Tomato - DOC by tyndale


      Tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) are commonly used for table consumption
      Raw material is used for processing into tomato paste, pulp/puree, catsup, sauce,
       juice, etc.
      Processed tomato is also used by fish canneries and food processors
      Served baked or stewed garnish or flavoring in soups, and meat or fish dishes
      Consumed fresh in salads or as side dish

World Statistics
       Based on the average production from 1999 to 2003, the top 10 tomato
       producing countries are China, USA, Turkey, India, Italy, Egypt, Spain, Iran,
       Brazil and Mexico

       China is the highest tomato-producing country in the world with at least
       22.25% (or 24,210,362.8 MT average from 1999-2003) contribution to total
       production; it has the highest production growth rate with an average of 9.17%
       for the same period

       ASEAN‟s top producer is Indonesia, accounting for 57% of the region‟s total

       The Philippine ranks 64th among the countries that produce tomatoes in the
       world, with 0.14% (146,959.00 MT) contribution

       The Philippines ranks 3rd largest producer among the Southeast Asian Nations,
       with at least 16% contribution to total production.
Philippines Statistics
      Major producers:
          o Pangasinan (22.811.40 tons, average for 1998-2002)
          o Bukidnon (17,297.20 tons)
          o Ilocos Norte (14,489.40 tons)
          o Iloilo (10,476.80 tons)
          o Ilocos Sur (10,001.20 tons)
          o Nueva Ecija (7,900 tons)

      Growth Rate in Production:
          o Annual average growth rate --- 2.33% for the period of 1998-2002
          o Nueva Ecija had the highest annual average growth rate in production, with
              10.49 percent over the period of 1998-2002.
Postharvest Practices -      All postharvest practices are performed manually

       Mature tomatoes are hand-picked. Harvesting is done early in the morning,
       taking advantage of the lower temperature. Harvesting starts when morning
       dew has evaporated to avoid damage to the plants due to turgidity.
     3 maturity stages: mature green, pink or breaker, and red ripe. The right stage
     to harvest depends upon the purpose for which tomatoes are grown and the
     time of shipping

     Equipment used: small pails or baskets where the fruits are placed to facilitate
     collection. Bamboo crates are used to haul the crop from the field to a shed.
     Bigger containers are used to facilitate handling and bringing the produce from
     the farm to the packinghouse. Harvested tomatoes are temporarily kept under
     a shaded area to avoid exposure under the sun that may result to sunscald and
     accumulation of field heat that accelerate ripening.
     Tomatoes are cleaned either by dipping the fruits in plain water or by wiping
     individual fruits by hands with a clean, soft cloth.

     There is still no Philippine national standard for sorting and grading for

     Sorting and grading practices vary in the different supply and demand
     areas. Classification is based on size and ripeness.

        Cleaning with soft cloth and Sorting with ‘sorting tray’ (Misamis Oriental)
     Packing materials: wooden crates (25-kg capacity); bamboo baskets ("kaing" -
     60-80 kg capacity and "bakag" - 20-25 kg capacity).
    Tomatoes are sold immediately after harvest. A few growers temporarily store
    their tomatoes at home from one to three days to wait for “market days” or
    wait for trader-buyers to pick up the produce. Some growers also store the
    fruits if their buyers are retailers in nearby public markets who prefer trading
    ripe tomatoes.

    Traders with stalls and storage facilities („bodega‟) in the public markets
    commonly store tomatoes for up to 7 days.
    Farmers‟ decision to bring their produce to the trading center depends upon:
           (a) marketing agreement with buyers
           (b) distance of the market outlet from the production sites
           (c) availability of transport facilities.
    Common transport facilities:
           hand tractors or „kuliglig‟ with trailers
    3 major manufactures of tomato paste and sauce:
           Northern Foods Corporation (NFC)
           RAM Food Products, Inc. (RAM)
           Bukidnon Resources Co. Inc. (BRCI)
    The leading tomato ketchup manufacturers:
           Universal Foods Corporation (UFC)
           Del Monte, Philippines, Inc.
    Major users of processed tomato:
           fish canneries
           manufacturers of soups, pizza/spaghetti sauces and other food
           institutional buyers (e.g. fastfood establishments)
    Agora in Mindanao and Divisoria in Luzon are the primary trade centers of
    tomatoes in the Philippines

    Bulk of the tomatoes are handled by assembler-wholesalers. In most cases,
    they provide agricultural inputs (such as fertilizers) in return for being the
    farmers‟ primary buyers.
        The Philippines is a net importer of both fresh and processed tomatoes. In
        1998, imports included fresh tomatoes, tomato paste and tomato juice
        amounting to US $ 11,529,000.
Technology/Information Available
Philippine Horticulture Training and Research Center (PHTRC):
         Use of CaC2 to force ripening -- Approximately 0.25 to 0.50 kg of CaC2 is
         wrapped in newspapers and put inside a sealed „kaing‟. Green fruits turn
         reddish after three days unlike the natural ripening which takes six to seven
BPRE data from RRA:
         Large-scale traders in Metro Manila keep tomatoes in „makeshift‟ cold storage
         facilities that achieve a temperature of 20-22°C. A fee of P 15 is charged for
         every 25-30 kg box for seven to ten days.
Mariano Marcos State University // Ilocos Agriculture and Resources R&D Consortium:
         3 hybrid tomatoes (Hybrid No. 1, No. 2 and No. 3). As of 1999, these new
         varieties are being registered with the Philippine Seed Board. These varieties
         are “all-season” tomatoes that produce 23-25 tons per hectare in various
         months of planting
Visayas State College of Agriculture (ViSCA) Postharvest Technology Laboratory, Dept of
         box-type evaporative cooler with the use of Ethanol (as a dip or favor
         treatment) further delays ripening for one to two days. To control diseases,
         sodium hypochloride is found to be effective.

        VisCA studies show that the most favorable treatment is a milliliter of ethanol
        for every kilo of tomato for six hours using the vapor method and 4% ethanol
        for four minutes using the dip method
Issues and Concerns
High incidence of pests and diseases; consequently, high pesticide use and residues

Poor quality of tomatoes and high postharvest losses due to several factors including:
         Very short shelf-life
         Poor farm-to-market roads
         Inadequate cold storage facilities
         Limited and inefficient transport facilities
Highly fluctuating prices
Seasonality of tomato supply for processing
Labor shortage during peak of harvest season
High cost of packaging materials
Unfulfilled contract-buying agreements

Proposed Research and Development Agenda
        Institutionalize a pesticide residue monitoring program
        Strengthen the present pesticide monitoring program being conducted by RFUs
        Develop a low-cost pesticide residue kit

        Improve transport methods/ improve farm to market roads
        Develop low-cost and durable handling and transport containers, including
        packaging materials
       Adapt Controlled Atmosphere and Refrigerated Storage Technologies
       Develop methods to prolong shelf-life

       Develop wet season varieties
       Develop postharvest handling techniques of wet season tomatoes

Bureau of Post Harvest Research and Extension. (2005). Philippine Postharvest Industry
      Profile: TOMATO. Retrieved July 13, 2005 from the World Wide Web:

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