ANNEX VII

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ANNEX VII Powered By Docstoc
					                                    PREAMBLE

The Government of Malaysia and the Government of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan,

CONSCIOUS of the friendship and growing economic ties between them;

DESIRING to provide a platform from which to unlock the benefits of deeper
economic ties between the two strategically located trading centres, each serving
South Asia and the Asia-Pacific regions;

DESIRING to improve the efficiency and competitiveness of their goods and services
sectors and to promote and expand trade and investment flows between them;

DESIRING to promote greater synergy between economies of the two countries with
complementary strengths in various sectors;

RECOGNISING that strengthening their economic partnership will bring economic
and social benefits and improve living standards in their countries;

BUILDING on their rights, obligations and undertakings under the World Trade
Organization;

MINDFUL of the need to uphold the their rights to regulate in order to meet national
policy objectives;

CONSIDERING that the expansion of their domestic market, through economic
integration, is vital for accelerating the economic development of their countries;

RECOGNISING the need for good governance and a predictable, transparent and
stable business environment to enable business to conduct transactions freely, use
resources efficiently and make investment and planning decisions with certainty;

RECALLING the contribution made to the development of their bilateral trade and
investment relationship pursuant to the Trade Agreement between the Government
of Malaysia and the Government of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan signed in Kuala
Lumpur on 5 November 1987 and the Agreement between the Government of
Malaysia and the Government of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan for the Promotion
and Protection of Investment signed in Kuala Lumpur on 7 July 1995;

FURTHER RECALLING the Agreement on the Early Harvest Programme for the
Free Trade Agreement between the Government of Malaysia and the Government of
the Islamic Republic of Pakistan signed in Kuala Lumpur on 1 October 2005, as
amended (hereinafter referred to as “the EHP Agreement”); and

DESIRING to promote greater regional economic integration through this Agreement,

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HAVE AGREED as follows:

                                CHAPTER 1
                            GENERAL PROVISIONS

                                     Article 1
                                    Objectives

     The objectives of this Agreement are to:

     (a)   establish a free trade area that will promote market opportunities for
           goods, services and investment between the countries of the Parties;

     (b)   progressively liberalise and promote trade in goods and services, and
           cross-border investment flows;

     (c)   promote and enhance economic, trade and investment cooperation
           activities between the Parties;

     (d)   establish a framework of transparent, predictable and facilitative rules
           to govern and regulate trade and investment between the countries of
           the Parties including the protection of investments and investment activities;

     (e)   improve the efficiency and competitiveness of their goods and services
           sectors; and

     (f)   establish a framework to enhance closer cooperation on socio-economic
           partnership in areas of mutual interest as agreed by the Parties.

                                     Article 2
                                    Definitions

     For the purposes of this Agreement:

     (a)   “days” means calendar days, including weekends and holidays;

     (b)   “GATT 1994” means the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 1994
           in Annex 1A to the Marrakesh Agreement Establishing the World Trade
           Organization, done at Marrakesh on 15 April 1994, as may be
           amended. For the purposes of this Agreement, references to Articles in
           the GATT 1994 include the interpretative notes;
     (c)   “GATS” means the General Agreement on Trade in Services in Annex
           1B to the Marrakesh Agreement Establishing the World Trade
           Organization, done at Marrakesh on 15 April 1994, as may be
           amended;

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      (d)    “Harmonized System” (“HS”) means the Harmonized Commodity
             Description and Coding System set out in the Annex to the
             International Convention on the Harmonized Commodity Description
             and Coding System, as may be amended;

      (e)    “Malaysia” means the territories of the Federation of Malaysia, the
             territorial waters of Malaysia and the sea-bed and subsoil of the
             territorial waters, and the airspace above such areas, and includes any
             area extending beyond the limits of the territorial waters of Malaysia,
             and the sea-bed and subsoil of any such area, which has been or may
             hereafter be designated under the laws of Malaysia and in accordance
             with international law as an area over which Malaysia has sovereign
             rights or jurisdiction for the purposes of exploring and exploiting the
             natural resources, whether living or non-living; and

      (f)    “Pakistan” means all the territories of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan,
             including its territorial sea, in which the laws and regulations of
             Pakistan are in force, and all the area beyond its territorial sea,
             including the sea-bed and subsoil thereof, over which Pakistan
             exercises sovereign rights or jurisdiction in accordance with
             international law and the laws and regulations of Pakistan;

      (g)    “Parties” means the Government of Malaysia and the Government of
             the Islamic Republic of Pakistan and “Party” means either the
             Government of Malaysia or the Government of the Islamic Republic of
             Pakistan;

      (h)    “TRIPS Agreement” means the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects
             of Intellectual Property Rights in Annex 1C to the WTO Agreement; and

      (i)    “WTO Agreement” means the Marrakesh Agreement Establishing the
             World Trade Organization, done at Marrakesh on 15 April 1994, as
             may be amended.

                                      Article 3
                                   Transparency

1.     The Parties shall make publicly available their laws, regulations and national
policies of general application with respect to any matter covered by this Agreement.

2.     The Parties shall make easily available to the public, the names or
designations of the competent authorities responsible for the laws, regulations and
national policies of general application referred to in paragraph 1 of this Article.
3.     Each Party shall, upon request by the other Party, within a reasonable period
of time, respond to specific questions from, and provide information to the other

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Party in the English language with respect to matters referred to in paragraph 1 of
this Article.

4.     At the request of the interested persons of the countries of the Parties, each
Party shall endeavour to provide information relating to the specific matters raised by
the interested persons and pertaining to this Agreement. Each Party may also supply
other pertinent information relating to this Agreement which it consider the interested
persons should be made aware of.

                                    Article 4
                            Administrative Procedures

1.    Where administrative decisions, which pertain to, or affect the implementation
and operation of this Agreement are taken by the competent authorities of a Party,
the competent authorities shall, in accordance with the laws and regulations of the
country of that Party, endeavour to:

      (a)    inform the applicant of the decision within a reasonable period of time
             after the submission of an application considered complete under the
             laws and regulations of the country of that Party; and

      (b)    provide, within a reasonable period of time, information concerning the
             status of the application, at the request of the applicant.

2.     The competent authorities shall, where so required by the laws and
regulations of the country of the Party, establish standards for taking administrative
decisions in response to applications submitted to it. The competent authorities shall
endeavour to make such standards:

      (a)    as specific as possible; and

      (b)    publicly available except when it            would   extraordinarily   raise
             administrative difficulties for the Party.

                                     Article 5
                                Review and Appeal

1.     Each Party shall maintain judicial or quasi-judicial tribunals or procedures for
the purpose of prompt review or appeal as the case may be, and where warranted,
correction of actions taken by the respective competent authorities in the matters
covered by this Agreement. Such tribunals or procedures shall be independent of the
authorities entrusted with the administrative enforcement of such actions.

2.     Each Party shall ensure that the parties in such tribunals or procedures are
provided with the right to:

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      (a)    a reasonable opportunity to support or defend their respective
             positions; and

      (b)    a decision based on the evidence and submissions of record.

3.    Each Party shall ensure, subject to appeal or further review as provided in its
laws and regulations, that the decision referred to in paragraph 1 of this Article is
implemented by the relevant authorities.

                                     Article 6
                                   Confidentiality

1.    Each Party shall undertake, in accordance with its laws and regulations, to
observe the confidentiality of information provided by the other Party.

2.    Notwithstanding paragraph 1 of this Article, the information provided under
this Agreement may be transmitted to a third party subject to the prior written
consent of the providing Party.

3.     Nothing in this Agreement shall require any Party to provide confidential
information, the disclosure of which would impede law enforcement, or otherwise be
contrary to the public interest, or which would prejudice legitimate commercial
interests of particular enterprises, public or private.

4.     In the event of termination of this Agreement, the Parties agree that the
provisions of this Article shall continue to apply, unless otherwise agreed by the
Parties.

                                      Article 7
                             State Trading Enterprises

       Nothing in this Agreement shall be construed to prevent a Party from
maintaining or establishing a state trading enterprise in accordance with Article XVII
of the GATT 1994.
                                       Article 8
                                  Joint Committee

1.    A Joint Committee shall be established under this Agreement.

2.    The functions of the Joint Committee shall be to:

      (a)    review the implementation and operation of this Agreement;

      (b)    submit a report to the Parties through the focal points referred to in
             Article 10 on the implementation and operation of this Agreement;

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      (c)    consider and recommend to the Parties any amendments to this
             Agreement;

      (d)    facilitate the avoidance and settlement of disputes arising from this
             Agreement;

      (e)    supervise and coordinate the work of all Sub-Committees established
             under this Agreement;

      (f)    adopt any necessary decisions; and

      (g)    carry out any other function as the Parties may agree.

3.    The Joint Committee:

      (a)    shall be co-chaired by senior officials of the Parties, unless the Parties
             agree to convene the meeting at ministerial level; and

      (b)    may establish and delegate its responsibilities to Sub-Committees.

4.    The Joint Committee shall establish its rules and procedures and financial
arrangements.

5.     The Joint Committee shall convene its inaugural meeting within one year after
the entry into force of this Agreement. Its subsequent meetings shall be held at such
frequency as the Parties may agree upon. The Joint Committee shall convene
alternately in Malaysia and Pakistan, unless the Parties otherwise agree. Special
meetings of the Joint Committee may be convened within 30 days upon the request
of either Party.

                                    Article 9
                                 Sub-Committees

        The following Sub-Committees shall be established upon the entry into force
of this Agreement:

      (a)    Sub-Committee on Trade in Goods;

      (b)    Sub-Committee on Trade in Services;

      (c)    Sub-Committee on Customs Procedures; and

      (d)    Sub-Committee on Investment.




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                                   Article 10
                                  Focal Points

     Communications between the Parties on any matter relating to this
Agreement shall be facilitated through the following focal points:

     (a)   in the case of Malaysia, the Ministry of International Trade and
           Industry; and

     (b)   in the case of Pakistan, the Ministry of Commerce.

                                 CHAPTER 2
                               TRADE IN GOODS

                                   Article 11
                                   Definitions

     For the purposes of this Chapter:

     (a)   “customs duties” means duties imposed in connection with the
           importation of a good provided that such customs duties shall not
           include:

           (i)     charges equivalent to internal taxes, including excise duties,
                   sales tax, and goods and services taxes imposed in accordance
                   with a Party’s commitments under paragraph 2 of Article III of
                   the GATT 1994;

           (ii)    anti-dumping or countervailing duty or safeguard duty applied in
                   accordance with Chapter 5; or

           (iii)   fees or other charges that are limited in amount to the
                   approximate cost of services rendered, and do not represent a
                   direct or indirect protection for domestic goods or a taxation of
                   imports for fiscal purposes;

     (b)   “customs value of goods” means the value of goods for the purposes of
           levying ad valorem customs duties on imported goods;

     (c)   “originating goods” means the goods that qualify as originating goods
           in accordance with Chapter 3;

     (d)   “goods” includes manufactured goods and commodities in their raw,
           semi-processed and processed forms.



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                                       Article 12
                                Classification of Goods

      For the purposes of this Agreement, the classification of goods in trade
between the countries of the Parties shall be in conformity with the Harmonized System.

                                        Article 13
                                   National Treatment

       Each Party shall accord national treatment to the goods of the country of the
other Party in accordance with Article III of the GATT 1994.

                                     Article 14
                    Reduction or Elimination of Customs Duties

1.      Customs duties which are levied at zero percent or nil on the date of signing
of this Agreement shall be kept at zero percent or nil by the Parties.

2.     Customs duties in excess of zero percent or nil shall be reduced and where
relevant, eliminated by the Parties on originating goods of the other Party in
accordance with each Party’s Schedule of Concessions in Annex 1.

                                      Article 15
                     Modification or Withdrawal of Concessions

1.    Nothing in this Agreement shall prevent a Party from accelerating the
implementation of concessions provided for in this Agreement or to incorporate new
goods into such concessions, provided that such arrangements are notified to the other Party.

2.     Either Party may, by mutual agreement, modify or withdraw any concession
provided in Annex 1. Such mutual agreement shall include provisions for
compensatory adjustment with respect to other goods. The Party modifying or
withdrawing any concession provided in Annex 1 shall maintain a general level of
reciprocal and mutually advantageous concessions not less favourable to trade than
provided in this Agreement prior to such agreement.

3.     The modification or withdrawal of concessions shall be treated as an
amendment to Annex 1 and shall enter into force in accordance with the procedures
set out in Article 131.

                                       Article 16
                                   Customs Valuation

        For the purposes of determining the customs value of goods traded between
the countries of the Parties, provisions of Part I of the Agreement on Implementation
of Article VII of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 1994 in Annex 1A to the
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WTO Agreement, as may be amended shall, mutatis mutandis, be incorporated into
and made part of this Agreement.

                                       Article 17
                                  Non-Tariff Measures

1.     Except where expressly permitted by this Agreement or by the Parties’
obligations under the WTO Agreement, neither Party shall adopt or maintain any
non-tariff measure which constitutes a restriction on goods traded between the Parties.

2.     Each Party shall ensure the transparency of its non-tariff measures permitted
under paragraph 1 of this Article and that they are not constituted, adopted or
applied with a view to or with the effect of creating unnecessary restrictions to trade
between the Parties.

3.    Each Party shall identify the non-tariff measures which are creating
unnecessary restrictions to trade for elimination upon the entry into force of this
Agreement. The time frame for elimination of these non-tariff measures shall be
mutually agreed upon by the Parties.

                                     Article 18
                Restrictions to Safeguard the Balance-of-Payments

1.    The Parties shall endeavour to avoid the imposition of restrictive measures for
balance-of-payments purposes.

2.     Any measure taken for balance-of-payments purposes shall be in accordance
with Article XII, Section B of Article XVIII and the Understanding on the Balance-of-
Payments Provisions of the GATT 1994, which shall, mutatis mutandis, be
incorporated into and made part of this Agreement.

3.     Nothing in this Chapter shall be regarded as altering the rights enjoyed and
obligations undertaken by a Party as a party to the Articles of Agreement of the
International Monetary Fund, as may be amended.

                                    Article 19
                          Sub-Committee on Trade in Goods

1.      For the purposes of the effective implementation and operation of this
Chapter, the functions of the Sub-Committee on Trade in Goods (hereinafter referred
to in this Article as “the Sub-Committee”) established in accordance with Article 9 shall be:

       (a)    reviewing and monitoring the implementation and operation of this
              Chapter;

       (b)    discussing any issues related to this Chapter;
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      (c)   reporting the findings and the outcome of discussions of the Sub-
            Committee to the Joint Committee; and

      (d)   carrying out other functions as may be delegated by the Joint
            Committee in accordance with Article 8.

2.    The Sub-Committee shall meet at such venue and time as may be agreed by
the Parties.

3.    The Sub-Committee shall be:

      (a)   composed of representatives of the Parties; and

      (b)   co-chaired by officials of the Parties.

                                  CHAPTER 3
                                RULES OF ORIGIN

                                     Article 20
                                     Definitions

      For the purposes of this Chapter:

      (a)   “CIF” means the value of the good imported, and includes the cost of
            freight and insurance up to the port or place of entry into the country of
            importation;

      (b)   “designated government authority” means the government authority of
            each Party that is responsible for the issuing of the Certificate of Origin
            in accordance with Article 33;

      (c)   “FOB” means the free-on-board value of the good, inclusive of the cost
            of transport to the port or site of final shipment abroad;

      (d)   “goods” shall include materials and products which can be wholly
            obtained or produced, or manufactured, even if they are intended for
            later use in another manufacturing operation;

      (e)   “materials” include raw materials, ingredients, parts, components, sub-
            components, sub-assembly or goods that are physically incorporated
            into another good or are subject to a process in the production of
            another good;

      (f)   "originating goods" mean goods that qualify as originating in
            accordance with Article 21;

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      (g)    “preferential treatment” means the rate of customs duties applicable to
             an originating good of the country of an exporting Party in accordance
             with Article 14;

      (h)    "production" means methods of obtaining goods including growing,
             mining, harvesting, raising, breeding, extracting, gathering, collecting,
             capturing, fishing, trapping, hunting, manufacturing, producing,
             processing or assembling a good;

                                     Article 21
                                   Origin Criteria

1.    For the purposes of this Agreement, goods imported by a Party, which are
consigned directly within the meaning of Article 27 shall qualify as originating goods
and be eligible for preferential treatment if they conform to the origin criteria under
any one of the following:

      (a)    goods which are wholly obtained or produced in the territory of the
             country of the exporting Party as defined in Article 22; or

      (b)    goods otherwise deemed to be originating under Articles 23, 24 or 25.

2.      Notwithstanding subparagraph (b) of paragraph 1 of this Article, for goods
listed in Annex 2, Article 25 shall be solely applicable.

                                    Article 22
                       Wholly Obtained or Produced Goods

       The following goods shall be considered as wholly obtained or produced in
the territory of the country of a Party:

      (a)    plants and plant products harvested, picked or gathered in the territory
             of the country of the Party;

      (b)    live animals born and raised in the territory of the country of the Party;

      (c)    goods obtained from live animals referred to in paragraph (b);

      (d)    goods obtained from hunting, trapping, fishing, aquaculture, gathering
             or capturing conducted in the territory of the country of the Party;

      (e)    minerals and other naturally occurring substances, not included in
             paragraphs (a) to (d), extracted or taken from the territory of the
             country of the Party;



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      (f)    goods taken from the waters, seabed or beneath the seabed outside
             the territorial waters of the country of that Party, provided that country
             has the rights to exploit such waters, seabed and beneath the seabed
             in accordance with international law;

      (g)    goods of sea fishing and other marine goods taken from the high seas
             by vessels of the country of a Party or entitled to fly the flag of that
             country;

      (h)    goods processed or produced on board factory ships of the country of
             a Party or entitled to fly the flag of that country, exclusively from goods
             referred to in paragraph (g);

      (i)    articles collected in the territory of the country of the Party which can
             no longer perform their original purpose nor are capable of being
             restored or repaired and are fit only for disposal or recovery of parts of
             raw materials, or for recycling purposes; and

      (j)    goods obtained or produced in the territory of the country of a Party
             solely from goods referred to in paragraphs (a) to (i).

                                  Article 23
                    Not Wholly Obtained or Produced Goods

1.    A good shall be deemed to be originating if:

      (a)    not less than 40 per cent of its content originates from the country a
             Party; or

      (b)    the total value of the materials, parts or produce originating from
             outside of the territory of the country of a Party does not exceed 60 per
             cent of the FOB value of the good so produced or obtained; or

      (c)    the final good undergoes a change of tariff heading, where the
             Harmonized System classification of the final good is different from the
             Harmonized System classification of all non-originating or
             undetermined materials used in the production of such final good. For
             the purposes of this subparagraph, “change of tariff heading” means a
             change in tariff classification at the four digit level of the Harmonized
             System.

2.     To be deemed as originating under paragraph 1 of this Article the final
process of manufacturing shall be performed within the territory of the country of the
exporting Party.



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3.    The originating criteria set out in subparagraphs (a) and (b) of paragraph 1 of
this Article shall be referred to as the Malaysia-Pakistan Closer Economic
Partnership Agreement content (hereinafter referred to as “the MPCEPA content”).
The formula for calculating the MPCEPA content is as follows:

       Non-MPCEPA content:

               Value of                   Value of
             Non- MPCEPA         +      materials of
               Materials             undetermined origin X 100 % ≤ 60%
                            FOB Price

     Therefore, the MPCEPA content:
     100% minus non-MPCEPA content (%)≥ 40%

4.     The value of the non-originating materials shall be:

       (a)    the CIF value at the time of importation of the materials, parts or
              produce; or

       (b)    the earliest ascertained price paid for the materials, parts or produce of
              undetermined origin in the territory of the country of the Party where
              the production takes place.

                                    Article 24
                             Cumulative Rule of Origin

       Goods which satisfy the origin criteria under Article 21 and which are used in
the territory of the country of a Party as material for a finished good, shall be deemed
as goods originating in the territory of the country of the Party and eligible for
preferential treatment under this Agreement where processing of the finished good
has taken place, provided that in the final good the aggregate content (value of such
inputs plus domestic value addition) is not less than 40 per cent.

                                     Article 25
                               Product Specific Rules

      Goods subject to and which satisfy the Product Specific Rules as specified in
Annex 2 shall be deemed as originating and eligible for preferential treatment.

                                   Article 26
                        Minimal Operations and Processes

      The following operations or processes undertaken exclusively by itself or in
combination shall be considered to be minimal and shall not be taken into account in
determining the origin of goods under Article 23:
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      (a)    preservation of products in good condition for the purposes of transport
             or storage;

      (b)    changes of packaging, or breaking-up and assembly of packages;

      (c)    simple cleaning, including removal of oxide, oil, paint or other
             coverings;

      (d)    simple painting and polishing operations;

      (e)    simple testing or calibration;

      (f)    husking, partial or total bleaching, polishing and glazing of cereals and
             rice;

      (g)    sharpening, simple grinding, slicing or simple cutting;

      (h)    simple placing in bottles, cans, flasks, bags, cases, boxes, fixing on
             cards or boards and all other simple packaging operations;

      (i)    affixing or printing marks, labels, logos and other like distinguishing
             signs on goods or their packaging;

      (j)    simple mixing of goods, whether or not of different kinds; or

      (k)    simple assembly of parts of products to constitute a complete good.

                                     Article 27
                                Direct Consignment

       An originating good shall be deemed as directly consigned from the country of
the exporting Party to the country of the importing Party:

      (a)    if the goods are transported without passing through the territory of any
             third State; or

      (b)    if the goods are transported for the purpose of transit through third
             States with or without transhipment or temporary storage in such third
             States, provided that:

             (i)    the transit entry is justified for geographical reasons or transport
                    requirements;

             (ii)   the goods have not entered into trade or consumption in the
                    territory of the third State; and

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              (iii)   the goods have not undergone any operation in the territory of
                      the third State other than unloading and reloading or any
                      operation required to keep the goods in good condition.

                                    Article 28
             Treatment of Packages, Packing Materials and Containers

1.      If a good is subject to the value-added criterion provided in subparagraph (a)
or (b) of paragraph 1 of Article 23 the value of the packages and packing materials
for retail sale, shall be taken into account in determining the origin of that good,
provided that the packages and packing materials are considered as forming a whole
with the good;

2.      If a good is subject to the change in tariff classification criterion provided in
subparagraph (c) of paragraph 1 of Article 23, packages and packing materials
classified together with the packaged product, shall not be taken into account in
determining origin.

3.    Packing materials and containers used exclusively for the transportation of a
good shall not be taken into account in determining the origin of such good.

                                    Article 29
                        Accessories, Spare Parts and Tools

       The origin of accessories, spare parts, tools and instructional or other
information materials presented with the goods shall not be considered in
determining the origin of the goods, provided that such accessories, spare parts,
tools and information materials are customary to such goods and are classified with
the goods by the country of the importing Party.

                                       Article 30
                                   Indirect Materials

1.     Any indirect material used in the production of a good shall be treated as
originating, irrespective of whether such indirect material originates from a third
State. The value of such indirect material shall be the cost registered in the
accounting records of the producer of such good.

2.     For the purposes of this Article, indirect materials include:

       (a)    fuel, energy, catalysts and solvents;

       (b)    equipment, devices and supplies used for testing or inspection of the goods;

       (c)    gloves, glasses, footwear, clothing, safety equipment and supplies;

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      (d)    tools, dies and moulds;

      (e)    spare parts and materials used in the maintenance of equipment and buildings;

      (f)    lubricants, greases, compounding materials and other materials used
             in production or used to operate equipment and buildings; and

      (g)    any other material which are not incorporated into the good but whose
             use in the production of the good can reasonably be demonstrated to
             be a part of that production.

                                       Article 31
                       Identical and Interchangeable Materials

       The origin of identical or interchangeable materials, whether mixed or
physically combined, used to manufacture a good may be determined in accordance
with the generally accepted accounting principles of stock control or inventory
management practiced in the country of the exporting Party.

                                      Article 32
                                 Certificate of Origin

       A claim that goods are eligible for preferential treatment under this Agreement
shall be supported by a Certificate of Origin in the prescribed form in Annex 3, issued
by the designated government authority of the exporting Party.

                                      Article 33
                         Operational Certification Procedure

      For the purposes of implementing the rules of origin under this Chapter, the
Operational Certification Procedures as set out in Annex 4 shall apply.

                                CHAPTER 4
                    CUSTOMS PROCEDURES AND COOPERATION

                                      Article 34
                                      Definitions

      For the purposes of this Chapter:

      (a)    “customs authority” means the authority that according to the
             legislation of the country of each Party is responsible for the
             administration and enforcement of its customs laws:
             (i)      in the case of Malaysia, the Royal Malaysian Customs, and
             (ii)     in the case of Pakistan, the Central Board of Revenue;
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      (b)    “customs laws” means such laws and regulations administered and
             enforced by the customs authority of each Party concerning the
             importation, exportation, and transit of goods, relating to customs
             duties, charges, and other taxes, or to prohibitions, restrictions, and
             other similar controls with respect to the movement of controlled items
             across the boundary of the customs territory of each Party;

      (c)    “information” means any data, documents, reports and certified or
             authenticated copies thereof or other communications;
      (d)    “persons” means both natural and legal persons;

      (e)    “requesting authority” means the customs authority which requests
             assistance; and

      (f)    “requested authority” means the customs authority from which
             assistance is requested.

                                     Article 35
                                     Objectives

      The objectives of this Chapter are to:

      (a)    simplify and harmonise customs procedures of the countries of the
             Parties;

      (b)    ensure consistency, predictability and transparency in the application of
             customs laws and regulations of the country of the Parties;

      (c)    ensure efficient and expeditious clearance of goods;

      (d)    facilitate trade in goods between the countries of the Parties;

      (e)    promote cooperation between the customs authorities; and

      (f)    exchange information relating to all customs matters.

                                   Article 36
                               Scope and Coverage

1.    This Chapter shall apply to customs procedures required for the clearance of
goods traded between the countries of the Parties.

2.     This Chapter shall be implemented by the Parties in accordance with the laws
and regulations in force in the country of each Party and within the competence and
available resources of the customs authorities.


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                                       Article 37
                                     Transparency

1.     Each Party shall ensure that all relevant information pertaining to its customs
laws is easily accessible to the other Party.
2.     At the request of either Party, the other Party shall endeavour to provide
information relating to a specific customs matter raised by the other Party. Either
Party may also supply other pertinent information relating to such customs matter
which it considers that the other Party should be made aware of.

                                     Article 38
                                 Customs Clearance

1.     The Parties shall endeavour to apply customs procedures in a predictable,
consistent and transparent manner.

2.     For prompt customs clearance of goods traded between the countries of the
Parties, each Party shall:

       (a)    make use of information and communications technology;

       (b)    simplify its customs procedures;

       (c)    harmonise its customs procedures, as far as possible, with relevant
              international standards and best practices, such as those
              recommended by the World Customs Organization.

                                    Article 39
                          Temporary Admission of Goods

1.     Each Party shall facilitate temporary admission of goods in accordance with
the international standards and practices.

2.      For the purposes of this Article, the term “temporary admission” means
customs procedures under which certain goods may be brought into a customs
territory conditionally, relieved totally or partially from the payment of customs duties.
Such goods shall be imported for a specific purpose, and shall be intended for re-
exportation within a specified period and without having undergone any change
except normal depreciation due to the use made of them.

                                     Article 40
                         Cooperation and Capacity Building

1.    The Parties shall cooperate and exchange information with each other on
customs matters.

                                           18
2.     Bilateral cooperation shall include capacity building, such as training,
technical assistance, exchange of experts and any other forms of cooperation, as
may be mutually agreed upon by the Parties, for trade facilitation.

3.     To the extent permitted by their national laws and regulations, the customs
authorities shall assist each other in relation to:

      (a)    implementation and operation of this Chapter;

      (b)    facilitation of trade in goods between countries of the Parties;
      (c)    enforcement of prohibitions and restrictions on exports to and imports
             from their respective territories;

      (d)    cooperation in any other areas as may be mutually agreed upon by the
             Parties; and

      (e)    joint efforts to combat customs fraud.

                                     Article 41
                                 Mutual Assistance

1.    The customs authority of a Party shall, to the extent possible, provide the
customs authority of the other Party, upon request or on its own initiative, with
information which helps to ensure proper application of customs laws and the
prevention of violation or attempted violation of customs laws.

2.      To the extent permitted by their customs laws, the customs authorities may
provide each other with mutual assistance in order to prevent or investigate
violations of customs law.

3.    The request pursuant to paragraph 1 of this Article shall, wherever
appropriate, specify:

      (a)    the verification procedures that the requesting authority has undertaken
             or attempted to undertake; and

      (b)    the specific information that the requesting authority requires, which
             may include:

             (i)     subject and reason for the request;

             (ii)    a brief description of the matter and the action requested; and

             (iii)   the names and addresses of the parties concerned with the
                     proceedings, if known.

                                          19
                                  Article 42
      Information on the Application and Enforcement of Customs Laws

      The customs authorities shall exchange information on:

      (a)    new enforcement techniques proven to be effective;

      (b)    new trends, means or methods of committing violation or attempted
             violation of customs laws;
      (c)    goods known to be associated with the violation or attempted violation
             of customs laws, as well as transport and storage methods used for
             such goods;

      (d)    persons known to have committed or suspected of having violated or
             attempted violation of customs laws; and

      (e)    any other information that can assist the customs authorities of the
             Parties in using risk management for the purposes of appropriate
             customs control and facilitation of customs clearance of goods traded
             between the countries of the Parties.

                                    Article 43
                    Information Relating to Import and Export

1.     The requested authority shall, on request by the requesting authority, provide
the requesting authority with information relating to:

      (a)    whether goods imported into the territory of the requesting authority
             have been lawfully exported from the territory of the requested
             authority; and

      (b)    whether goods exported from the territory of the requesting authority
             have been lawfully imported into the territory of the requested authority
             and whether the goods have been placed under any customs
             procedures.

2.    The customs authorities shall, by mutual consent, cooperate by exchange of
personnel between them in order to share best practices in the enforcement of
customs laws.

                                 Article 44
      Assistance in the Assessment of Import or Export Duties and Taxes

1.    The requested authority shall, on request by the requesting authority having
reasons to believe that a customs offence has been committed in its territory,

                                         20
communicate available information which may help to ensure the proper assessment
of import or export duties and taxes:

      (a)    in respect of the value of goods for customs purposes:

             (i)      the commercial invoices presented to the customs authority of
                      the exporting or importing Party or copies of such invoices,
                      whether certified or not by the customs authority, as the
                      circumstances may require; and
             (ii)     a copy of the declaration of value made on exportation or
                      importation of the goods in the country of the exporting or
                      importing Party;

      (b)    in respect of the tariff classification of goods:

             (i)      analyses carried out by official authorities or laboratory services,
                      if conducted in relation thereto, to enable the customs
                      authorities to determine the tariff classification of the goods; and

             (ii)     the tariff description declared on importation or exportation; and

      (c)    in respect of the origin of goods, the declaration of origin made to the
             customs authorities at the time of importation or exportation.

                                     Article 45
                    Information and Communications Technology

1.     The Parties shall endeavour to establish an electronic data interchange to
provide for bilateral exchange of information on trade between them or any customs
matter.

2.    The customs authorities of the Parties shall exchange information, including
best practices, on the use of information and communications technology for the
purpose of improving customs procedures.

                                       Article 46
                                   Risk Management

1.    In order to facilitate customs clearance of goods traded between the countries
of the Parties, the customs authorities shall continue to use risk management
methodology.

2.     The customs authorities shall exchange information, including best practices,
on risk management techniques and other enforcement techniques.



                                           21
                                   Article 47
                       Enforcement against Illicit Trafficking

       The customs authorities shall, wherever possible, cooperate and exchange
information in their enforcement against the trafficking of illicit drugs and other
prohibited goods in their respective territories.

                                       Article 48
                             Intellectual Property Rights

      The customs authorities shall, wherever possible, cooperate and exchange
information in their enforcement against importation and exportation of goods
suspected of infringing intellectual property rights.

                                    Article 49
                              Exchange of Information

1.     Any information communicated under this Chapter shall be treated as
confidential unless the requested authority consents in writing to the disclosure of
such information.

2.    The requested authority may limit the information communicated under this
Chapter if the requesting authority is unable to give the assurance that the
information is used solely for the purpose it was requested for.

3.     If a requesting authority would be unable to comply with a similar request in
case such a request was made by the requested authority, the requesting authority
shall draw attention to that fact in its request. Execution of such a request shall be at
the discretion of the requested authority.

4.     Any information communicated under this Chapter shall be used only by the
requesting authority, solely for the purpose of administrative assistance according to
the terms set out in this Chapter.

5.     Any information communicated under this Chapter, if required for use in
criminal proceedings, shall be requested through the diplomatic channel or any other
channel established in accordance with the laws and regulations of the country of the
requested authority. The requested authority shall make its best efforts to respond
promptly and favourably to meet any reasonable deadlines indicated by the
requesting authority.

6.     Notwithstanding the provisions of this Chapter, if the communication of any
information requested under this Chapter is prohibited by the laws or regulations,
considered to be incompatible or prejudicial to the national interest or national
security of the country of the requested authority, the requested authority shall not be

                                           22
required to provide such information or may provide such information subject to any
terms, conditions or limitations it may prescribe.

7.     In the event of termination of this Agreement, the provisions of this Article,
with the exception of paragraphs 2 and 3, shall continue to apply unless otherwise
agreed by the Parties.

                                  Article 50
                     Sub-Committee on Customs Procedures

1.      For the purposes of the effective implementation and cooperation of this
Chapter, the functions of the Sub-Committee on Customs Procedures (hereinafter
referred to in this Chapter as “the Sub-Committee”) established in accordance with
Article 9 shall be to:

      (a)    review the implementation and operation of this Chapter;

      (b)    identify areas to be improved for facilitating trade between the
             countries of the Parties;

      (c)    report the outcome of discussions of the Sub-Committee to the Joint
             Committee;

      (d)    implement decisions or proposals approved by the Joint Committee, in
             accordance with paragraph (c) or otherwise; and

      (e)    carry out other functions as may be delegated by the Joint Committee.

2.     The Sub-Committee shall be co-chaired by officials from the customs
authorities of the Parties.

3.     The Sub-Committee shall comprise officials from the customs authorities of
the Parties. Other government officials of either Party with the necessary expertise
relevant to the issues to be discussed may be included on an ad hoc basis.

4.      The Sub-Committee may, by consensus, invite representatives of relevant
entities other than the Parties with the necessary expertise relevant to the issues to
be discussed to participate in the meetings of the Sub-Committee.

5.    The Sub-Committee shall meet at such place and number of times as may be
mutually agreed upon by the Parties.

                                     Article 51
                          Publication and Enquiry Points

      For the purposes of this Chapter, each Party shall:


                                         23
       (a)    publish on the internet or in print form all statutory and regulatory
              provisions and procedures applicable or enforced by its customs
              authority; and

       (b)    designate one or more enquiry points to address enquiries from the
              other Party concerning customs matters, and shall make available on
              the Internet, or print form, information concerning procedures for
              making such enquiries.

                                   CHAPTER 5
                                 TRADE REMEDIES

                                      Article 52
                                    Anti-Dumping

      Each Party shall retain its rights and obligations under Article VI of the GATT
1994 and the Agreement on Implementation of Article VI of the General Agreement
on Tariffs and Trade 1994 in Annex 1A to the WTO Agreement, as set out in the
national legislations of both Parties.

                                    Article 53
                      Subsidies and Countervailing Measures

       Each Party shall retain its rights and obligations under Articles VI and XVI of
the GATT 1994 and the Agreement on Subsidies and Countervailing Measures in
Annex 1A to the WTO Agreement, as set out in the national legislations of the
countries of the Parties.

                                      Article 54
                           Bilateral Safeguard Measures

1.      A Party (hereinafter referred to in this Article as “the affected Party”) shall
have the right to apply bilateral safeguard measures on an originating good of the
country of the other Party if, as a result of the reduction or elimination of a customs
duty in accordance with Article 14, such originating good is being imported into the
territory of the country of a Party in such increased quantities, in absolute terms, or
relative to domestic production and under such conditions as to cause serious injury
or threat of serious injury to domestic industry producing a like or directly competitive
good. The affected Party may:

       (a)    suspend the further reduction of any rate of customs duty on the
              originating good provided for under this Agreement; or

       (b)    increase the rate of customs duty on the originating good to a level not
              exceeding the most-favoured-nation applied rate of customs duty on

                                           24
              the originating good in effect at the time the bilateral safeguard
              measure is taken.

2.      The affected Party shall have the right to apply bilateral safeguard measures
on an originating good within the transition period for that originating good. The
transition period for a good shall begin from the date of entry into force of this
Agreement and end five years from the date of completion of tariff reduction and,
where relevant, elimination for that good.

3.     In applying bilateral safeguard measures, the Parties shall adopt the rules for
the application of safeguard measures, including provisional measures, as provided
under the Agreement on Safeguards in Annex 1A to the WTO Agreement
(hereinafter referred to as “the Agreement on Safeguards”), with the exception of the
quantitative restriction measures set out in Article 5, and Articles 9, 12, 13 and 14 of
the Agreement on Safeguards. As such, all other provisions of the Agreement on
Safeguards shall, mutatis mutandis, be incorporated into and form an integral part of
this Agreement.

4.      Notwithstanding paragraph 3 of this Article, the following conditions and
limitations shall apply to an investigation or a bilateral safeguard measure:

       (a)    The affected Party shall immediately deliver a written notice to the
              other Party upon:

              (i)     initiating an investigatory process relating to serious injury or
                      threat thereof and the reasons for it;

              (ii)    making a finding of serious injury or threat thereof caused by
                      increased imports; and

              (iii)   taking a decision to apply or extend a bilateral safeguard
                      measure.

       (b)    In making the notifications referred to in subparagraphs (ii) and (iii) of
              paragraph (a), the affected Party proposing to apply a bilateral
              safeguard measure shall provide the other Party with all pertinent
              information, which shall include:

              (i)     evidence of serious injury or threat thereof caused by the
                      increased imports;

              (ii)    precise description of the originating good involved and the
                      proposed bilateral safeguard measure; and

              (iii)   proposed date of introduction and expected duration.

                                           25
             The affected Party proposing to apply a bilateral safeguard measure
             may be requested by the other Party to provide additional information
             as it may consider necessary and the affected Party shall respond
             accordingly. In the case of an extension of a bilateral safeguard measure, evidence
             that the industry concerned is adjusting shall also be provided.

      (c)    The affected Party proposing to apply or extend a bilateral safeguard
             measure shall provide adequate opportunity for prior consultations with
             the other Party as far in advance of taking or extending any such
             bilateral safeguard measure as practicable, with a view to reviewing the
             information arising from the investigation, exchanging views on the
             proposed bilateral safeguard measure and reaching an agreement on
             compensation set out in paragraph 8 of this Article.

      (d)    The provisions on notification in this Article shall not require any Party
             to disclose confidential information the disclosure of which would
             impede law enforcement or otherwise be contrary to the public interest
             or would prejudice the legitimate commercial interests of particular
             enterprises, public or private;

      (e)    The affected Party shall apply the bilateral safeguard measure only
             following an investigation by its competent authorities in accordance
             with Articles 3 and 4.2(a), (b) and (c) of the Agreement on Safeguards.

      (f)    An investigation shall be promptly terminated without any bilateral
             safeguard measure being applied if imports of the originating good
             represent less than 8 per cent of total imports.

      (g)    Investigations shall in all cases be completed within one year following
             the date of initiation of the investigation.

5.      Any bilateral safeguard measure may be maintained for an initial period of up
to two years and may be extended for a period not exceeding one year if it is
determined pursuant to the procedures referred to in paragraph 4 of this Article that
the bilateral safeguard measure continues to be necessary to prevent or remedy
serious injury and to facilitate adjustment and that there is evidence that the
domestic industry is adjusting. Notwithstanding the duration of a bilateral safeguard
measure on the good, such a bilateral safeguard measure shall terminate at the end
of the transition period for that good.

6.      No bilateral safeguard measure shall be taken against a particular good while
a global safeguard measure in respect of that good is in place. In the event that a
global safeguard measure is taken in respect of a particular good, any existing
bilateral safeguard measure which is taken against that good shall be terminated
prior to the imposition of a global safeguard measure.

                                             26
7.      On the affected Party’s termination of a bilateral safeguard measure on a
particular good, the tariff rate for that good shall be the rate that would have been in
effect in accordance with Article 14, but for the bilateral safeguard measure.

8.      The affected Party proposing to apply a bilateral safeguard measure shall
provide to the other Party mutually agreed adequate means of trade liberalising
compensation in the form of concessions having substantially equivalent trade
effects or equivalent to the value of the additional duties expected to result from the
bilateral safeguard measure. If the Parties are unable to agree on compensation
within 30 days, the Parties shall seek the good offices of the Joint Committee to
determine the substantially equivalent level of concessions to that existing under this
Agreement between the affected Party applying the bilateral safeguard measure and
the exporting Party which would be affected by such a bilateral safeguard measure
prior to any suspension of equivalent concessions. This action shall be applied only
for the minimum period necessary to achieve the substantially equivalent effects.

9.     The right of suspension referred to in paragraph 8 of this Article shall not be
exercised for the first one year that a bilateral safeguard measure is in effect,
provided that the bilateral safeguard measure has been taken as a result of an
absolute increase in import and that such a bilateral safeguard measure conforms to
the provision of this Chapter.

10.     Each Party shall entrust determinations of serious injury or threat thereof in
safeguard investigation proceedings to a competent investigating authority, subject to
review by judicial or administrative tribunals, to the extent provided by national laws and regulations.
Negative injury determinations shall not be subject to modification, except by such review.

11.    All official communications and documentations exchanged among the Parties
and to the Joint Committee relating to any bilateral safeguard measures shall be in
writing and shall be in the English language.

                                          Article 55
                                 Global Safeguard Measures

      Each Party retains its rights and obligations under Article XIX of the GATT
1994 and the Agreement on Safeguards. Actions taken pursuant to Article XIX of the
GATT 1994 and the Agreement on Safeguards shall not be subject to Chapter 12.

                                   CHAPTER 6
                     SANITARY AND PHYTOSANITARY MEASURES

                                            Article 56
                                            Objectives

       The objectives of this Chapter are to protect human, animal or plant life or
health in the territory of the countries of the Parties, and to provide a framework to
                                                  27
address any bilateral sanitary and phytosanitary matters so as to facilitate and
increase trade between the countries of the Parties.

                                     Article 57
                                 Scope and Coverage

1.      This Chapter applies to all sanitary and phytosanitary measures in the
territories of the countries of the Parties that may, directly or indirectly, affect trade
between the countries of the Parties.

2.     For the purposes of this Chapter:

       (a)    “international standards, guidelines and recommendations” shall have
              the same meaning as in Annex A to the Agreement on the Application
              of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures in Annex 1A to the WTO
              Agreement (hereinafter referred to as “the SPS Agreement”);

       (b)    “sanitary and phytosanitary measure” means any measure referred to
              in Annex A, paragraph 1 of the SPS Agreement; and

       (c)    “trade between the Parties” refers to the trade in goods produced,
              processed or manufactured in the territories of the countries of the
              Parties.

3.     This Chapter does not apply to technical regulations, standards and
conformity assessment procedures as defined in the Agreement on Technical
Barriers to Trade in Annex 1A to the WTO Agreement (hereinafter referred to as the
“TBT Agreement”).

                                      Article 58
                                  General Provisions

1.     The Parties affirm their existing rights and obligations with respect to each
other under the SPS Agreement.

2.    With the view to facilitating and increasing bilateral trade, the Parties shall
seek to enhance their cooperation in the area of sanitary and phytosanitary
measures and deepen their mutual understanding and awareness of their respective
systems.

3.     The Parties shall seek to identify initiatives for cooperation on regulatory
issues, such as bilateral recognition of equivalence, harmonisation based on
international standards, guidelines and recommendations, or other cooperative
arrangements.



                                           28
                                     Article 59
                                    Focal Points

1.      To facilitate the implementation of this Chapter and cooperation between the
Parties, each Party shall designate a focal point, who shall be responsible for
coordinating all matters pertaining to this Chapter. The functions of the focal point
shall include:

      (a)    monitoring the implementation and administration of this Chapter;

      (b)    enhancing communication between the Parties’ agencies and
             ministries responsible for sanitary and phytosanitary matters and
             facilitate either Party’s response to written requests for information or
             exchange of information from the other Party in print or in electronic
             media without undue delay;

      (c)    promptly addressing any bilateral sanitary and phytosanitary issues
             that either Party raises to enhance cooperation and consultations
             between the Parties to facilitate trade between the Parties;

      (d)    promoting the use of international standards, guidelines and
             recommendations by both Parties in their respective adoption and
             application of sanitary and phytosanitary measures; and

      (e)    reviewing the progress of addressing sanitary and phytosanitary
             matters that may arise between the Parties’ agencies and ministries
             responsible for such matters.

2.    The focal points shall carry out their functions through agreed communication
channels such as telephone, fax, emails or post, whichever is most expedient in the
discharge of their functions.

3.    For the purposes of this Article, the focal points shall be:

      (a)    in the case of Malaysia, the Secretary General of the Ministry of
             Agriculture and Agro-based Industry; and

      (b)    in the case of Pakistan, the Secretary of the Ministry of Food,
             Agriculture and Livestock.

                                    Article 60
                             Technical Working Group

1.     Where a matter covered under this Chapter cannot be clarified or resolved
through the focal points, the Parties may, with mutual consent, agree to establish a
technical working group with a view to identifying a workable and practical solution
                                          29
that would facilitate trade. Where a Party declines a request from the other Party to
establish such working group, it shall, upon request, explain its reasons to the other
Party. Such working group shall comprise representatives of both Parties,
responsible for sanitary and phytosanitary measures.

2.    The proposals of the technical working group may form the basis for a Party
to consider the request by the other Party for recognition of a specific sanitary and
phytosanitary measure as equivalent to the other Party’s corresponding sanitary and
phytosanitary requirements.

                                          Article 61
                                      Dispute Settlement

1.     Neither Party may have recourse to the dispute settlement mechanism
provided for in Chapter 12 for any dispute or differences arising from this Chapter.

2.      Any disputes or differences arising from this Chapter shall be settled amicably
through consultation by the technical working group. In the event that this fails, such
dispute or differences may be forwarded by either Party for consideration by the Joint Committee.

                                            Article 62
                                         Final Provision

        Nothing in this Chapter shall limit the authority of a Party to determine the level
of protection it considers necessary for the protection of, inter alia, human, animal or plant life or
health. In determining such level of protection, each Party retains authority to
interpret the laws, regulations and administrative provisions of its country.

                                     CHAPTER 7
                            TECHNICAL BARRIERS TO TRADE

                                         Article 63
                                    Scope and Application

1.    All terms concerning technical regulations, standards and conformity
assessment procedures used in this Agreement shall have the meaning given in
Annex 1 of the TBT Agreement.

2.      The rights and obligations of the Parties in respect of technical regulations,
standards and conformity assessment procedures shall be governed by the TBT Agreement.

                                          Article 64
                                    Technical Cooperation

1.     The Parties shall encourage appropriate institutions in their jurisdiction to
strengthen their technical cooperation aimed at achieving full and effective
                                                 30
implementation of the TBT Agreement and with a view to increasing the mutual
understanding of their respective systems and facilitating access to their respective
markets. To this end, they shall encourage their competent authorities in the area of
technical regulations, standards and conformity assessment procedures to
cooperate in:

       (a)    reinforcing the role of international standards or national standards
              harmonised to international standards, as a basis for technical
              regulations;

       (b)    exchanging information on technical regulations and conformity
              assessments procedures;

       (c)    participating in multilateral and international fora on technical
              regulations, standards and conformity assessment procedures; and

       (d)    considering requests for implementation of any specific cooperation
              programme.

                                       Article 65
                                International Standards

1.     The Parties shall utilise either national standards harmonised to international
standards or international standards as a basis for cooperation in technical
regulations, standards and conformity assessment procedures.

2.     In determining whether an international standard or recommendation within
the meaning of Articles 2 and 5 and Annex 3 of the TBT Agreement exists, each
Party shall apply the principles set out in Decisions and Recommendations adopted
by the Committee since 1 January 1995, G/TBT/1/Rev.8, 23 May 2002, Section IX
(“Decision of the Committee on Principles for the Development of International
Standards, Guides and Recommendations with relation to Articles 2, 5 and Annex 3
of the TBT Agreement”) issued by the World Trade Organisation Committee on
Technical Barriers to Trade or any successor document.

                                     Article 66
                         Conformity Assessment Procedures

       Each Party shall utilise existing regional and international mutual recognition
arrangements in relation to the acceptance of conformity assessment processes and procedures.

                                        Article 67
                                       Focal Point

       For the purposes of this Chapter, each Party shall establish a focal point, with
the objectives of:
                                             31
      (a)   facilitating technical consultations on any issue relating to technical
            regulations, standards and conformity assessment procedures that a
            Party may raise;

      (b)   enhancing cooperation in the development and improvement of
            conformity assessment procedures;

      (c)   facilitating, where appropriate, cooperation between governmental
            regulatory authorities, accreditation agencies and conformity
            assessment bodies in the respective territories; and

      (d)   exchanging information on developments in national, regional and
            multilateral fora engaged in activities relating to standardisation,
            technical regulations, standards and conformity assessment procedures.


                                  CHAPTER 8
                               TRADE IN SERVICES

                                   Article 68
                               Scope and Coverage

1.      This Chapter shall apply to measures adopted or maintained by a Party
affecting trade in services by service suppliers of the other Party.

2.    This Chapter shall not apply to:

      (a)   services supplied in the exercise of governmental authority at the
            central, regional or local government levels;

            Note:      The term “regional” refers to a state of Malaysia and a
                       province of Pakistan.

      (b)   any measure by a Party with respect to government procurement;

      (c)   subsidies or grants provided by a Party;

      (d)   in respect of air transport services, traffic rights, however granted, or
            services directly related to the exercise of traffic rights, except
            measures affecting:

            (i)     aircraft repair and maintenance services;

            (ii)    the selling and marketing of air transport services; and

            (iii)   computer reservation system services.
                                         32
       (e)    cabotage in maritime transport services; and

       (f)    measures affecting natural persons seeking access to the employment
              market of a Party, or measures regarding citizenship, residence or
              employment on a permanent basis.

3.      Nothing in this Chapter shall prevent a Party from applying measures to
regulate the entry of natural persons of the country of the other Party into, or their
temporary stay in, its country’s territory, including those measures necessary to
protect the integrity of, and to ensure the orderly movement of natural persons
across its borders, provided that such measures are not applied in such a manner as
to nullify or impair the benefits accruing to the other Party under the terms of this
Chapter.

4.      Article 98 shall apply, mutatis mutandis, to measures affecting the supply of
service by a service supplier of the country of a Party through commercial presence
in the territory of the other Party, regardless of whether or not such services sector is
scheduled in a Party’s Schedule of Specific Commitments in Annex 5.

                                       Article 69
                                       Definitions

       For purposes of this Chapter:

       (a)    “aircraft repair and maintenance services” means such activities when
              undertaken on an aircraft or a part thereof while it is withdrawn from
              service and does not include so-called line maintenance;

       (b)    a juridical person is;

              (i)     “owned” by persons of the country of a Party if more than 50 per
                      cent of the equity interest in it is beneficially owned by persons
                      of that country;

              (ii)    “controlled” by persons of the country of a Party if such persons
                      have the power to name a majority of its directors or otherwise
                      to legally direct its actions; and

              (iii)   “affiliated” with another person when it controls, or is controlled
                      by, that other person, or when it and the other person are both
                      controlled by the same person;

       (c)    “commercial presence” means any type of business or professional
              establishment, including through:


                                           33
      (i)    the constitution, acquisition or maintenance of a juridical person;
             or

      (ii)   the creation or maintenance of a branch or a representative
             office, within the territory of the country of a Party for the
             purposes of supplying a service;

(d)   “computer reservation system services” means services provided by
      computerised systems that contain information about air carriers’
      schedules, availability, fares and fare rules, through which reservations
      can be made or tickets may be issued;

(e)   “existing” means in effect on the date of entry into force of this
      Agreement;

(f)   “juridical person” means any legal entity duly constituted or otherwise
      organised under applicable law, whether for profit or otherwise, and
      whether privately-owned or governmentally-owned, including any
      corporation, trust, partnership, joint venture, sole proprietorship or
      association;

(g)   “juridical person of another Party” means a juridical person which is
      either:

      (i)    constituted or otherwise organised under the law of the country
             of that other Party, and is engaged in substantive business
             operations in the territory of the country that Party;

             Note:      In order to prevent the possibility of companies of a
                        third State unduly benefiting from this Agreement,
                        companies of a third State registered in the territory of
                        the country of another Party, their offices, liaison
                        offices, “shell companies” and “mail box companies”
                        and companies specifically established for providing
                        certain services to their parent companies are not
                        service suppliers of another Party under this
                        Agreement.

      (ii)   in the case of the supply of a service through commercial
             presence, owned or controlled by:

             (AA)    natural persons of the country of that Party; or

             (BB)    juridical persons of the country of that other Party
                     identified under subparagraph (i) of this paragraph;

                                   34
(h)   “measures adopted or maintained by a Party” means any measure of a
      Party, whether in the form of laws, regulations, rules, procedures,
      decisions, and administrative actions or practice, adopted or
      maintained by:

      (i)     central, regional or local government or authorities; or

      (ii)    non-governmental bodies in the exercise of powers delegated
              by central, regional or local governments or authorities;

(i)   “measures adopted or maintained by a Party affecting trade in
      services” includes measures affecting:

      (i)     the purchase, payment or use of a service;

      (ii)    the access to and use of, in connection with the supply of a
              service, services which are required by a Party to be offered to
              the public generally; and

      (iii)   the presence, including commercial presence, of persons of the
              country of a Party for the supply of a service in the territory of
              the country of the other Party;

(j)   “monopoly supplier of a service” means any person, public or private,
      which in the relevant market of the territory of the country of a Party is
      authorised or established formally or in effect by that Party as the sole
      supplier of that service;

(k)   “natural person of the other Party” means a natural person who resides
      in the country of the other Party or elsewhere and who under the law of
      the country of the other Party;

      (i)     in respect of Malaysia, is a citizen of Malaysia or has the right of
              permanent residence in Malaysia; and

      (ii)    in respect of Pakistan, is a citizen of Pakistan or has the right of
              permanent residence in Pakistan;

(l)   “sector” of a service means with reference to a specific commitment,
      one or more, or all, sub-sectors of that service, as specified in a Party’s
      Schedule of Specific Commitments in Annex 5; or otherwise, the whole
      of that service sector, including all of its sub-sectors, as the case may
      be;

(m)   “selling and marketing of air transport services” means opportunities for
      the air carrier concerned to sell and market freely its air transport
                                    35
      services including all aspects of marketing such as market research,
      advertising and distribution. These activities do not include the pricing
      of air transport services or the applicable conditions;

(n)   “service consumer” means any person that receives or uses a service;

(o)   “service of the other Party” means a service which is supplied:

      (i)     from or in the territory of the country of the other Party, or in the
              case of maritime transport, by a vessel registered under the
              laws of the country of the other Party, or by a person of the
              country of the other Party which supplies the service through the
              operation of a vessel or its use in whole or in part; or

      (ii)    in the case of the supply of a service through commercial
              presence or through the presence of natural persons, by a
              service supplier of the country of the other Party;

(p)   “service supplied in the exercise of governmental authority” means any
      service which is supplied neither on a commercial basis nor in
      competition with one or more service suppliers;

(q)   “service supplier” means any person that supplies a service;

(r)   “supply of a service” includes the production, distribution, marketing,
      sale and delivery of a service; and

(s)   “trade in services” means the supply of a service:

      (i)     from the territory of the country of one Party into the territory of
              the country of the other Party (“cross-border mode”);

      (ii)    in the territory of the country of one Party to the service
              consumer of the country of the other Party (“consumption
              abroad mode”);

      (iii)   by a service supplier of the country of one Party, through
              commercial presence in the territory of the country of the other
              Party (“commercial presence mode”); and

      (iv)    by a service supplier of the country of one Party, through
              presence of natural persons of the country of that Party in the
              territory of the country of the other Party (“presence of natural
              persons mode”).



                                    36
                                      Article 70
                                    Market Access

1.     Each Party shall accord to services and service suppliers of the other Party
treatment no less favourable than that provided for under the terms, limitations and
conditions agreed and specified in its Schedule of Specific Commitments in Annex 5.

2.     In sectors where market access commitments are undertaken, the measures
which a Party shall not maintain or adopt either on the basis of a regional subdivision
or on the basis of the entire territory of its country, unless otherwise specified in its
Schedule of Specific Commitments in Annex 5 are defined as:

       (a)    limitations on the number of service suppliers whether in the form of
              numerical quotas, monopolies, exclusive service suppliers or the
              requirements of an economic needs test;

       (b)    limitations on the total value of service transactions or assets in the
              form of numerical quotas or the requirement of an economic needs
              test;

       (c)    limitations on the total number of service operations or on the total
              quantity of service output expressed in terms of designated numerical
              units in the form of quotas or the requirement of an economic needs
              test, except measures of a Party which limit inputs for the supply of
              services;

       (d)    limitations on the total number of natural persons that may be
              employed in a particular service sector or that a service supplier may
              employ and who are necessary for, and directly related to, the supply
              of a specific service in the form of numerical quotas or the requirement
              of an economic needs test;

       (e)    measures which restrict or require specific types of legal entity or joint
              venture through which a service supplier may supply a service; and

       (f)    limitations on the participation of foreign capital in terms of maximum
              percentage limit on foreign shareholding or the total value of individual
              or aggregate foreign investment.

                                       Article 71
                                  National Treatment

1.    In the sectors inscribed in its Schedule of Specific Commitments in Annex 5,
and subject to any conditions and qualifications set out therein, each Party shall
accord to services and service suppliers of the other Party, in respect of all

                                           37
measures affecting the supply of services, treatment no less favourable than that it
accords to its own like services and service suppliers.

2.     A Party may meet the requirement in paragraph 1 of this Article by according
to services and service suppliers of the other Party, either formally identical
treatment or formally different treatment to that it accords to its own like services and
service suppliers.

3.     Formally identical or formally different treatment shall be considered to be less
favourable if it modifies the conditions of competition in favour of services or service
suppliers of the Party compared to the like service or service suppliers of the other
Party.

4.     Commitments assumed under this Article shall not be construed to require
either Party to compensate for any inherent competitive disadvantages which result
from the foreign character of the relevant services or service suppliers.

                                     Article 72
                              Additional Commitments

        The Parties may negotiate commitments with respect to measures affecting
trade in services not subject to the Articles 70 and 71, including those regarding
qualifications, standards or licensing matters. Such commitments shall be inscribed
in a Party’s Schedule of Specific Commitments in Annex 5.

                                    Article 73
                        Schedule of Specific Commitments

1.    Each Party shall set out in a schedule the specific commitments it undertakes
under Articles 70, 71 and 72 in Annex 5.

2.   With respect to sectors where the specific commitments are undertaken, each
Schedule of Specific Commitments in Annex 5 shall specify:

       (a)    terms, limitations and conditions on market access;

       (b)    conditions and qualifications on national treatment;

       (c)    undertakings relating to additional commitments; and

       (d)    where appropriate, the time-frame for implementation of such
              commitments.

3.    With respect to sectors or sub-sectors where the specific commitments are
undertaken and set out in Annex 5 any terms, limitations, conditions and
                                           38
qualifications, referred to in subparagraphs (a) and (b) of paragraph 2 of this Article,
shall be limited to existing non-conforming measures.

4.     With respect to sectors or sub-sectors as set out in Annex 5, any change or
modification in the conditions by a Party shall not result in the decrease of benefits in
relation to the prevailing conditions applied to service suppliers of the other Party
present in the territory of the country of the Party, compared to the benefits
immediately before such change or modification comes into effect.

                                     Article 74
                             Modification of Schedules

1.     A Party (hereinafter referred to in this Article as "modifying Party") may modify
or withdraw any commitment in its Schedule of Specific Commitments in Annex 5 at
any time from the date on which that commitment entered into force.

2.     The modifying Party shall notify the other Party (hereinafter referred to in this
Article as "the affected Party") of its intent to modify or withdraw a commitment
pursuant to this Article no later than three months before the intended date of
implementation of the modification or withdrawal.

3.     The modifying Party may only modify or withdraw its commitments where the
modifying Party makes any necessary compensatory adjustments to its Schedule of
Specific Commitments to maintain a general level of mutually advantageous
commitments that is not less favourable to trade in services than provided for in its
Schedule prior to the modification.

4.     Upon notification of a Party's intent to make such modification, the Parties
shall consult and attempt to reach agreement on the necessary compensatory
adjustment.

5.     If agreement is not reached between the modifying Party and the affected
Party on the necessary compensatory adjustment within three months, the affected
Party may refer the matter to arbitration in accordance with the procedures set out in
Chapter 12.

6.     The modifying Party may not modify or withdraw its commitment until it has
made the necessary adjustments in conformity with the findings of the arbitration
referred to in paragraph 5 of this Article.

                                   Article 75
                         Most-Favoured-Nation Treatment

1.     Each Party shall accord to services and service suppliers of the other Party
treatment no less favourable than that it accords, in like services, to services and
service suppliers of any third State.
                                           39
2.     The provisions of paragraph 1 of this Article shall not apply to any measure by
a Party with respect to sectors, sub-sectors or activities, as set out in its Schedule of
Specific Commitments in Annex 5.

 3.     If a Party has entered into an agreement on trade in services with a third State
or enters into such an agreement after this Agreement enters into force, with respect
to sectors, sub-sectors or activities included in its Schedule of Specific Commitments
in Annex 5, it shall, upon the request of the other Party, consider according to
services and service suppliers of the other Party, treatment no less favourable than
that it accords to like services and service suppliers of that third State.

                                    Article 76
                                Domestic Regulation

1.     Each Party shall ensure that all measures of general application affecting
trade in services are administered in a reasonable, objective and impartial manner.

2.     Each Party shall ensure that its judicial, arbitral or administrative tribunals or
procedures which provide for the prompt review of, and where justified, appropriate
remedies for, administrative decisions affecting trade in services are open on a non-
discriminatory basis to service suppliers of the other Party. Where such procedures
are not independent of the agency entrusted with the administrative decision
concerned, the Party shall ensure that the procedures in fact provide for an objective
and impartial review.

3.     Paragraph 2 of this Article shall not be construed to require a Party to institute
such tribunals or procedures where this would be inconsistent with its constitutional
structure or the nature of its legal system.

4.     Where authorisation is required for the supply of a service, the competent
authorities of a Party shall promptly, after the submission of an application
considered complete under domestic laws and regulations, inform the applicant of
the decision concerning the application. At the request of the applicant, the
competent authorities of the Party shall provide, without undue delay, information
concerning the status of the application.

5.     With the objective of ensuring that domestic regulation, including measures
relating to qualification requirements and procedures, technical standards and
licensing requirements, do not constitute unnecessary barriers to trade in services,
the Parties shall jointly review the results of the negotiations on disciplines on these
measures, pursuant to Article VI.4 of the GATS, with a view to their incorporation into
this Agreement. The Parties note that such disciplines aim to ensure that such
requirements are inter alia:

       (a)    based on objective and transparent criteria, such as competence and
              the ability to supply the service;
                                           40
       (b)    not more burdensome than necessary to ensure the quality of the
              service; and

       (c)    in the case of licensing procedures, not in themselves a restriction on
              the supply of the service.

6.      Pending the incorporation of disciplines pursuant to paragraph 5 of this
Article, a Party shall not apply licensing and qualification requirements and
technical standards that nullify or impair its obligations under this Chapter in a
manner which:

       (a)    does not comply with the criteria outlined in subparagraphs (a), (b) or
              (c) of paragraph 5 of this Article; and

       (b)    could not reasonably have been expected of that Party at the time the
              obligations were undertaken.

7.     In determining whether a Party is in conformity with its obligations under
paragraph 6 of this Article, account shall be taken of international standards of
relevant international organisations applied by that Party.

8.     Each Party shall provide for adequate procedures to verify the competence of
professionals of the country of the other Party.

                                      Article 77
                                  Mutual Recognition

1.     A Party may recognise the education or experience obtained, requirements
met, or licences or certification granted in the country of the other Party for purposes
of the fulfilment, in whole or in part, of its standards or criteria for the authorisation,
licensing, or certification of service suppliers of the other Party.

2.       Recognition referred to in paragraph 1 of this Article, which may be achieved
through harmonisation or otherwise, may be based upon an agreement or
arrangement between the Parties or may be accorded unilaterally. For the purposes
of fulfilment, in whole or in part, of the obligation under paragraph 1 of this Article,
the Parties have agreed to adopt the Framework on Mutual Recognition
Arrangements as in Annex 6.

3.     Where a Party recognises, by agreement or arrangement between the Party
and a third State or unilaterally, the education or experience obtained, requirements
met or licences or certifications granted in the third State;

       (a)    nothing in Article 75 shall be construed to require the Party to accord
              such recognition to the education or experience obtained, requirements
              met or licences or certifications granted in the other Party; and
                                            41
       (b)    the Party shall accord the other Party an adequate opportunity to
              demonstrate that the education or experience obtained, requirements
              met or licences or certifications granted in the other Party should also
              be recognised.

4.    Both Parties shall facilitate development of mutual recognition arrangements
among professional or regulatory bodies through facilitating discussion among these
bodies and exchange of information on focal points.

                                      Article 78
                                    Transparency

1.     Each Party shall publish promptly, except in emergency situations, all relevant
measures of general application which pertain to or affect the operation of this
Chapter. International agreements pertaining to or affecting cross-border trade in
services to which a Party is a signatory shall also be published.

2.     Where publication as referred to in paragraph 1 of this Article is not
practicable, such information shall be made otherwise publicly available.

3.     Each Party shall respond promptly to all requests by the other Party for
specific information on any of its measures of general application or international
agreements within the meaning of paragraph 1 of this Article. Each Party shall also
establish one or more enquiry points to provide specific information to the other
Party, upon request, on all such matters.

                                   Article 79
                   Monopolies and Exclusive Service Suppliers

1.    Each Party shall ensure that any monopoly supplier of a service in its
country’s territory does not, in the supply of the monopoly service in the relevant
market, act in a manner inconsistent with the Party’s commitments under this Chapter.

2.       Where a Party’s monopoly supplier competes, either directly or through an
affiliated company, in the supply of a service outside the scope of its monopoly rights
and which is subject to that Party’s specific commitments, the Party shall ensure that
such a supplier does not abuse its monopoly position to act in its country’s territory in
a manner inconsistent with such commitments.

3.     The provisions of this Article shall also apply to cases of exclusive service
suppliers, where a Party, formally or in effect:

       (a)    authorises or establishes a small number of service suppliers; and
       (b)    substantially prevents competition among those suppliers in its
              country’s territory.

                                           42
                                     Article 80
                                 Business Practices

1.      The Parties recognise that certain business practices of services suppliers,
other than those falling under Article 79, may restrain competition and thereby
restrict trade in services.

2.     Each Party shall, at the request of the other Party, enter into consultations
with a view to eliminating practices referred to in paragraph 1 of this Article. The
Party addressed shall accord full and sympathetic consideration to such a request
and shall cooperate through the supply of publicly available non-confidential
information of relevance to the matter in question. The Party addressed shall also
provide other information available to the other Party, subject to its domestic law and
to the conclusion of satisfactory agreement concerning the safeguarding of its
confidentiality by the requesting Party.

                                    Article 81
                          Emergency Safeguard Measures

1.     The Parties shall initiate discussions within a year from the entry into force of
this Agreement to develop mutually acceptable guidelines and procedures for the
application of emergency safeguard measures. These guidelines and procedures
shall be annexed to and shall form part of this Agreement.

2.     Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 1 of this Article, if a Party deems
to be affected by the negative impact caused by its specific commitments as set out
in Annex 5, the Party may request to hold consultations with the other Party and the
other Party shall respond such request in good faith.

3.     In holding the consultations referred to in paragraph 2 of this Article, the
Parties shall endeavour to reach a mutually acceptable solution within a reasonable
time.

                                    Article 82
                              Payments and Transfers

1.     Except under the circumstances envisaged in Article 83, a Party shall not
apply restrictions on international transfers and payments for current transactions
relating to trade in services.

2.     Nothing in this Chapter shall affect the rights and obligations of the Parties as
members of the International Monetary Fund (hereinafter referred to in this Article as
“the Fund”) under the Articles of Agreement of the International Monetary Fund, as
may be amended, including the use of exchange actions which are in conformity with
the Articles of Agreement of the International Monetary Fund, provided that a Party
shall not impose restrictions on any capital transactions inconsistently with its
                                          43
commitments under this Chapter regarding such transactions, except under Article
83, or at the request of the Fund.

                                  Article 83
                Measures to Safeguard the Balance-of-Payments

1.     In the event of serious balance-of-payments and external financial difficulties
or threat thereof, a Party may adopt or maintain restrictions on trade in services,
including on payments or transfers for transactions.

2.    The restrictions referred to in paragraph 1 of this Article shall:

      (a)    ensure that the other Party is treated as favourably as any third State;

      (b)    be consistent with the Articles of Agreement of the International
             Monetary Fund;

      (c)    avoid unnecessary damage to the commercial, economic and financial
             interests of the country of the other Party;

      (d)    not exceed those necessary to deal with the circumstances described
             in paragraph 1 of this Article; and

      (e)    be temporary and be phased out progressively as the situation
             specified in paragraph 1 of this Article improves.

3.    In determining the incidence of such restrictions, a Party may give priority to
the supply of services which are more essential to its economic or development
programmes. However, such restrictions shall not be adopted or maintained for the
purposes of protecting a particular service sector.

4.    Any restrictions adopted or maintained under paragraph 1 of this Article, or
any changes therein, shall be promptly notified to the other Party.

5.     The Party adopting any restrictions under paragraph 1 of this Article may
commence consultations, upon request by the other Party, in order to engage in
exchange of information and provide clarification to enquiries from the other Party
with respect to the restrictions adopted by it.

                                      Article 84
                                  Denial of Benefits

1.    Subject to prior notification, a Party may deny the benefits of this Chapter to:

      (a)    service suppliers of the other Party where the service is being supplied
             by a juridical person that is owned or controlled by persons of a third
                                           44
             State and the juridical person has no substantive business operations
             in the territory of the country of the other Party; or

      (b)    service suppliers of the other Party where the service is being supplied
             by a juridical person that is owned or controlled by persons of the
             denying Party and the juridical person has no substantive business
             operations in the territory of the country of the other Party.

2.      A Party may deny the benefits of this Chapter to a service supplier of the
other Party where the Party establishes that the service is being supplied by a
juridical person that is owned or controlled by persons of a third State, and that
denying Party:

      (a)    does not maintain diplomatic relations with the third State; or

      (b)    adopts or maintains measures with respect to the third State that
             prohibit transactions with the juridical person or that would be violated
             or circumvented if the benefits of this Chapter were accorded to the
             juridical person.

                                    Article 85
                             Review of Commitments

      The Parties shall consult within three years after entry into force of this
Agreement or as otherwise agreed, regarding inclusion of new services sectors and
sub-sectors, and progress made on paragraph 4 of Article 77, with a view to
progressive liberalisation of the trade in services between them on a mutually
advantageous basis.

                                 Article 86
                      Sub-Committee on Trade in Services

1.      For the purposes of the effective implementation and operation of this
Chapter, the functions of the Sub-Committee on Trade in Services (hereinafter
referred to in this Article as “the Sub-Committee”) established in accordance with
Article 9 shall be:

      (a)    reviewing commitments, with respect to measures affecting trade in
             services in this Chapter, with a view to achieving further liberalisation
             on a mutually advantageous basis and securing an overall balance of
             rights and obligations;

      (b)    reviewing the implementation and operation of this Chapter;

      (c)    reviewing and discussing issues             concerning     the    effective
             implementation of Articles 77 and 81;
                                         45
       (d)    reporting the outcome of discussions of the Sub-Committee to the Joint
              Committee; and

       (e)    carrying out any other functions as may be delegated by the Joint
              Committee in accordance with Article 8.

2.     The Sub-Committee shall be:

       (a)    composed of representatives of the Parties, and where appropriate,
              may invite representatives of relevant entities other than of the Parties
              with the necessary expertise relevant to the issues to be discussed;
              and

       (b)    co-chaired by officials of the Parties.

3.     The Sub-Committee shall hold its inaugural meeting within one year of the
entry into force of this Agreement. Subsequent meetings shall be held at such
venues and times as the Parties may mutually agree.

                                      CHAPTER 9
                                     INVESTMENT

                                      Article 87
                                 Scope of Application

1.     This Chapter shall apply to measures adopted or maintained by a Party
relating to:

       (a)    investors of the other Party; and

       (b)    investments of investors of the other Party in the territory of the country
              of the former Party.

2.      This Chapter shall apply to existing investments at the date of entry into force
of this Agreement, as well as to investment made after the entry into force.

3.    This Chapter shall not apply to claims or disputes arising out of events which
occurred prior to its entry into force.

4.     In the event of any inconsistency between this Chapter and Chapter 8:

       (a)    with respect to matters covered by Articles 89, 90 and 92, Chapter 8
              shall prevail to the extent of inconsistency; and

       (b)    with respect to matters not falling under subparagraph (a), this Chapter
              shall prevail to the extent of the inconsistency.
                                            46
                                     Article 88
                                     Definitions

1.   For the purposes of this Chapter:

     (a)   An enterprise is:

           (i)     “owned” by an investor if more than 50 percent of the equity
                   interests in it is beneficially owned by the investor; and

           (ii)    “controlled” by an investor if the investor has the power to name
                   a majority of its directors or otherwise to legally direct its actions.

     (b)   “enterprise of a Party” means any legal entity duly constituted or
           otherwise organised under applicable laws of the country of a Party,
           whether for profit or otherwise and whether privately-owned or
           governmentally-owned, including any corporation, partnership, trust,
           joint venture, sole proprietorship, organisation or association or branch
           of a company;

     (c)   "freely usable currency" means any currency that is widely used to
           make payments for international transactions and widely traded in the
           international principal exchange markets as defined under the Articles
           of Agreement of the International Monetary Fund, as may be amended;

     (d)   "investments" means every kind of asset owned or controlled, directly
           or indirectly, by an investor of a Party in the territory of the country of
           the other Party, in accordance with the latter’s laws, regulations and
           national policies, including:

           (i)     shares, stocks and debentures of companies or interests in the
                   property of such companies;

           (ii)    a claim to money or a claim to any performance having financial
                   value associated with the investment;

           (iii)   rights under contract, including turnkey, construction,
                   management, production, concessions or revenue-sharing
                   contracts;

           (iv)    intellectual property rights;

           (v)     movable and immovable property and any other property rights
                   such as mortgages, liens or pledges.



                                          47
              The term “investment” also includes amounts yielded by investments,
              in particular, profits, interests, capital gains, dividends, royalties and
              fees. Any alteration of the form in which assets are invested or
              reinvested shall not affect their classification as investments.

              Note:      Where an asset lacks the characteristics of an investment,
                         that asset is not an investment regardless of the form it may
                         take. The characteristics of an investment include the
                         commitment of capital, the expectation of gain or profit, or
                         the assumption of risk.

       (e)    “investor” means:

              (i)     any natural person having the citizenship of or the right of
                      permanent residence in the territory of the country of a Party in
                      accordance with its laws, regulations and national policies; or

              (ii)    an enterprise of a Party;

       (f)    “measures adopted or maintained by a Party” means any measure by a
              Party, whether in the form of a law, regulation, rule, procedure,
              decision, administrative action, or any other form affecting investors or
              investments, adopted or maintained by:

              (i)     central, regional or local governments or authorities; or

              (ii)    non-governmental bodies in the exercise of powers delegated
                      by central, regional or local governments or authorities.

              Note:      The term “regional” refers to a state of Malaysia or a
                         province of Pakistan.

                                       Article 89
                                  National Treatment

        Each Party shall within its country’s territory accord to investors of the other
Party and to their investments, treatment no less favourable than that it accords in
like circumstances to its own investors and to their investments with respect to the
establishment, acquisition, expansion, management, operation, maintenance, use,
possession, liquidation, sale, or other disposition of investments (hereinafter referred
to in this Chapter as “investment activities”).




                                           48
                                    Article 90
                          Most-Favoured-Nation Treatment

1.      Each Party shall accord to investors of the other Party and to their
investments, treatment no less favourable than that it accords in like circumstances,
to investors of a third State and to their investments, with respect to investment
activities.

2.      This Article shall not apply to treatment accorded under any bilateral, regional
or multilateral international agreements in force or signed prior to the date of entry
into force of this Agreement.

                                    Article 91
                      Promotion and Protection of Investment

1.     Each Party shall encourage and create favourable conditions for investors of
the other Party to invest in its country’s territory and take all possible measures for
protection of investments, in accordance with the laws and regulations of its country
and national policies.

2.    Investments of investors of either Party shall at all times be accorded fair and
equitable treatment and shall enjoy full protection and security in the territory of the
country of the other Party.

                                     Article 92
                     Prohibition of Performance Requirements

1.     For the purposes of this Chapter, the Parties reaffirm their commitments to the
Agreement on Trade-Related Investment Measures in Annex 1A to the WTO
Agreement (hereinafter referred to as “TRIMS”) and hereby incorporate the
provisions of the TRIMS, as may be amended, as part of this Chapter.

2.     A Party shall, upon notification by the other Party, promptly convene
consultations with the other Party on any matter relating to this Article that affects the
other Party’s investors and their investments.


                                      Article 93
                                     Reservations

1.     Articles 89, 90 and 92 shall not apply to:

       (a)    any non-conforming measure that is maintained by:

              (i)    the central government of the country of a Party; or
                                           49
              (ii)   a state of Malaysia or a province of Pakistan

              as set out in sectors, sub-sectors and activities specifically listed in
              Annex 7;

       (b)    any non-conforming measure by a local government of the country of a
              Party;

       (c)    the continuation or prompt renewal of any non-conforming measure
              referred to in subparagraphs (a) and (b); and

       (d)    an amendment or modification of any measure referred to in
              subparagraphs (a) and (b), provided that the amendment does not
              decrease the level of conformity of the measure, as it existed
              immediately before the amendment or modification, with Articles 89, 90
              and 92.

2.     Each Party reserves the right to adopt or maintain any measure not
conforming with the obligations under Article 89 and Article 90 and Article 92 for
sectors, sub-sectors and activities listed in Annex 7 other than those referred to in
paragraph 1 of this Article.

3.      Any amendment or modification of an existing measure or adoption of a new
measure for sectors, sub-sectors or activities referred to in paragraph 2 of this Article
shall not be more restrictive to existing investors and investments than the measure
applied to such investors and investments immediately before such amendment or
modification or adoption, unless specifically indicated in the sectors, sub-sectors or
activities listed in Annex 7.

4.       Neither Party may, under any measure adopted pursuant to paragraph 2 of
this Article after the entry into force of this Agreement require an investor of the other
Party, by reason of its nationality, to sell or otherwise dispose of an investment
existing at the time the measure becomes effective, unless otherwise specified in the
initial approval by the relevant authority.

5.      In cases where a Party makes an amendment or modification of existing
measures or adopt new measures with respect to sectors, sub-sectors or activities
listed in Annex 7, that Party shall:

       (a)    promptly notify the other Party;

       (b)    provide, upon request by the other Party, particulars of the
              amendment, modification or adoption of new measures to the other
              Party; and



                                           50
       (c)    hold, upon request by the other Party, consultations in good faith with
              that other Party with a view to achieve mutual satisfaction.

6.    Each Party shall endeavour, where appropriate, to reduce or eliminate the
reservations specified in Annex 7.

7.     Articles 89, 90 and 92 shall not apply to:

       (a)    government procurement; and

       (b)    measures affecting investments adopted or maintained pursuant to
              Chapter 8 to the extent that they relate to the supply of any specific
              service through commercial presence.

8.     Notwithstanding the provisions of Article 89 and 90 each Party may prescribe
special formalities in connection with investment activities of investors of the other
Party in its country’s territory, such as the compliance with registration requirements,
provided that such special formalities do not impair the substance of the rights under
this Chapter.

                                      Article 94
                                    Expropriation

1.     Neither Party shall take any measures of expropriation or nationalisation, or
measures amounting thereto, against the investments of an investor of the other
Party, except under the following conditions:

       (a)    the measures are taken for a lawful or public purpose and under due
              process of law;

       (b)    the measures are non-discriminatory;

       (c)    the measures are accompanied by provisions for the payment of
              prompt, adequate and effective compensation.

2.     Such compensation shall amount to the fair market value of the investments
affected immediately before the measure of dispossession became public
knowledge, and it shall be effectively realisable and freely transferable in freely
usable currencies from the country of the Party. Any unreasonable delay in payment
of compensation shall carry an interest at prevailing commercial rate as agreed upon
by both parties unless such rate is prescribed by law.

3.     The investor affected shall have a right to review, by a judicial or other
independent authority of the Party which conducted the expropriation, of its case and
of the valuation of its investment in accordance with the laws and regulations of the
country of the hosting Party and the principles set out in this Article.
                                           51
4.     This Article does not apply to the issuance of compulsory licences granted in
relation to intellectual property rights in accordance with the Agreement on Trade
Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights in Annex 1A to the WTO Agreement
(hereinafter referred to as “TRIPS”).

                                     Article 95
                               Protection from Strife

1.      Investors of one Party whose investments in the territory of the country of the
other Party suffer losses owing to war or other armed conflict, revolution, a state of
national emergency, revolt, insurrection or riot in the territory of the country of the
latter Party shall be accorded by the latter Party treatment, as regards restitution,
indemnification, compensation or other settlement, no less favourable than that
which the latter Party accords to investors of any third State.

2.     Any payments made pursuant to paragraph 1 of this Article shall be effectively
realizable, freely convertible and freely transferable.

                                     Article 96
                             Repatriation of Investment

1.    Each Party shall permit all transfers relating to investment to be made freely
and without delay into and out of its country’s territory in any freely usable currency.
Such transfers include:

       (a)    the initial capital and additional amounts to maintain or increase
              investments;

       (b)    the net profits, dividends, royalties, technical fees, interest and other
              current incomes, accruing from any investment of the investors of the
              other Party;

       (c)    the proceeds from the total or partial sale or liquidation of any
              investment made by investors of the other Party;

       (d)    funds in repayment of borrowings or loans given by investors of one
              Party to the investors of the other Party which both Parties have
              recognised as investment;

       (e)    the net earnings and other compensations of nationals of the country of
              one Party who are employed and allowed to work in connection with an
              investment in the territory of the country of the other Party;

       (f)    the compensation provided for in Articles 94 and 95;

       (g)    payments arising out of the settlement of a dispute under Article 97.
                                          52
2.     The exchange rates applicable to such transfers in paragraph 1 of this Article
shall be the rate of exchange prevailing at the time of remittance.

3.     The Parties undertake to accord to the transfers referred to in paragraph 1 of
this Article a treatment as favourable as that accorded to transfer originating from
investments made by investors of any third State.

4.    Notwithstanding the provisions referred to in paragraph 1 of this Article, a
Party may prevent or delay a transfer through the equitable, non-discriminatory and
good faith application of its laws relating to:

       (a)     bankruptcy, insolvency, or the protection of the rights of the creditors;

       (b)     issuing, trading or dealing in securities;

       (c)     criminal or penal offences;

       (d)     social security, public retirement or compulsory savings scheme;

       (e)     compliance with the judgments in judicial or administrative proceedings;

       (f)     financial reporting or record keeping of transfers when necessary to
               assist law enforcement or financial regulatory authorities;

5.     Nothing in this Chapter shall be regarded as altering the rights enjoyed and
obligations undertaken by a Party as a party to the Articles of Agreement of the
International Monetary Fund, as may be amended.

                                          Article 97
                                         Subrogation

          If a Party or its designated agency makes a payment to any of its investors
under a guarantee it has granted in respect of an investment, the other Party shall,
without prejudice to the rights of the former Party, recognise the transfer of any right
or title of such investors to the former Party or its designated agency and the subrogation of the
former Party or its designated agency to any right or title. The subrogation rights or
claims shall not exceed the original rights or claims of such investors.


                                     Article 98
              Settlement of Investment Disputes between a Party and
                           an Investor of the other Party

1.    For the purposes of this Chapter, an “investment dispute” is a dispute
between a Party and the investor of the other Party that has incurred loss or damage

                                               53
by reason of, or arising out of, an alleged breach of any right conferred by this
Chapter with respect to the investments of the investor of the other Party.

      Note:      For greater certainty, where an agreement executed between an
                 investor of a Party and the other Party provides for any arbitration
                 or dispute resolution procedures, then any dispute which arises or
                 occurs between the parties in relation to anything or matter arising
                 out of or in connection with that agreement shall be referred to and
                 resolved by arbitration or dispute resolution provided in that
                 agreement and recourse may only be made to the arbitration
                 procedure in this Article where any breach expressly and directly
                 arises or occurs between the parties in relation to breaches of any
                 provisions of this Chapter.

2.      Nothing in this Article shall be construed so as to prevent an investor who is a
party to an investment dispute (hereinafter referred to in this Article as “disputing
investor”) from seeking administrative or judicial settlement available within the
country of the Party that is a party to the investment dispute (hereinafter referred to
in this Article as “disputing Party”).

3.    An investment dispute shall, as far as possible, be settled amicably through
consultations between the parties to the investment dispute.

4.     An investor shall not be entitled to make a claim, if more than three years
have elapsed from the date on which the investor first acquired, or should have first
acquired knowledge of the alleged breach and knowledge that the investor has
incurred loss or damage.

5.      If the investment dispute cannot be settled through such consultations
referred to in paragraph 3 of this Article within six months from the date on which the
disputing investor requested for the consultations in writing and if the disputing
investor has not submitted the investment dispute for resolution under administrative
or judicial settlement, the disputing investor may:

       (a)    if agreed by the disputing Party, submit the investment dispute to the
              Kuala Lumpur Regional Centre for Arbitration for settlement by
              conciliation or arbitration;

       (b)    submit the investment dispute to conciliation or arbitration in
              accordance with the provisions of the Convention on the Settlement of
              Investment Disputes between States and Nationals of Other States
              done at Washington, 18 March 1965, as may be amended;

       (c)    submit the investment dispute to arbitration under the Arbitration Rules
              of the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law, adopted

                                          54
              by the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law on 28
              April 1976, as may be amended; or

       (d)    if agreed with the disputing Party, submit the investment dispute to
              arbitration in accordance with other arbitration rules.

6.      The applicable arbitration rules shall govern the arbitration referred to in this
Article except to the extent modified in this Article.

7.     The disputing investor who intends to submit the investment dispute to
conciliation or arbitration pursuant to paragraph 5 of this Article shall give to the
disputing Party written notice of intent to do so at least 90 days before the claim is
submitted. The notice of intent shall specify:

       (a)    the name and address of the disputing investor;

       (b)    the specific measures of the disputing Party at issue and a summary of
              the factual and legal basis of the dispute sufficient to present the
              problem clearly, including the provisions of this Chapter alleged to have
              been breached; and

       (c)    the dispute settlement procedures set forth in paragraph 5 of this
              Article which the disputing investor will seek.

8.     Notwithstanding paragraph 5 of this Article and subject to the laws of the
disputing Party, the disputing investor may initiate or continue an action that seeks
interim injunctive relief that does not involve the payment of damages before an
administrative tribunal or a court of justice.

9.     Unless the disputing parties agree otherwise, the arbitration shall be held in
the territory of the country of the disputing Party.

10.    The award shall include:

       (a)    judgment whether or not there has been a breach by the disputing
              Party of any rights conferred by this Chapter in respect of the disputing
              investor and its investments; and

       (b)    remedy if there has been such breach. The remedy shall be limited to
              one or both of the following:

              (i)    payment of monetary damages and applicable interest; and

              (ii)   restitution of property, in which case the award shall provide that
                     the disputing Party may pay monetary damages and any
                     applicable interest in lieu of restitution.
                                           55
Costs may also be awarded in accordance with the applicable arbitration rules.

11.    The award rendered in accordance with paragraph 10 of this Article shall be
final and binding upon the disputing parties. The disputing Party shall carry out
without delay the provisions of any such award and provide in the territory of the
country of the disputing Party for the enforcement of such award in accordance with
the relevant laws and regulations of its country.

12.    Neither Party shall, in respect of an investment dispute which one of its
investors has submitted to arbitration in accordance with paragraph 5 of this Article,
bring an international claim before another forum unless the other Party has failed to
abide by and comply with the award rendered in such investment dispute.

13.    This Article shall not apply to any dispute arising between a Party and an
investor of the other Party on any right or privileges conferred or created by Article
89 and 92.

14.    An investor of a Party whose investments are not made in compliance with
the laws, regulations and national policies of the other Party shall not:

      (a)    be entitled to submit an investment dispute to conciliation or arbitration
             referred to in paragraph 5 of this Article; and

      (b)    resort to dispute settlement procedures under Chapter 12 as a means
             to settle the investment disputes between the investor and the other
             Party.

                                  Article 99
                  Measures to Safeguard Balance-of-Payments

1.    A Party may adopt or maintain measures not conforming with its obligations
under Article 89 relating to cross-border capital transactions and Article 98:

      (a)    in the event of serious balance-of-payments and external financial
             difficulties or threat thereof, or

      (b)    in cases where, in exceptional circumstances, movements of capital
             cause or threaten to cause serious difficulties for macroeconomic
             management in particular, monetary and exchange rate policies.

2.    The measures referred to in paragraph 1 of this Article shall:

      (a)    be consistent with the Articles of Agreement of the International
             Monetary Fund;



                                         56
      (b)     be applied in such a manner that the other Party is treated no less
              favourably than any third State;

      (c)     not exceed those necessary to deal with the circumstances set out in
              paragraph 1 of this Article;

      (d)     be promptly notified to the other Party; and

      (e)     be temporary and be phased out progressively as the situation
              specified in paragraph 1 of this Article improves.

                                    Article 100
                                Prudential Measures

       Notwithstanding any other provisions of this Chapter, a Party shall not be
prevented from taking measures relating to financial services for prudential reasons,
including measures for the protection of investors, depositors, policy holders or
persons to whom a fiduciary duty is owed by an enterprise supplying financial
services, or to ensure the integrity and stability of the financial system. Where such
measures do not conform with the provisions of this Chapter, they shall not be used
as a means of avoiding the Party’s commitments or obligations under this Chapter.

      Note:      “financial services” shall have the same meaning as in
                 subparagraph (a) of paragraph 5 of the Annex on Financial
                 Services to the GATS.

                                     Article 101
                                  Denial of Benefits

1.     A Party may deny the benefits of this Chapter to an investor of the other Party
that is an enterprise of the other Party and to an investment of such investor if
investors of a third State own or control the enterprise, and the denying Party:

      (a)     does not maintain diplomatic relations with the third State; or

      (b)     adopts or maintains measures with respect to the third State that
              prohibits transactions with the enterprise or that would be violated or
              circumvented if the benefits of this Chapter were accorded to the
              enterprise or to its investments.

2.     Subject to prior notification and consultation, a Party may deny the benefits of
this Chapter to an investor of the other Party that is an enterprise of the other Party
and to investments of such investor if investors of a third State own or control the
enterprise. A Party may also deny the benefits of this Chapter to an investor of the
other Party if the investor has no substantial investment or business activities in the
Party under whose laws it is constituted or organised.
                                          57
      Note:      In order to prevent the possibility of companies of a third State
                 unduly benefiting from this Agreement, companies of a third State
                 registered in another Party, their offices, liaison offices, “shell
                 companies” and “mail box companies” and companies specifically
                 established for providing certain services to their parent companies
                 are deemed as investors which have no substantial investment or
                 business activities in the territory of the country of the Party under
                 whose laws it is constituted or organised.

                                     Article 102
                       Facilitation of Movement of Investors

1.     Subject to its immigration laws, regulations and national policies relating to
entry, stay and authorisation to work, each Party shall grant entry, temporary stay
and authorisation to work to investors, and executives, managers and members of
the board of directors of an enterprise of the other Party, for the purposes of
establishing, developing, administering or advising on the operation in the country of
the former Party of an investment to which they, or an enterprise of the other Party
that employs such executives, managers and members of the board of directors,
have committed or are in the process of committing a substantial amount of capital
or other resources, so long as they continue to meet the requirements of this Article.

2.     Each Party shall, to the extent possible, make publicly available, requirements
and procedures for application for a renewal of the period of temporary stay, a
change of status of temporary stay or an issuance of a work permit for a natural
person of the other Party who has been granted entry and temporary stay with
respect to an investment. Each Party shall endeavour to facilitate the procedures to
the extent possible, in accordance with its laws and regulations.

                                 Article 103
                          Sub-Committee on Investment

1.    For the purposes of effective implementation of this Chapter, the functions of
the Sub-Committee on Investment (hereinafter referred to in this Article as “the Sub-
Committee”) established in accordance with Article 9 shall be to:

      (a)     exchange information on any matters related to this Chapter;

      (b)     review and monitor the implementation and operation of this Chapter
              and the reservations set out in the Annex;

      (c)     discuss cooperation in promoting and facilitating investments between
              the countries of the Parties;

      (d)     discuss any issues related to this Chapter;

                                          58
       (e)    report to the Joint Committee; and

       (f)    carry out any other functions as may be delegated by the Joint
              Committee

3.     The Sub-Committee shall meet at such venues and times as may be agreed
by the Parties.

4.     The Sub-Committee shall:

       (a)    comprise representatives of the Parties; and

       (b)    co-chaired by government officials of the Parties.

                                  CHAPTER 10
                            INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY

                                      Article 104
                                      Principles

1.    The Parties recognise the importance of intellectual property in promoting
economic and social development, particularly in the new digital economy,
technological innovation and trade.

2.     The Parties recognise the need to achieve a balance between the rights of
right holders and the legitimate interests of users and the community with regard to
protected subject matter.

                                   Article 105
                      Observance of International Obligations

       The Parties reaffirm and shall comply with their existing rights and obligations
with respect to each other under the TRIPS Agreement and any other multilateral
agreement relating to intellectual property to which they are both parties.

                                      Article 106
                                     Cooperation

       The Parties shall, subject to the terms of this Agreement and the national
laws, regulations and policies from time to time in force in their respective countries ,
endeavour to strengthen, promote and develop cooperation in the area of intellectual
property. Such cooperation may, inter alia include:

       (a)    exchange of information relating to developments in intellectual
              property policy in their respective agencies;

                                           59
      (b)    exchange of information on the implementation of intellectual property
             systems, aimed at promoting the efficient registration of intellectual
             property rights;

      (c)    promotion of the development of contacts and cooperation among their
             respective agencies, including enforcement agencies, educational
             institutions and other relevant organisations with an interest in the field
             of intellectual property;

      (d)    policy dialogue on initiatives on intellectual property in multilateral and
             regional forums;

      (e)    exchange of information and cooperation on appropriate initiatives to
             promote public awareness of intellectual property systems; and

      (f)    such other activities and initiatives as may be mutually determined by
             the Parties.

                                      Article 107
                                      Focal Point

1.    To facilitate the cooperation between the Parties as provided in this Chapter,
each Party shall designate a focal point, who shall be responsible for coordinating all
matters pertaining to this Chapter.

2.    For the purposes of this Article, the focal point in:

      (a)    Malaysia shall be:
             Director General
             Malaysia Intellectual Property Corporation (MyIPO)
             Kuala Lumpur


      (b)    Pakistan shall be:
             Director General
             Intellectual Property Organisation of Pakistan (IPO Pakistan)
             Islamabad

                                    Article 108
                              Financial Arrangements

      The financial arrangements to cover expenses for the cooperative activities
undertaken within the framework of this Chapter shall be mutually agreed upon by
the Parties on a case-by-case basis subject to the availability of funds.



                                           60
                                CHAPTER 11
                           ECONOMIC COOPERATION

                                    Article 109
                                    Objective

       The Parties shall, subject to the provisions of this Agreement and the laws,
regulations and national policies from time to time in force in their respective
countries, endeavour to strengthen, promote and develop economic cooperation
between the Parties on the basis of equality and mutual benefit.

                                   Article 110
                                 Implementation

      The Joint Committee shall be responsible for encouraging and promoting
economic cooperation in any area within the scope of this Agreement as may be
mutually agreed upon by the Parties.

                                   Article 111
                               Dispute Settlement

1.     Neither Party may have recourse to the dispute settlement mechanism
provided for in Chapter 12 for any dispute or differences arising from this Chapter.

2.     Any dispute or differences arising from this Chapter may be referred to the
Joint Committee. The Joint Committee may make recommendations on such issue
taking into consideration the strategic priorities and capabilities of the Parties.

                                   Article 112
                             Financial Arrangements

        The financial arrangements to cover expenses for the economic cooperative
activities undertaken within the framework of this Chapter shall be mutually agreed
upon by the Parties on a case-by-case basis subject to the availability of funds.

                                CHAPTER 12
                      DISPUTE SETTLEMENT MECHANISM

                                  Article 113
                              Scope and Coverage

1.     Unless otherwise provided for in this Agreement, the provisions of this
Chapter shall apply to the settlement of disputes between the Parties concerning the
interpretation or application of this Agreement.



                                        61
2.     The rules, procedures and time frames set out in this Chapter may be waived,
varied or modified by mutual agreement.

3.     Findings and recommendations of an arbitral tribunal cannot add to or
diminish the rights and obligations of the Parties under this Agreement.

4.     Arbitral tribunals appointed under this Chapter shall interpret and apply the
provisions of this Agreement in accordance with customary rules of interpretation of
public international law.

5.     Subject to paragraph 6 of this Article, nothing in this Agreement shall
prejudice the right of the Parties to have recourse to dispute settlement procedures
available under any other treaty to which they are parties.

6.     Once a dispute settlement procedure has been initiated between the Parties
with respect to a particular dispute under this Chapter or under any other
international agreement to which the Parties are parties, that forum shall be used to
the exclusion of any other for that particular dispute. This paragraph does not apply if
substantially separate and distinct rights or obligations under different international
agreement are in dispute.

7.     For the purposes of this Article, a Party shall be deemed to have selected a
forum when it has requested the establishment of, or referred a dispute to an arbitral
tribunal in accordance with this Chapter or any other international agreement to
which the Parties are parties.

                                      Article 114
                                     Cooperation

       The Parties shall at all times endeavour to agree on the interpretation and
application of this Agreement through cooperation to arrive at a mutually satisfactory
resolution of any matter that might affect its operation.

                                     Article 115
                                    Consultations

1.    A Party may request consultations with the other Party with respect to any
matter affecting the interpretation or application of this Agreement. A Party may
make the request to the other Party if the Party considers that:

       (a)    any benefit accruing to it directly or indirectly is being nullified or
              impaired; or

       (b)    the attainment of any objective of this Agreement is being impeded,



                                          62
as a result of the failure of the other Party to carry out its obligations under this
Agreement.

2.     If a Party requests consultations with regard to a matter, the other Party shall
afford adequate opportunity for consultations and shall reply promptly to the request
for consultations and enter into consultations in good faith.

3.     Any request for consultations shall be submitted in writing and shall give the
reasons for the request, including identification of the measures at issue and an
indication of the factual and legal basis of the complaint. Each Party shall also:

       (a)    provide sufficient information to enable a full examination of how the
              measure might affect the operation of this Agreement; and
       (b)    treat as confidential any information exchanged in the consultations
              which the other Party has designated as confidential.

4.     The Party to which the request is made pursuant to this Article shall reply to
the request within 10 days after the date of receipt of the request and shall enter into
consultations within 30 days after the date of receipt of the request, with a view to
reaching a mutually satisfactory solution.

                                    Article 116
                      Good Offices, Conciliation or Mediation

1.    The Parties may at any time agree to good offices, conciliation or mediation.
They may begin at any time and be terminated by either Party at any time.

2.     If the Parties agree, procedures for good offices, conciliation or mediation may
continue while the dispute proceeds for resolution before an arbitral tribunal
appointed under Article 117.

                                   Article 117
                        Establishment of Arbitral Tribunals

1.     The Party which made the request for consultations in accordance with Article
115 may make a written request to the other Party to establish an arbitral tribunal
under this Article provided:

       (a)    the Party to which the request is made does not reply to the request
              within 10 days after its receipt, or does not enter into such
              consultations within 30 days after the date the receipt of the request
              under Article 115; or

       (b)    such consultations fail to resolve the dispute within 60 days after the
              date of receipt of the request for consultations.

                                          63
2.    The request to establish an arbitral tribunal shall include an identification of
the measures at issue and an indication of the factual and legal basis of the
complaint.

                                    Article 118
                          Composition of Arbitral Tribunals

1.     Each Party shall, within 30 days after the date of receipt of the request for the
establishment of an arbitral tribunal, appoint one arbitrator who may be a national of
its country and propose up to three candidates to serve as the third arbitrator who
shall be the Chair of the arbitral tribunal. The third arbitrator shall not be a national of
the country of either Party, nor have his or her usual place of residence in the
country of either Party, nor be employed by either Party, nor have dealt with the
dispute in any capacity.

2.      Both Parties shall agree on and appoint the third arbitrator within 45 days after
the date of receipt of the request for the establishment of an arbitral tribunal. If the
Parties fail to agree on the third arbitrator, the Parties shall request the two
arbitrators appointed pursuant to paragraph 1 of this Article to appoint the third
arbitrator. If the two arbitrators fail to appoint the third arbitrator within 10 days, the
Parties shall consult each other in order to jointly appoint the third arbitrator of the
arbitral tribunal within a further period of 30 days.

3.    If an arbitrator or the Chair appointed under this Article resigns or becomes
unable to act, a successor arbitrator or Chair shall be appointed in the same manner
as prescribed for the appointment of the original arbitrator or Chair, and the
successor shall have all the powers and duties of the original arbitrator.

4.      The date of establishment of an arbitral tribunal shall be the date on which the
third arbitrator is appointed.

                                     Article 119
                            Functions of Arbitral Tribunals

1.     The function of an arbitral tribunal is to make an objective assessment of the
dispute before it, including an examination of the facts of the case and the
applicability of, and conformity with this Agreement.

2.     The arbitral tribunal shall, in consultation with the Parties and apart from the
matters set out in Article 120, regulate its own procedures in relation to the rights of
Parties to be heard and its deliberations.




                                            64
                                    Article 120
                          Proceedings of Arbitral Tribunals

1.     An arbitral tribunal shall meet in closed session. The Parties shall be present
at the meetings only when invited by the arbitral tribunal to appear before it.

2.     The venue for the substantive meetings of the arbitral tribunal shall be
decided by mutual agreement by the Parties, failing which the first substantive
meeting shall be held in the capital of the country of the Party which did not request
for the establishment of the arbitral tribunal, with the second substantive meeting to
be held in the capital of the country of the other Party.

3.      The deliberations of an arbitral tribunal and the documents submitted to it
shall be kept confidential. Nothing in this Article shall preclude a Party from
disclosing statements of its own positions or its submissions to the public, provided
that a Party shall treat as confidential, information submitted by the other Party to the
arbitral tribunal which that Party has designated as confidential. Where a Party
submits a confidential version of its written submissions to the arbitral tribunal, it shall
also, upon request of the other Party, provide a non-confidential summary of the
information contained in its submissions that could be disclosed to the public.

4.     Before the first substantive meeting of the arbitral tribunal with the Parties, the
Parties shall transmit to the arbitral tribunal written submissions in which they
present the facts of their case and their arguments.

5.    At its first substantive meeting with the Parties, the arbitral tribunal shall ask
the complaining Party to present its submissions. Subsequently, and still at the same
meeting, the Party complained against shall be asked to present its submissions.

6.     Formal rebuttals shall be made at a second substantive meeting of the arbitral
tribunal. The Party complained against shall have the right to present its rebuttal first,
and shall be followed by the complaining Party. The Parties shall submit, prior to the
meeting, written rebuttals to the arbitral tribunal.

7.    The arbitral tribunal may at any time put questions to the Parties and ask
them for explanations either in the course of a meeting with the Parties or in writing.

8.      The Parties shall make available to the arbitral tribunal a written version of
their oral statements.

9.     In the interests of full transparency, the presentations, rebuttals and
statements referred to in paragraphs 4 to 6 of this Article shall be made in the
presence of the Parties. Moreover, each Party’s written submissions, including any
comments on the report, written versions of oral statements and responses to
questions put by the arbitral tribunal, shall be made available to the other Party.

                                            65
There shall be no ex parte communications with the arbitral tribunal concerning
matters under consideration by it.

10.     At the request of a Party to the arbitral tribunal or on its own initiative, the
arbitral tribunal may seek information and technical advice from any person or body
that it deems appropriate, provided that the Parties to the arbitral proceedings so
agree, and subject to such terms and conditions as such Parties may agree.

11.    An arbitral tribunal shall take its decisions by consensus, provided that where
an arbitral tribunal is unable to reach consensus it may take its decisions by majority
vote.

12.     The report of the arbitral tribunal shall be drafted without the presence of the
Parties in the light of the information provided and the statements made. The arbitral
tribunal shall accord adequate opportunity to the Parties to review the entirety of its
draft report prior to its finalisation and shall include a discussion of any comments by
the Parties in its final report.

13.     The findings and recommendations of the arbitral tribunal shall be set out in a
final report released to the Parties pursuant to paragraph 11 of this Article. Unless
the Parties otherwise agree, the arbitral tribunal shall base its final report on the
relevant provisions of this Agreement, on the submissions and arguments of the
Parties, and on any information before it, pursuant to paragraphs 9 and 10 of this
Article. The final report shall set out its:

       (a)    findings of fact and law together with reasons;

       (b)    determination as to whether the measure at issue is inconsistent with
              the obligations under this Agreement;

       (c)    recommendation that the Party complained against, bring the measure
              into conformity with the obligations under this Agreement; and

       (d)    recommendations, if any, on the means to resolve the dispute.

14.     The arbitral tribunal shall release to the Parties its final report on the dispute
referred to it within 60 days of its establishment. When the arbitral tribunal considers
that it cannot release its final report within 60 days, it shall inform the Parties in
writing of the reasons for the delay together with an estimate of the period within
which it will issue its report. In no case however, should the period from the
establishment of an arbitral tribunal to the release of the final report to the Parties
exceed 150 days. The final report of the arbitral tribunal shall become a public
document within 10 days after its release to the Parties.

15.    The final report of the arbitral tribunal shall be final and binding on the Parties.

                                            66
                                   Article 121
                    Suspension and Termination of Proceedings

1.     Where the Parties agree, the arbitral tribunal may suspend its work at any
time for a period not exceeding 12 months from the date of such agreement. If the
work of the arbitral tribunal has been suspended for more than 12 months, the
authority for establishment of the tribunal shall lapse unless the Parties agree
otherwise.

2.      The Parties may agree to terminate the proceedings before an arbitral tribunal
established under this Agreement at any time by jointly notifying the Chair of the
arbitral tribunal to this effect.

3.    Before the arbitral tribunal makes its decision, it may at any stage of the
proceedings propose to the Parties that the dispute be settled amicably.

                                      Article 122
                                    Implementation

1.     On receipt of the final report of the arbitral tribunal, the Parties shall agree on
the resolution of the dispute, including the reasonable period of time necessary to
implement the resolution of the dispute, which normally shall conform with the
determinations and recommendations, if any, of the arbitral tribunal.

2.      Where there is disagreement as to the existence or consistency with this
Agreement of measures taken within the reasonable period of time to comply with
the award of the arbitral tribunal, such dispute shall be decided through recourse to
the dispute settlement procedures in this Chapter, including wherever possible by
resort to the original arbitral tribunal. The arbitral tribunal shall provide its report to
the Parties within 30 days after the date of the referral of the matter to it. When the
arbitral tribunal considers that it cannot provide its report within this timeframe, it
shall inform the Parties in writing of the reasons for the delay and shall submit its
report within 45 days after the date of referral of the matter to it.

                                   Article 123
                     Compensation and Suspension of Benefits

1.     If the Parties:-

       (a)    are unable to agree on the resolution of the dispute pursuant to
              paragraph 1 of Article 122 within 45 days of issuance of the final report;
              or

       (b)    have agreed on the resolution of the dispute pursuant to paragraph 1 of
              Article 122 and the Party complained against fails to implement or

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             observe the terms of such agreement within the reasonable period of
             time as agreed,

the Party complained against shall enter into negotiations with the complaining Party
with a view to developing a mutually satisfactory agreement on any necessary
compensatory adjustment.

2.      If no mutually satisfactory agreement on compensation has been reached
within 20 days after the request of the complaining Party to enter into negotiations on
developing such compensation, the complaining Party may request the original
arbitral tribunal to determine the appropriate level of any suspension of benefits
conferred on the other Party under this Agreement. Where the original tribunal
cannot hear the matter for any reason, a new tribunal shall be appointed under
Article 118.

3.    Any suspension of benefits shall be restricted to benefits granted to the Party
complained against under this Agreement.

4.    In considering what benefits to suspend under paragraph 2 of this Article:

      (a)    the complaining Party should first seek to suspend benefits in the same
             sector or sectors as that affected by the measure or other matter that
             the arbitral tribunal has found to be inconsistent with this Agreement;
             and

      (b)    the complaining Party may suspend benefits in other sectors if it
             considers that it is not practicable or effective to suspend benefits in
             the same sector.

5.     The suspension of benefits shall be temporary and shall only be applied until
such time as:

      (a)    the Party removes the measure found to be inconsistent with this
             Agreement;

      (b)    the Party that must implement the arbitral tribunal’s recommendations
             has done so; or

      (c)    a mutually satisfactory solution is reached.

6.    If the Party complained against considers that:

      (a)    the level of benefits that the complaining Party has proposed to be
             suspended is manifestly excessive; or

      (b)    it has eliminated the measure found to be inconsistent with this Agreement,
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it may request the original arbitral tribunal to determine the matter. The original
arbitral tribunal shall present its determination to the Parties within 30 days after it
reconvenes. Where the original arbitral tribunal cannot hear the matter for any reason,
a new arbitral tribunal shall be appointed pursuant to the procedures set out in Article 118.

                                        Article 124
                                        Expenses

       Each Party shall bear the costs of its appointed arbitrator and its own
expenses and legal costs. The costs of the Chair of the arbitral tribunal and other
expenses associated with the conduct of its proceedings shall be borne in equal
parts by both Parties.

                                     Article 125
                       Focal Points and Service of Documents

       Both Parties shall designate a focal point for this Chapter. Any request,
acknowledgement, written submission or other document relating to the dispute
settlement procedures in this Chapter shall be delivered to the relevant Party through
its designated focal point.

                                    CHAPTER 13
                                GENERAL EXCEPTIONS

                                     Article 126
                           General and Security Exceptions

1.   For the purposes of Chapters 2, 3, 4, 6, 7 and 9, Articles XX and XXI of the
GATT 1994 shall, mutatis mutandis, be incorporated into and form part of this
Agreement.

2.     For the purposes of Chapters 8 and 9, other than Article 95, Articles XIV and
XIV bis of the GATS shall, mutatis mutandis, be incorporated into and form part of
this Agreement.

3.       In addition, nothing in this Agreement shall be construed so as to prevent
either Party from taking any action which it considers necessary for the protection of
critical communications infrastructure from deliberate attempts intended to disable or
degrade such infrastructure.

                                      Article 127
                                   Taxation Measures

1.   Unless otherwise provided for in this Agreement, the provisions of this
Agreement shall not apply to any taxation measures.

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2.     For the purposes of this Agreement, “taxation measures” means any
measures levying direct or indirect taxes, including excise duties and sales tax, as
defined by the national laws and regulations of the countries of the Parties as long as
these taxes are not used for the purpose of protecting the domestic industry of the
country of the Party levying the duties.

3.    Nothing in this Agreement shall affect the rights and obligations of either Party
under any other agreement on taxation measures. In the event of any inconsistency
between this Agreement and any such agreement on taxation measures, that
agreement shall prevail to the extent of the inconsistency.

                                   CHAPTER 14
                                FINAL PROVISIONS

                                   Article 128
                         Table of Contents and Headings

       The table of contents and headings of the Chapters and the Articles of this
Agreement are inserted for convenience of reference only and shall not affect the
interpretation of this Agreement.

                                     Article 129
                                      Annexes

      The Annexes to this Agreement shall form an integral part of this Agreement.

                                    Article 130
                                  General Review

1.    The Parties shall undertake a general review of this Agreement in the fifth
calendar year following the calendar year in which this Agreement enters into force
and, unless otherwise agreed by both Parties, every five years thereafter.

2.    Notwithstanding paragraph 1 of this Article, the Parties shall, in 2009, review
the concessions set out in Annex 1.

                                     Article 131
                                    Amendment

1.    This Agreement may be amended by agreement between the Parties.

2.     Such amendment shall be approved by the Parties in accordance with their
respective legal procedures, and shall enter into force on a date to be agreed upon
by the Parties.

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3.    Notwithstanding paragraph 2 of this Article, amendments relating only to the
Annexes to this Agreement may be made through diplomatic notes exchanged
between the Parties.

4.     Amendments shall not affect the rights and obligations of the Parties provided
for under this Agreement until the amendments enter into force.

                                  Article 132
                Regional and Local Governments and Authorities

      Each Party is fully responsible for the observance of all provisions in this
Agreement and shall take such reasonable measures as may be available to it to
ensure their observance by regional and local governments and authorities.

                                     Article 133
                           Relation to Other Agreements

1.    The Parties reaffirm their rights and obligations under the WTO Agreement or
any other agreements to which both are parties.

2.     In the event of any inconsistency between this Agreement and any
agreements other than the WTO Agreement, to which both Parties are parties, the
Parties shall immediately consult with each other with a view to finding a mutually
satisfactory solution, taking into consideration general principles of international law.

                                    Article 134
                        Termination of Existing Agreements

     The following agreements shall terminate on the day of entry into force of this
Agreement:

       (a)    Trade Agreement between the Government of Malaysia and the
              Government of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan signed in Kuala
              Lumpur on 5 November 1987;

       (b)    Agreement between the Government of Malaysia and the Government
              of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan for the Promotion and Protection of
              Investment signed in Kuala Lumpur on 7 July 1995; and

       (c)   Agreement on the Early Harvest Programme for the Free Trade
             Agreement between the Government of Malaysia and the Government
             of The Islamic Republic of Pakistan signed in Kuala Lumpur on 1
             October 2005, as amended.




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                                      Article 135
                                     Termination

1.     Either Party may terminate this Agreement by giving one year notice in writing
to the other Party.

2.     The other Party may request in writing consultations concerning any matter
that would arise from the termination within 45 days after the date of receipt of the
notice referred to in paragraph 1 of this Article.

3.    The requested Party shall enter into consultations in good faith with a view to
reaching an equitable agreement within 30 days after the date of receipt of the
request referred to in paragraph 2 of this Article.

                                     Article 136
                                   Entry into Force

1.     This Agreement shall enter into force on the 1 January 2008 and shall remain
in force unless terminated as provided for in Article 135.

2.     The Parties undertake to complete their internal procedures for the entry into
force of this Agreement prior to 1 January 2008.

3.    The Parties shall notify each other in writing upon the completion of its internal
procedures for the entry into force of this Agreement.

      IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the undersigned, being duly authorised by their
respective Governments, have signed this Agreement.

      DONE at Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, on this 8th day of November in the year
2007 in duplicate in the English language.


For the Government of Malaysia                    For the Government of the
                                                  Islamic Republic of Pakistan




H.E. DATO’ SERI RAFIDAH AZIZ                      H.E. TAHIR MAHMUD QAZI
Minister of International Trade & Industry        High Commissioner of Pakistan
                                                  to Malaysia

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