces                                        the valley, giving the audience a scenic
                                     backdrop. It is made of                                         Parnassus limestone and holds 5000 people
                                     in its 35 rows. The lower                                       tiers were built in the Hellenistic and Roman

                                      The stadium is a favorite                                     of visitors. It was built in 5th century BC, but
                                         the stone seating and                                               arched entrance were added in the 2nd
century AD. The stadium holds 6500 people and the track is 177.55                                          meters long and 25.5 meters wide. The
stadium was home of the pythian games. Since Apollo is the god of                                          music, the first event included singing
      a hymn to the god. The other events in the games were the typical running, riding and chariot racing, joined by singing, dancing, flute
playing, and lyre playing. It is said that even Homer attended these games, although he did not participate. According to Greek mythology,
    Apollo once tried to seduce Daphne, but before he could make his sexual advances Daphne‟s father turned her into a laurel tree. So the
                                                                         winner of the game received the prize of a crown of Laurel leaves.

   Delphi is also known for its museum, which holds statues and artifacts from the different treasuries and temples around the sanctuary of
 Apollo. Many of the sculptures are celebrating victorious battles, but one of the most famous sculptures is called the “Bronze Charioteer”.
    It is from 470 BC and was made in honor of a prince who won the chariot races. When you see it, look for the great detail and lifelike
                                                                                    characteristics, especially the veins in his hand and feet.

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