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					A Case Study
                          On
               Solid Waste Management
                          In
                   El-Ramad District
                      (Beni-Suef)




                Local Initiative Facility for Urban Environment
                                LIFE Programme


                                  Egypt
Project identification:

Title of the project            : Collecting garbage from homes, private, commercial
                                  and industrial areas.
Location of the project         : Beni-Suef “El-Ramad” district.
Key area of focus               : Solid waste management
Project duration                : 2 years (July lst 1995 to June 30th 1997)
Implementing Agency             : Beni-Suef Community Development Association
Funding Agency:                 : LIFE
Total Budget:                   : 165.000 LE



Executive summary of the case:

El-Ramad - with around 5,000 inhabitants – is one of Beni-Suef’s residential areas.
The most obvious problem of the El-Ramad area was perhaps the irregularity of
collecting the disposal garbage. Garbage collection was, therefore, considered the
most critical problem in El-Ramad area because its various negative impacts
eventually jeopardize public health.

The problem manifested itself in the back alleys. The streets of the area. were clean,
and there seemed to be an effort exerted by several workers hired by the municipal
authority. The problem was hidden in the back alleys of the long rows of buildings.
There was no service in this area to collect garbage from homes. Therefore the
residents started throwing their wastes behind the buildings.

The project was initiated, designed, discussed and developed through a series of
meetings. Such meetings were joined by several concerned parties and the Governor
and the Secretary General played an important role.

Early arrangements for the project involved the following parties:
   The Governorate of Beni-Suef, represented either by its Governor or Secretary
    General
   The head of Local Popular Council of Beni-Suef city
   The chief of Beni-Suef City Local Unit.
   The Environment Protection Organization in Beni-Suef city.
   The Young Women’s Muslim Association in Beni-Suef city (YWMA).
   The Community Development Association (CDA) in Beni-Suef city.
   The Administration of Youth and Athletics in Beni-Suef.
   The Development administration (Directorate of Social Affairs) in Beni-Suef.
   The 6th Zone of Beni-Suef city.
   The Improving Environment Unit / 6th zone: Beni-Suef city.

Project activities to be carried out were:
 Removal of accumulating solid wastes from the streets and alleys.
 Generation of work opportunities (hiring 12 persons to work in the project).

                          Solid Waste Management in El-Ramad District
                                         (Beni-Suef)
                                          Pa g e # 2
     Conducting intensive environmental awareness campaigns.
       Developing awareness through training courses for young women in charge of
       public services and for women leaders.

CDA took the initiative of developing and implementing the project, in collaboration
with the (YWMA), the city of Beni-Suef Local Unit, and the 6th zone Head Quarter.
The role of the national coordinator of the LIFE programme was very important in
advancing early arrangements to the phase of developing a project document.

With a general objective to build/raise the capabilities of women leaders and prepare
them to participate in mobilizing the local community, the two planned training
courses were conducted by CDA.

The two training courses met their designed goal and generally motivated participating
women with an awareness of the importance and objectives of the project. The trained
women were divided into a number of groups. Each group was assigned to a specific
site in El-Ramad area in order to identify peoples’ points of view.

Another important component was utilized to build public awareness and to
disseminate project objectives. Six awareness campaigns were launched for
preventing disposal of garbage on streets and alleys and maintaining El-Ramad area
clean.

Through the implementation phase, the work was accomplished under full suspension
of CDA project staff who managed the implementation process.

Transporting the collected garbage from the area was considered the main problem
experienced in implementing the project.

The decision was taken to allocate 10% of the total amount of people’s subscription
fees to hire a truck from the Local Unit of Beni-Suef City so the collected garbage
could be transported to the dumping area.

Project implementation proceeded almost as planned. Women had an effective role in
this respect. The local CDA played the principal role in implementing the project.
The role of the Local Unit of Beni-Suef City was mainly involved in the preparation
phase of implementing the project.

Positive changes were discerned in terms of behavioral patterns of the households, in
particular those who lived in the back alleys of El-Ramad area. There was great
interest among the inhabitants in a regular system of garbage collections for fees and
refuse disposal. This can be considered as an important achievement and prominent
precedence for replication.

The most important achievement and positive impact was mirrored in the decision to
extend the experience of El-Ramad area to the entire Zone No.6 which comprises
another three areas. Cooperation, coordination and agreement among different parties
                       Solid Waste Management in El-Ramad District
                                      (Beni-Suef)
                                       Pa g e # 3
on objectives and roles from the very beginning were of great importance in realizing
project objectives.
General Introduction :

An Overview on Beni-Suef City:

Beni-Suef is one of the cities in the Northern part of Upper Egypt. It is located 120
Km south of Cairo. The city has a population of approximately 175,000. The major
part of the laborforce (60%) is involved in agriculture and service as main activities.

Beni-Suef, as most of Egypt’s Governorate capital cities, is the administrative center
for the seven districts of Beni-Suef Governorate. According to a comprehensive plan
for Upper Egypt (GOPP) the city of Beni–Suef is considered to be the center of the
Upper Northern Development Region. Its strategic location gives it an important role
in the development corridor between Cairo and the city of El-Miniya.

The main problems of Beni-Suef City are:
    Disappearance of open spaces.
    Bad distribution of educational services.
    Deterioration of built-up areas.
    Conflicting land use and the misuse of land.

According to the Administrative law of 1979, Beni-Suef city -as other all Egyptian
cities - has two councils: the Executive Council and the Popular Council. The
Executive Council is presided over by an appointed chairman, and includes the chiefs
of housing, services, and public utilities departments, amongst others.

The internal procedures in this Council cover the following matters:
     Matters proposed by the governor and his staff, and all items suggested by the
     various government ministries that are of interest to the city.
     Matters proposed by the chairman or members of the Executive Council.

The Popular Council – on the other hand – is supposed to have a number of
committees for education, public health, social services...etc. The Law of 1979
delegates a wide range of functions to the Popular Councils, including activities in the
field of economic development, public utilities, housing...etc.
Within each of the activities the Law specifically delineates the functions that - by
their nature - can best be regulated at the local level.

The Law entrusted the Popular Council, for example, with the responsibility to
establish, operate and supervise road construction, water supply, sewerage, refuse
collection and disposal.

However, Beni-Suef local authority -both executive and popular- has been faced with
many problems in meeting its responsibilities. This can be attributed to the
combination of the lack of financial resources, the shortage of trained personnel and,
perhaps the most important, the lack of power to perform its responsibilities.
                       Solid Waste Management in El-Ramad District
                                      (Beni-Suef)
                                       Pa g e # 4
On the other hand, the role of NGOs and CBOs in development programs has been
flourished in the last ten years. There are more than 170 NGOs and CBOs in the city
of Beni-Suef. Their role is mainly focusing on elderly care, childhood and maternal
care, and care for disabled, orphans..

The Community Development Association in Beni-Suef (CDA), which was in charge
of this project, was established in 1974. In addition to the above-mentioned activities,
the CDA is concerned with family small scale business development, and reforming
the environmental status.

An over view on El-Ramad:

El-Ramad - with around 5,000 inhabitants – is one of Beni-Suef’s residential areas
which comprise upper and upper middle class housing. Besides the Governor of Beni-
Suef, most directors of service directorates reside in El-Ramad. This suburb is in the
6th zone, which also contains three other sectors, which are characterized by low
income housing: El –Beshri, El-Azhari, and El-Mahlag.

Problem Identification :

The most obvious problem of the El-Ramad area was perhaps the irregularity of
collecting the disposal. Garbage collection was, therefore, considered the most critical
problem in El-Ramad area because its various negative impacts eventually jeopardize
public health. Moreover, the negative impact of visual pollution was also emphasized
as a psychological impediment for improving the built environment of the area.

Project Background;


The problem manifested itself in the back alleys. The streets of the area. were clean,
and there seemed to be an effort exerted by several workers hired by the municipal
authority. The problem was hidden in the back alleys of the long rows of buildings.
There was no service in this area to collect garbage from homes. Therefore the
residents started throwing their wastes behind the buildings.

The prime concern of this project was hence to establish a sustainable system for solid
waste management (garbage collection and environmentally safe disposal).

Under this general goal a number of objectives were set as follows:
     Cleaning the area.
     Decreasing hygiene problems.
     Human capacity building.
     Capitalizing on the young people's energy.
     Full awareness of the hazards of pollution


                       Solid Waste Management in El-Ramad District
                                      (Beni-Suef)
                                       Pa g e # 5
The project was initiated, designed, discussed and developed through a series of
meetings. Such meetings were joined by several concerned parties and the Governor
and the Secretary General played an important role.

Early arrangements for the project involved the following parties:
 The Governorate of Beni-Suef, represented either by its Governor or Secretary
   General
 The head of Local Popular Council of Beni-Suef city
 The chief of Beni-Suef City Local Unit.
 The Environment Protection Organization in Beni-Suef city.
 The Young Women’s Muslim Association in Beni-Suef city (YWMA).
 The Community Development Association (CDA) in Beni-Suef city.
 The Administration of Youth and Athletics in Beni-Suef.
 The Development administration (Directorate of Social Affairs) in Beni-Suef.
          th
 The 6 Zone of Beni-Suef city.
                                         th
 The Improving Environment Unit / 6 zone: Beni-Suef city.


Six public meetings were held and eventually led into a practical framework for the
phases implementation of the designed project.

Project activities to be carried out were:
     Removal of accumulating solid wastes from the streets and alleys.
     Generation of work opportunities (hiring 12 persons to work in the project).
     Conducting intensive environmental awareness campaigns.
     Developing awareness through training courses for young women in charge of
   public services and for women leaders.

The people of El-Ramad area were, of course, the direct beneficiaries since they
would benefit from the project in terms of upgrading the environmental quality of the
area. However, two other group of direct recipients were the commercial shops and
industrial workshops.

The expected main outputs of the project were:
     Establishing sustainable system of solid waste management.
     Providing income-generating activities for unemployed individuals in the area.
     Raising environmental awareness.

The expected time frame of the project was two years, with a total cost of LE 165,000,
funded by the LIFE programme. This amount was paid to the CDA (the fund
recipient) in two installments.

CDA took the initiative of developing and implementing the project, in collaboration
of the (YWMA), the city of Beni-Suef Local Unit, and the 6th zone Head Quarters.

The role of the national coordinator the LIFE programme was very important in
advancing early arrangements to the phase of developing a project document. He
played a crucial role, through his visits to Beni-Suef, in facilitating technical
                       Solid Waste Management in El-Ramad District
                                      (Beni-Suef)
                                       Pa g e # 6
assistance to the project. The LIFE National Selection Committee (NSC) reviewed the
submitted project proposal and approved it.

Implementation Process

Following the initial meetings with different actors it was agreed upon the following
actions:
     Designing and implementing two training courses for women leaders and a
     number of officials in the Beni-Suef Local Unit.
     Surveying the El-Ramad area in terms of its lay out and number of blocks of
     houses and shops.
     Conducting a simple questionnaire to identify the opinion of people on
     frequency, possible time, and the method of collecting garbage.
     Delineating the circulation of collected garbage from shops and housing units to
     the dumping area east of the Nile valley.
     Hiring workers and recruiting the required personnel for project implementation
     and follow up.
     Purchasing required tools and plastic bags for garbage collection.
     Distributing plastic bags to houses and shops.

With a general objective to build/raise the capabilities of women leaders and prepare
them to participate in mobilizing the local community, the two planned training
courses were conducted by CDA. The duration of each course was 3 days. The total
number of trainees was 20 in each course. Lectures, field visits and group discussions
were employed to present objectives and methods of mobilizing people.

The two training courses met their designed goal and generally motivated participating
women with an awareness of the importance and objectives of the project.

The survey of El-Ramad area was conducted and a map prepared showing the area
boundaries, housing blocks, streets and surrounding residential sectors within the 6th
zone.

The trained women were divided into a number of groups. Each group was assigned
to a specific site in El-Ramad area in order to identify peoples’ points of view. This
was done through a questionnaire. The number of households visited was 570, of
which 495 responded positively.

Frequent field visits by trained women leaders were employed to deliver the message
of the project to the people of El-Ramad.

It can be said that the role of women in disseminating the project concept and
objectives was remarkable. El-Ramad people were very enthusiastic about the project
and about 87% of the households became subscribers to the service offered by the
project.

Another important component was utilized to build public awareness and to
                       Solid Waste Management in El-Ramad District
                                      (Beni-Suef)
                                       Pa g e # 7
disseminate project objectives. Six awareness campaigns were launched for
preventing disposal of garbage on streets and alleys and maintaining El-Ramad area
clean. The campaigns were implemented through “Fridays prayers” speech and a
propaganda program conducted by using Information Authority vehicles which made
frequent tours in the designated area.

Having prepared the community, the process of implementation continued in the
following sequential activities:
    Purchasing 6,000 plastic bags and 30 large boxes.
    Installing street boxes (interim collection) in designated locations.
    Establishing a system on a regular and sustainable basis through negotiated
    arrangements with the Local Unit of Beni-Suef city for garbage collection (by one
    truck) and disposal to a dumping area on the East Side of the Nile valley.
    The hired workers were given orientation on environmental aspects of garbage
    collection.
    Distributing plastic bags to the subscribing households.

The implementation phase was accomplished under the full supervision of CDA
project staff, who managed implementation process. The role of other parties was
minimal. This means that the role of different parties was confined to the first phase of
the project, ending with the awareness campaigns.

The CDA faced problems stemming from the local community of El-Ramad and other
problems related to the Local Unit of Beni-Suef City.

According to the plan, the Local Unit of Beni-Suef City was responsible for the
provision of one truck to transport collected garbage from El-Ramad area to the dump
area. However, at the beginning of implementation the Local Unit asked for an
amount of L.E 1,200 as monthly cost for hiring the truck by the CDA.

El-Ramad project received funding only from the UNDP/LIFE programme. No
financial support was received by CDA from other sources except that the project
beneficiaries paid fees for garbage collection, including the plastic bags.

Transporting the collected garbage from the area was considered the main problem
experienced in implementing the project. As a result, the garbage was accumulated for
long time in interim dumping points in El-Ramad area.

This problem led to a conflict between the Local Unit of Beni-Suef City, and CDA. In
order to resolve the situation, a meeting was held to discuss possible alternative
solutions. The meeting was held at the Governorate headquarters, and was attended
by the Governorate Secretary General, the Chief of the Local Unit of Beni-Suef city
and the Chairman of CDA.

A decision was taken to allocate 10% of the total amount of people’s subscription fees
to hire a truck from the Local Unit of Beni-Suef City so the collected garbage could
be transported to the dumping area.
                        Solid Waste Management in El-Ramad District
                                       (Beni-Suef)
                                        Pa g e # 8
Project costs were allocated as planned. A total amount of L.E 165,000 was paid to
the Beni-Suef CDA to cover the costs of this project.

Implementation performance:

Project implementation proceeded almost as planned. Women had an effective role in
this respect. They represented a vast majority in the group of volunteers (about 40
women). They received training at the beginning of the project to be qualified in
conducting awareness campaigns and acting as an effective link between the
implementing agency and the community of the El-Ramad area. Such training and
their involvement in project activities were an effective tool for building self-
confidence.

The local CDA played the principal role in implementing the project. The role of the
Local Unit of Beni-Suef City was mainly involved in the preparation phase for
implementing the project. Their contribution was very effective in this phase.
However, conflict between the Local Unit and the local CDA appeared over the cost
of providing a truck to transport the collected garbage to the dumpsite.

Continuous and systematic monitoring of both subscribing households and
performance of collecting system was conducted by the CDA team. Representatives
of the Local Unit of Beni-Suef City made frequent visits to the El-Ramad area to
monitor the performance. Field visits and on-site instructions helped much in
maintaining the cleanness of the area since it included a kind of control on the
performance of the process of garbage collection.

Evaluation of the project was made quarterly the UNDP/LIFE programme, through
written reports.

Achievements and impacts:

The project achieved its stated objectives to a great extent. A summary of such
achievements/impacts could be listed as follows:

     Positive changes were discerned in terms of behavioral patterns of the
     households, in particular those who lived in the back alleys of El-Ramad area.
     There was great interest among the inhabitants in a regular system of garbage
     collections-for fees- and refuse disposal. This can be considered as an important
     achievement and prominent precedent for replication.
    The attitude of El-Ramad people towards the environment was developed.
    The quality of the environment was improved through establishing a regular and
     effective system of solid waste collection and disposal.
    The capacity of the local CDA in Beni-Suef was strengthened.
    Establishing local-local dialogue between the local CDA in Beni-Suef and the
     people of El-Ramad community.
     The most important achievement and positive impact was mirrored in the
                      Solid Waste Management in El-Ramad District
                                     (Beni-Suef)
                                      Pa g e # 9
     decision to extent the experience of El-Ramad area to the entire Zone No.6
     which comprises other three areas.

Lessons learned:

The most important lessons learned from El-Ramad experience were:

    This kind of project has to start with raising community awareness about it, then
    come the technical aspects of implementing the project.
    Women proved to be the controlling factor in achieving the project objectives.
    Availability of dynamic local leaders community members to participate in
    developing their community.
   Cooperation, coordination and agreement among different parties on objectives
    and roles from the very beginning were of a great importance in realizing project
    objectives.

What they said in regard to the project, a collective quote declared by the
community member:

Haj-Hassan:

    “We were in need for such project, now we have it , but the most important thing
    is the sustainability of the project.

Haja- Allyia:

    “ No one heat cleaning, it is a good project, May Alla Bless them ( People who
    are in charge of the project) “

Mr. Ahmed:

    “ It „s an excellent project, but I hope the community will persevering protecting
    the street boxes “

Mrs Rasha:

      “ We were really in need for such an awareness campaign”
Mr. Nadier;

       “ This project helped to create many work opportunities, and cleaned the
       area, so, what we need more ??

Contacts:

- Mr. Attiya EL-Kadi : Chief of CDA in Beni-Suef



                       Solid Waste Management in El-Ramad District
                                      (Beni-Suef)
                                       Page # 10

				
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