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UNIT 8 Resistance to Change : Change Management is a planned approach to change within an organization. The objective is to maximize the benefits for the organization and lower the potential risk associated with any ERP solution changes. These changes are either reactive, which is caused by external source, or proactive, which is a goal oriented change. A huge aspect of integrating any new ERP technolgies is human based. There are psychological aspects of any change, such as resistance, that many people go through. Any effective change management touches on all these aspects within an organization. The key process of change management begins by measuring attitudinal changes as the process of ERP implementation begins which is not just recording how people feel about the changes anticipated in technology implementation of the business processes that is primarily focussed on the automation over a period of time and how to manage the shift in their expectations. This requires a communication as well as a training process. Implementing an ERP will bring in changes to the way people work within the organization, processes will change and there may be job cuts and rationalization of responsibilities within departments. All this will definitely evoke resistance from the employees and this has to be managed effectively before, during and after the implementation of the ERP package. Top management has to lead the way in propagating the reasons for the implementation and the business benefits that can be expected by implementing a new ERP package. A strong change management team needs to be involved to approve, implement and track the changes in the organization, which includes the impact and detailed structure (ie. documentation) associated with the life cycle of the ERP project. The ERP are made to flexibilize the enterprise and the management of the internal supply chain. It's commonly perceived that people in general don't like change, and ERP involves quite a bit of change. So that may explain why resistance to change is so common on ERP projects. But is there a way to resolve these change obstacles? The good news is that there are some key activities that will help minimize this type of resistance to change: 1) Identify change agents early in the project : These should be people that know the business well, embrace change, and are well-respected in the organization. This group of people, which should represent all the functional areas affected by ERP, will serve as champions of the project. They will also be key in helping other employees understand and learn the value of ERP and how it affects their jobs. 2) Train people : Very few disagree that training is important. The problem, however, is that many projects tend to focus on training users how to use the new system prior to go-live. While this is certainly important, it does not address other issues such as how key business processes will be affected by ERP. In addition, not enough companies take advantage of on-going training tools such as on-line help, on-going refresher training, etc. 3) Involve employees in ERP process. The more involved employees are in the ERP decision and implementation, the more ownership and buy-in they will have into the project. This is not to say that every single employee should be involved. However, involving more employees than just senior management in the decision and implementation planning process will go a long way to make people feel more ownership, which inevitably results in less resistance in the future. 4) Over-communicate. There is no such thing as communicating too much with employees. The more they know about why your organization is selecting ERP, how it will benefit the company, and what it means to them and their jobs, the less likely they will be to resist the changes when they are implemented. ERP SELECTION ISSUES : ERP selection is a fundamental process in which different project components such as change management, business reengineering, and an ERP independent consultant, play a key role in identifying strong and weak points of your organisation, change and reengineering strategies, and proper ERP or vertical ERP applications to support a change management process. ERP selection staff puts people at the center of project approach. Change management, business reengineering, and project managed by an ERP independent consultant are much more important than the selection of an ERP or a vertical ERP application. ERP systems are: Designed to solve the fragmentation of information in large business organisations (change management issue) Perceived as a contribution towards a more process-oriented organisation (business reengineering issue) ERP selection process must be performed by an ERP independent consultant, who should: Analyse business requirements Assess ERP-users competence. ERP selection process is based upon a world-wide knowledge and implementation experience of major ERP systems; however, as we enter a new company, we look at top management goals, to determine: Business requirements B2B and IPE requirements System integration constrains and opportunities Change management challenges Business reengineering implications Datawarehousing and costing implications ERP independent consultant activities are then set up within a Joint Application Development team-centric framework, where we partner with our clients to lend technical expertise, coaching them all through the change management process. ERP selection staff deals with business reengineering and change management. ERP selection neither starts or ends with an ERP. An ERP is just a force multiplier to support change; alone, without a business reengineering strategy, it will hinder change, make change management expectations difficult to reach, and bring failure, even under the eyes of an ERP independent consultant: the change management issue is too important. ERP selection wrongly accomplished and no change management process properly run: this is why companies turn out to be their worst enemy in ERP project management. They start their trip by: Attempting to micro-manage ERP customisation Denying business reengineering needs Forgetting about change management and optimisation of their own structure They eventually stumble on their way to implementation. The best ERP selection process, the best ERP independent consultant, and the most powerful vertical ERP fall however too short, without business reengineering and change management issues. ERP selection process will avoid that: we assess your current working environment, your human organisational framework, strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats your company is to face with. All these issues have strong change management and business reengineering implications. ERP selection process points at business reengineering. Business reengineering is meant to create a leveraged infrastructure with the final objective of aligning corporate knowledge management with business strategy, through a rigorous but flexible project methodology managed by an ERP independent consultant. Final goal: an ERP system properly implemented. ERP selection process brings you in touch with a world-wide range of ERP vendors, weighing advantages and disadvantages of each system. ERP applications are also weighed for a wide range of industry segments, such as label industry, building enterprises, artificial leather coating, paper coating, and many other ones. By carrying a ERP-based project management role, the ERP independent consultant sets aside your staff on a day-to-day basis, and interact with your management team, taking care of all change management and business reengineering issues. customers typically need: ERP selection guidance Evaluation of where to house systems (internal or outsourced) Project management by an independent consultant Assistance in understanding technical jargon and evaluating different ERP implementation methodology Change management and business reengineering alternatives services include: ERP selection or vertical ERP system selection Project leadership and project management (ERP or vertical ERP- based) Analysis of business requirements for feasibility assessment process Evaluating, recommending, and managing change Change management and business reengineering alternatives . UNIT 5 What is an ERP System ? An ERP solution is an integrated business system that provides a company with the decision support tools needed to effectively manage and grow its business. These support tools provide an organization with access to the information that it needs, when it needs it, in a user-friendly format. The system as a whole allows each individual to work more effectively with a higher degree of responsiveness and should provide all of the information that each individual within the organization requires to do his or her job. When a change occurs at any point, that information is updated accordingly, alerting key personnel to changes in status when required. Management then has the ability to view this activity and is thus able to make decisions based on current data and information. ERP is a strategic tool which helps companies gain a competitive edge. By integrating all business processes and optimizing the resources available helps manage the enterprise as a whole, implementing best practices for each business process across an entire company. ERP is the concept of taking many departments and combining their unique systems and utilising the methods used. Information collected and processed by these separate departments, combining it all into one system, enabling seamless communications between departments, suppliers, clients and management. When to Consider an Enterprise-wide Solution If an organization is experiencing one or more of the following business conditions, it is time to seriously consider implementing an ERP solution or replacing the current one: • Fast and uncontrolled growth • The company’s exact financial performance is unknown • Unknown or inaccurate job costs • Inventories that do not meet or far exceed production requirements on a consistent basis • Duplication of effort in order to capture vital data that impacts employee efficiency • Commonly setting inaccurate customer expectations • Promised delivery dates are regularly missed • Unknown operations performance • The current system is negatively impacting the organization’s ability to grow. • Little or no ability to forecast and plan production requirements with any degree of accuracy. How to successfully approach the ERP : The most important element of ERP is communication, which can be in effect used to decide on issues quickly and decisively, in order to set reasonable expectations. Reliable implementation costs and time required for implementation need to be forecasted at the start of a project, along with, ensuring that the technical infrastructure is sufficiently robust before implementation, and that a single, unified database is used to store data for the various system modules. Workflow Management At present workflow management systems are mainly used for administrative tasks in office environments. They are only sporadically applied for supporting production processes, i.e. in sales order processing, product development, and quality inspection. More extensive approaches integrate workflow technology as a core mechanism to control process flow in information systems.Especially in ERP systems the workflow integration is beneficial: Work schedules are fundamental ERP data describing the manufacturing activities to produce the industrial output. Production control is based on this information. Work schedules are prestructured process descriptions with specifications of operations and assigned capacity units. Despite of their purpose of material-oriented output, work schedules have similar components as workflow definitions. Therefore it is expedient to treat both kinds of processes by same means. Production control on one side and workflow management of administrative tasks on the other side should be handled with the same system. Synergies can be obtain by combining the advantages of both domains. Workflow technology can benefit for instance from long practical and theoretical experiences of production management, e.g. implementing an organization for process descriptions like the work scheduling department. Integrating workflow technologies in ERP systems overcomes department boundaries between production control in the manufacturing areas and order processes in administrative areas of an enterprise. Applying interorganizational workflow technologies with mechanisms like capacity sharing, chained execution, subcontracting, case transfer and loosely coupled workflow offers means even to overcome enterprise boundaries, which is essential for supply chain management and process handling in virtual enterprises . Workflow Management Systems for management and execution of business processes : In business process modelling,one of the nasty complexities of reality lies in the fact that there are usually many exceptions. This would lead to much larger models, which easily become incomprehensible. In general, business process models can be designed for an organisational purpose, such as business process redesign, in which their purpose is to support communication between humans. Such models should be kept simple. Alternatively, models can be made to support automated management and execution. Workflow application (high level) We start now by a high level description of the typical workflow application. Work flow management systems contain a general description of a business process, which can be depicted in a graphical way. The graphical language in which business processes are expressed are often based on Petri-nets. In Petri-nets, activities are called transitions, and they are always connecting two different states (called places). Workflow languages allow a precise description of the activities which are defined in the business process, as well as of the parallel paths and sequence constraints which are applicable The workflow system supporting a business process is depicted as a “black box” containing the activities and their precedence/parallelism relations within the process and identify what “a case” represents. The business process is instantiated for individual cases. The instantiated business process consists of activities, which may have to be performed for each individual case. Architecture of Workflow Management systems The main observation, which we want to make about the WfM approach is that each case has to be independent. This means that the cases each hold their own data. When data from the environment of the case are needed (e.g. due to joint resources or to data sharing). Therefore, the information in the database about resources, and their assignment to the roles that fulfill the activities is static. Also, other restrictions (e.g. an active case cannot modify the persistent data of another running case) stem from the strong assumption that active cases are independent from each other. In the example introduced above, this notion of “independence” can be illustrated as follows. In phase one, a number of checks are performed before a customer’s request can be replied by an offer. If any of these checks fails, the order is refused. These checks are e.g.: • The check whether the customer is known and accepted as a debtor • The check whether the debtor’s credit limit has been reached • The check whether sufficient material is in stock. In phase two, the workflow logic has to assume that some of these checks still hold true. For example, it assumes that the customer object is still present in the database. If the customer object would be removed from the database after phase one, the workflow system might not be able to end properly in phase two. In this situation, the case is not independent. Thus, “independence of cases” means that each case can control it’s own (persistent) data. However, it is a rather strong assumption that cases are independent in reality. Of course, it can be debated whether (in reality) a customer can be removed from the database while there is still an order entry case in process. UNIT 6 INVENTORY - ERP Inventory module facilitates processes of maintaining the appropriate level of stock in a warehouse. The activities of inventory control involves in identifying inventory requirements, setting targets, providing replenishment techniques and options, monitoring item usages, reconciling the inventory balances, and reporting inventory status. Integration of inventory control module with sales, purchase, finance modules allows ERP systems to generate vigilant executive level reports . Features & Highlights: Online status of item quantity in terms of on-hand, on-hand, available, reserved, ordered, to order, rejected, defective and reworkable quantities. Complete excise functionality and generation of excise registers Multiple levels of classification of items Multiple units of measurement Alternate items for Production Planning Handling of non-stock low value items like stationery Lot wise tracking of inventory at shop floor and main stores Stock Valuation – LIFO/FIFO/weighted average Material Requisition from different requirement areas Purchasing and subcontracting Receiving material against sales order processing, material requirement, subcontracting, gate pass and production requisition Landed Rate of Items Quality Control based on QC parameters Handling Material Rejections Rejected Material dispatch to subcontractors Linking of GRN to PO and Invoice Gate pass – returnable/non returnable Analysis which help in maintaining optimum stock levels Physical verification of stock Reallocation of reworkable stock Multiple warehouses/branches/regional offices Stock transfer – receipts from other warehouse Consolidation of all warehouses Consolidation at any level of company hierarchy ERP inventory module covers all stock related functions of an organization. Stock management and valuation activities, which form the backbone of any organization generally, take a lot of time and resources.Inventory handles all the store activities of issues, dispatches, receipts and quality control. The lot wise stock of each item is maintained and various MIS are provided for tracking stock movement. FINANCE – All kind of organizations small scale, large scale organizations benefit from the implementation of ERP finance module. The financial module is the core of many ERP software systems. It can gather financial data from various functional departments, and generates valuable financial reports such general ledger, trail balance, asbalance sheet and quarterly financial statements. This module of the ERP software will take care of all accounts related entries and their impact on the whole system. How the finance comes and how it is been utilised. Total flow of money (Cash/Bank) and total expenditures will be reflected here. As an after effect of this, the management will be able to take their important financial decision, Budgeting etc. They can come to know about company’s financial position at any point of time. All sorts of important financial reports i.e. Trial Balance, Trading A/c, Profit & Loss A/c, Balance Sheet, Debtor’s Balance, Creditors Balance, Cash/Bank Fund position and many more are covered in this module. General Ledger The General Ledger module is the foundation of your accounting system, with flexibility that meets the current and future financial management requirements of organizations of all types and sizes. It provides a robust feature set designed to handle your most demanding budgeting and processing needs. General Ledger fully integrates with all modules and is the key to maximizing the efficiency and accuracy of your financial data. G/L Security The G/L Security module enables organizations to control which users can view or use certain general ledger accounts based on segment validation in G/L Security settings. G/L Consolidations G/L Consolidations lets you transfer and merge General Ledger account and transaction information between separate company and branch office locations. It is also designed to enable subsidiaries and holding companies to run without being on the same network or accounting database. G/L Consolidations provides a feature set that allows your company to define the level of detail to consolidate and provides a comprehensive audit trail. Intercompany Transactions The Intercompany Transactions module lets you enter General Ledger and Accounts Payable transactions that affect more than one company by automatically distributing transactions across two or more companies. In addition, its built-in flexibility automatically generates intercompany loan account entries according to user-defined relationship tables called routes. Intercompany Transactions simplifies and significantly reduces the amount of work required for intercompany accounting. The Accounting Module is completely Transaction based unlike journal based. This implies most of the accounting functions are handled through relevant transactions in other Modules there by saving lot of time. The Module contains complete functionality required for any Accounting Department right from vouchers to the Balance Sheet and Profit and Loss Account. Budgeting and Variance Analysis between Budgeted and Actual figures helps in controlling the Enterprise Expenses and Income efficiently. The Module also includes Cost Centres, which is completely flexible in terms of defining Cost Centres and their components. Cost Allocations for General Overheads can also be done on a pre-defined basis and required outputs could be generated for analysis purposes. Outstanding of Payables and Receivables with Ageing Analysis of both debtors and creditors are some the features of this module. Overall the module takes care of complete functions of any Accounting department. The function of this module starts with accounts creation. External departments like marketing or purchase will create some of those accounts. Apart from regular voucher entries this module will help the authority as well as other departments by providing financial figures. Final accounts will be generated from this module. Documents like Receivable and Payable statements are generated from this module. This module bridges between Sales & Procurement processes. All figures will be protected under password. Only authorised person will be eligible to access information from this module. Funds manipulations for a concern are important factor and some times it is treated as blood for an organisation. So in this regard, sources of funds and application of funds are to be taken care of, by defining Balance sheets, Schedules, General and Sub-Ledger, party and customer masters etc. Also the various input transaction such as Voucher Entry, Credit/Debit entry, Cash/Bank receipts, Cash/Bank Payment, Bank Reconciliation statements, Bill verification etc. Then finally different types of financial reports, which can be of various types according to specified company standard. Manufacturing – Three powerful ERP manufacturing software modules, Bill of Materials, Work Order Processing, and Material Requirements Planning, provide detailed and accurate tracking and reporting throughout the entire manufacturing process-from forecasting to the shop floor, and on to completion. The manufacturing solution for the Sage MAS 90 or Sage MAS 200 ERP manufacturing software system offers a range of features that will help maximize efficiency through all stages. The ERP manufacturing software modules for the Sage MAS 90 or 200 give you the ability to create multi-level bills and produce accurate, informative reports detailing bill structures. And when goods are finished, they can be completed to Inventory Management or Sales Order for seamless integration with the distribution system. Additionally, manufactured component items can be completed to other work orders during the ERP manufacturing software process. Bill of Materials The Bill of Materials module for the Sage MAS 90 or Sage MAS 200 ERP system allows you to easily create and maintain a detailed bill of the components and miscellaneous charges that make up your finished items and subassembly components. You can produce accurate and informative reports detailing bill structures, component requirements, and production history. The Bill of Materials module is designed to accommodate after- the-fact production documentation. As each finished product is created and recorded, this application automatically relieves the component items used from inventory, and automatically receives the finished products into inventory. The Disassembly Entry and Production Entry functions can account for disassembly of finished items, or components that are added, deleted, or modified Material Requirements Planning One of the most critical and time-consuming aspects of manufacturing is to manage the task of keeping sufficient amounts of materials on hand at all times. How many times has production been delayed because a necessary material was not in stock or you could not get it in time? The Material Requirements Planning (MRP) module for the Sage MAS 90 or Sage MAS 200 ERP system can help you eliminate purchasing and scheduling problems. It is designed to simplify and speed up the work processes of purchasing and production managers, enabling them to plan more effectively. Work Order The Work Order module is the cornerstone of the manufacturing solution for the Sage MAS 90 or Sage MAS 200 ERP system. It allows you to issue work orders, develop schedules, and track costs associated with the manufacturing process. Work Order provides you with complete control of the manufacturing process and the ability to see up-to-the-minute, work-inprocess information. This module is particularly well suited for companies engaged in assemble-to-order, engineer-to-order or maketo- order processing. When Work Order is used in conjunction with Bill of Materials, the material required to create a product can be automatically merged from the appropriate bill. All of the required paperwork to move the job through the shop can then be generated from each work order, including travelers, picking sheets, dispatch sheets, and operation tickets. Production Planning & Production Module : In the process of evolution of manufacturing requirements planning (MRP) II into ERP, while vendors have developed more robust software for production planning, consulting firms have accumulated vast knowledge of implementing ERP production planning module. Production planning optimizes the utilization of manufacturing capacity, parts, components and material resources using historical production data andsalesforecasting. ERP production module will just handle a tiny portion of production. The module begins with Product creation. There will be a component master and stage master. This module is mainly designed to monitor day-to-day production progress. On completion of any work order information will be passed on to despatch for delivery. Reports on delivery schedule will be available in this module. Production Planning helps an organization plan production with the optimum utilization of all available resources. Material Requirement Planning is done based on the production advice generated by the sales department. Feasibility of production is evaluated using details like raw material availability and procurement time, machine availability and capacity. A production schedule is generated for all machines where the scheduling is done in an optimized fashion based on the priorities of production. features of Production and Production planning module: Production module: * Process definition with inputs, outputs, by-products and overheads * Definition of Bill of Material for all products up to any number of levels * Planning based on customer wise production advice and sales forecast * Material requirement planning: MRP based on machine capacity and availability, machine efficiency, raw material availability, lead time - giving feasible quantity for production * Production plan for machines with optimum utilization of all available resources like raw materials and machines * Option to revoke production plan to change input parameters/ production priority/ quantity using fresh production advice * Generation of production schedule for machines detailing inputs and outputs * Analysis of machine efficiency and utilization * Automatic generation of MRS and purchase requisitions on finalization of plan * Generation of process requisition for processes that have to be subcontracted * Reserving quantity for production * Automatic generation of job orders for production * Option to make daily plans for production Production Planning module: * Process definition with inputs, outputs, by-products and overheads * Definition of Bill of Material for all products up to any number of levels * Planning based on customer wise production advice and sales forecast * Material requirement planning: MRP based on machine capacity and availability, machine efficiency, raw material availability, lead time - giving feasible quantity for production * Production plan for machines with optimum utilization of all available resources like raw materials and machines * Option to revoke production plan to change input parameters/ production priority/ quantity using fresh production advice * Generation of production schedule for machines detailing inputs and outputs * Analysis of machine efficiency and utilization * Automatic generation of MRS and purchase requisitions on finalization of plan * Generation of process requisition for processes that have to be subcontracted * Reserving quantity for production * Automatic generation of job orders for production * Option to make daily plans for production Production Planning helps an organization plan production with the optimum utilization of all available resources. Material Requirement Planning is done based on the production advice generated by the sales department. Feasibility of production is evaluated using details like raw material availability and procurement time, machine availability and capacity. A production schedule is generated for all machines where the scheduling is done in an optimized fashion based on the priorities of production. PURCHASING - ERP Purchasing module streamline procurement of required raw materials. It automates the processes of identifying potential suppliers, negotiating price, awarding purchase order to the supplier, and billing processes. Purchase module is tightly integrated with the inventory control and production planning modules. Purchasing module is often integrated with supply chain management software Features of purchasing module: * Streamlines purchase and process cycles * Detailed Supplier/Subcontractor/Service Provider database * Capturing materials requirement * Automatic firing of purchase requisitions based on MRS * Quotations from various suppliers * Recording Payment terms in PO * Excise consideration in Purchase and Process Orders * PO authorization * PO amendments with complete amendment history * Order cancellation and order closing * Multiple delivery schedules * Quality inspection of goods * Quotation validity * MIS for vendor evaluation based on quality, price & delivery time * Subcontracting – generation of process orders * Multiple indents for multiple items in a single PO * Purchase order processing * Purchase order entry with item details and other details like taxes, discounts, extra charges like freight, P&F, octroi etc. * Flexibility to generate Purchase Order in domestic and foreign currency * Advance adjustments * Purchase bill with updating of GL and purchase book * Service contracts, Service Bills, Service indents and PO * Value based approval of indents * Bill of Entry * Complete import functionality with handling of custom details - Purchase Bill for import, Excise consideration in imports * Reports for Order tracking for complete control on the procurement cycle ERP Purchasing module aims at making available the required materials of the right quality, in the right quantity, at the right time and at the right price, for the smooth functioning of the organization. All purchasing and subcontracting activities such as inviting quotations, supplier evaluation, placing purchase order, order scheduling and billing are covered in this module. Import of goods is also handled by the system. (Reference : http://sdc.ca/production_control.shtml ) UNIT- 7 MRP - In the early days companies would get software written for them to explode the bill of material. The first "package" material requirements planning (MRP) software was IBM’s RPS (Requirements Planning System). There were 2 main faults with Material Requirements Planning (MRP) systems : (1) Nobody could work out how to make the planning systems stable - every MRP run produced widely different results from the last, due to the normal fluctuations in demand and supply. (2) The systems had the effect of driving up the inventory instead of reducing it. The reason for this was that every fluctuation upwards increased supply orders which could not be easily reduced. In the early 70’s the idea of master production scheduling and capacity requirements planning were introduced into MRP systems to overcome the stability and inventory problems. The new packages were called MRP II (Manufacturing Resource Planning) to emphasis the improvement over the old MRP systems. The main reasons for MRP II failures MRP II should have overcome the old MRP problems. Unfortunately it seems that the majority of software implementers did not understand master scheduling very well so encouraged companies to implement MRP II packages in the old, flawed MRP way i.e. without proper master scheduling and capacity planning. There were other problems with MRP II implementations: * Inaccurate data - experience has shown that at least 98% of inventory records and bills of material must be correct to make the system usable to control the business. Other information must be similarly accurate. * Software packages did not meet the needs of the business - packages were so complex that people running the company did not understand them. Professional implementers who did not truly understand the business were therefore left to decide how the packages will be "mapped" to the business. Trying to modify the package leads to higher costs. * The longer term financial objectives of the company were not addressed - companies are judged by their financial success. If a planning system cannot be seen to connect to the financial needs of the business, there will be two, frequently competing agendas. Manufacturing, for instance, could be asked to hit monthly financial targets whilst also being expected to meet the customer requirements passed down through the planning process. In this environment it is often the financial objectives that dominate so undermining the validity of the plan. * Insufficient education - time and again people who have implemented MRPII systems, even those that were successful, say they did not have a sufficient level of understanding of either the software or the new business operating processes and procedures needed to work in an integrated environment. * Ineffective use of consultants - most people will only implement planning systems once or twice in their careers. Many companies try to implement systems without the help of people who have proven experience in implementing such systems. OLAP The OLAP module provides the sophisticated functionality needed to analyze and report on large amounts of transactional data using advanced On Line Analytical Processing (OLAP) and data warehousing technology. OLAP Analytics enables you to gain critical insights into financial activity, sales analysis, and production and inventory management. Through the use of OLAP and data warehouse technology, The Intuitive OLAP Analytics module delivers key analytical information throughout your organization and gives you the power and knowledge to reduce inventory, increase customer satisfaction and reduce costs. Analyze large amounts of business data Easily create your own reports and analysis using familiar Microsoft Excel user interface Select, sort and analyze data in an unlimited number of ways Uncover hidden trends While OLAP technology is available to all Microsoft SQL users, the difference with Intuitive's OLAP Analytics option is that the OLAP cubes have been pre-filled with all the data required for you to simply run reports. Other systems offer OLAP technology, but Intuitive offers pre- filled cubes that will save weeks or months of development time. Intuitive's OLAP Analytics option is ready to start analyzing data right out of the box, with no modifications or development required. OLAP Analytics presents business intelligence information in a way that was not possible before, and does so with unprecedented speed and flexibility. Now, instead of waiting a week or more for someone to format a report and/or analyze the data, you can access it directly from your desktop as quickly as you can drag and drop the attributes of interest to you. OLAP Analytics allows you to select, sort and analyze data in any way you want, virtually as quick as you can think of it. It gives you the ability to rapidly drill down into your data to see trends and conditions that would otherwise be invisible using slower data retrieval technology. KBS (Knowledge Based System) In order to implement the systems that are aimed at improving the sharing of enterprise-wide information and knowledge, organizations must have the capability of effective knowledge sharing to start with. Based on a review of the literature on the knowledge management in enterprise system implementation projects, this paper identifies two major areas of concern regarding the management of knowledge in this specific type of projects: managing tacit knowledge, and issues regarding the process-based nature of organizational knowledge viewed through the lens of organizational memory. The more capable an organization is in handling these issues, the more likely it is that the implementation will result in competitive advantage for the organization. The competitive advantage arises from the organization’s capabilities in internalizing and integrating the adopted processes with the existing knowledge paradigms and harmonizing the new system and the organizational culture towards getting the most out of the implementation effort. UNIT 5 Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) ERP is a strategic tool which helps companies gain a competitive edge. By integrating all business processes and optimizing the resources available helps manage the enterprise as a whole, implementing best practices for each business process across an entire company. ERP is the concept of taking many departments and combining their unique systems and utilising the methods used. Information collected and processed by these separate departments, combining it all into one system, enabling seamless communications between departments, suppliers, clients and management. How to successfully approach the ERP : The most important element of ERP is communication, which can be in effect used to decide on issues quickly and decisively, in order to set reasonable expectations. Reliable implementation costs and time required for implementation need to be forecasted at the start of a project, along with, ensuring that the technical infrastructure is sufficiently robust before implementation, and that a single, unified database is used to store data for the various system modules.
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