MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL by tyndale

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									MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL




The landfill of Novgorod City is located approximately 18 km from the city centre. Section 1 of the
landfill (effective deposition area: 9,54 ha - total area: 14 ha) is currently in operation and is estimated
to be in operation until the year 2010. The area for landfill section 2 is allotted adjacent to section 1.
During the years 2003 and 2004, a project for construction of the second section of the landfill was
elaborated with the following main specifications:

              Total area of landfill section 2                                   15.4 ha

              Compacted MSW capacity                                            2.74 Million m3

              Average density of deposited mixed solid waste (MSW)              0.75 ton/m3

               Capacity of MSW                                                  2.05 million tons

              Specific load on the storage area                                  133,000 tonnes/ha

              Average annual volume of incoming waste                           470,000 m3

              Average annual weight of incoming waste                           70,000 tons

              Designed operating period                                         32 years

              Maximal deposition height                                         30 metres

              Number of operating stages                                        5

              Total cost of construction works and equipment (prices of 2005)   82,8 million RUR

              Unit costs per 1 ton of MSW                                       40,3 RUR

              Number of the operating staff                                     22




The prolongation of the landfill's operational lifetime is achieved through change in operation proce-
dures and through the establishment of new deposition and registering facilities.


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MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL
Among the new deposition facilities is the industrial waste section which was constructed during 2005
and 2006, the planned section 2 of the landfill which shall be operation by the year 2010 and the test
compost plant which is scheduled to be in operation by the year 2007. Design projects for the landfill
extension and the test compost plant have been approved by the environmental authorities in
Novgorod.

An electronic weigh bridge installed and put into operation end of year 1999 registers and weighs all
incoming waste to the landfill. Changes in operation procedures include the automatic weighing, regis-
tration and categorization of the incoming waste, assignment of specific areas for the different
waste disposal and leachate control.

WEIGH BRIDGE

Overall Description




The weigh bridge registers waste received at the landfill according to category, weight (by ton or kg),
source of waste, name of the transporting company and time and date of delivery. These data provide
statistical information on the landfills operation and forms the basis for determining the cost of waste
tariffs and charges per customer.


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MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL

The weigh bridge is covered by a lightweight steel shed at the entrance of the landfill. A communica-
tion box connects the truck driver with the control room. A computer records the weight data related to
each truck. The power supply is provided by the public electricity supply system and supported by
equipment protecting against sudden high tension peaks.

Every truck is weighed twice: before entering the landfill and before leaving the landfill.

Auxiliary power generators provide electricity to the weigh-bridge, weigh booth, administration build-
ing, garages and internal lightning in case of break down of the public power supply.




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MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL
Technical Details

             SHED

             Description:   Open steel frame structure with sloping roof made from undulated
                            metal plates. The structure is open in order to avoid condensation
                            during winter/overheating during summer. The steel frame is
                            bolted to steel plates embedded in the concrete base

             Size:          Height = 7 m
                            Length = 14 m


             WEIGH BRIDGE

             Description:   The weigh bridge consists of two steel framed concrete elements
                            equipped with concrete man hole in order to provide access to the
                            pit underneath the elements. The concrete elements rest on six
                            pressure transducers calibrated to perform a correct weighing of
                            every vehicle.

             Size:          Area = 36 m2. (length = 12m and width = 3m). The bridge pit height
                            is 0.90 meter. Maximum weigh capacity = 40 ton.


Registration System




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MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL

                 REGISTRATION SYSTEM

                 Description:        The registration system consists of a communications box, a
                                     weight calibration and transformer box, a weight display and a
                                     computer.

                 Size:               The communication box is mounted on a 1.8 meter high stand and
                                     connected to the computer in the weigh booth.

                 Special             The communication box includes a magnetic card registration
                 applications:       system as well as microphone enabling communication between
                                     the truck driver and the operator in the weigh booth. The elec-
                                     tronic registration and data compilation program has been devel-
                                     oped by Scanvægt A/S Denmark, the manufacturer of the weigh
                                     bridge system.



Economy

  INVESTMENTS                                                   Danish Deliveries              Russian Deliveries

  Pre-study, design, geotechnical surveys:                          66,000 DKK

  Construction and civil works:                                                                       1.500.000 RUR

  Metal frame shed (1 unit):                                                                          1.000.000 RUR

  Weigh bridge (1 unit):                                            100,000 DKK

  Registration system (1 unit):                                     104,000 DKK



  YEARLY OPERATION COSTS                                        Danish Deliveries              Russian Deliveries

  Costs include salaries, power supply,
  operation and maintenance etc. :                                                                    200.000 RUR



Financing sources

Donations from the Danish Ministry of the Environment provided funds for pre-studies on the weight
registration scheme, design of the weigh bridge system and purchase of weighing equipment including
electronic registration equipment.

The Novgorod City Administration financed the civil works and the shed construction.



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MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL
PILOT COMPOSING SITE AT THE MSW LANDFILL

In December 2005, the conceptual project “Pilot plant for combined composting of wastewater sludge
from the Novgorod City Waste Water Treatment Plant and City Green Wastes" was approved by the
Environ-mental Authorities and prepared for tendering. The site will be located at landfill section 2.

The design of the pilot site is aimed at:

    Prevention of the environmental pollution – soil, ground and surface water bodies and abatement of
    atmospheric air emissions.
    Supplement of scarce fertile soil with compost for gradual remediation of the MSW landfill.

    Completion of sanitary and epidemiological safety measures to protect the surroundings.
    Provision of safety equipment for the operating staff to reduce the exposure to volatile substances
    emitted due to high composting temperatures (up to +74ºС).

    Partial utilisation of the dewatered surplus sludge from the Novgorod City WWTP.

    Assessment of the site capacity and the compost product quality during pilot operation period.

The total area of the pilot site is 23,618 m2 of which the operating area covers 15,110 m2.

The annual treatment capacity will be 5,350 tons. The raw material for composting consists of dewa-
tered sludge with 30% dry matter content (2,500 tons/yr), green wastes (2,500 tons/yr) and saw dust/
straw (350 tons/yr). The annual production of ready compost (one year processing cycle) will be
approximately 3,350 tons/year.

Operations include preparation of materials, piling of pre-treated raw material, turning of windrows
and transporting compost to the storage area. The plant is operated by 1-2 persons.

INDUSTRIAL WASTE SECTION

General Description

The landfill receives waste types differing in quantity and composition. The quantity of MSW
(ordinary household waste and commercial waste) in tons is by far the largest but contains the lowest
quantities of hazardous chemical substances. In comparison, industrial waste contains high quantities
of hazardous substances. As the quantity of hazardous substances influences the necessity for protec-
tion measures - preventing diffusion to the groundwater reservoirs - it is essential to separate the main
pollutants from the less hazardous waste types.

The waste streams to the landfill were investigated and the potential waste producers in Novgorod
were identified. The construction of a covered concrete structure with separate drum storage area was
proposed.


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MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL
The concrete structure will be covered by a light weight, easily movable industrial hangar. The drum
storage area adjacent to one of the side walls of the concrete structure is covered by a light weight steel
roof. The base of the concrete structure and the drum storage consists of a compacted clay liner on top
of the natural moraine clay stratum, a geo-liner and coarse sand on top as drainage layer. The construc-
tion of the base is aimed at facilitating leachate collection and disposal.

Technical Details




                                 industrial waste cell under construction

                CLAY LINER

                Description:      minimum 1 m thick , compacted to 98% to Standard Proctor density
                                  minimum permeability coefficient, k = 10-9 m/sec.


                GEO LINER

                Description:      High Density Poliethylen (HDPE) , t = 1.5 mm on top of the clay liner


                EMBEDDED LINER

                Description:      HDPE knobbed liner, t = 2,5 mm




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MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL

                   CONCRETE STRUCTURE

                   Size:                Length = 25 m
                                        Width = 17 m
                                        Height = 5 m



                   DRUM STORAGE

                   Size:                Length = 25 m
                                        Width = 10.5 m
                                        Height = 5 m - 1.3 m


The industrial hangar covering the concrete structure consists of light weight, hot galvanized steel
lattice girders covered by heavy plastic coated canvas on top of the roof and all four side walls. Venti-
lation openings are provided in order to avoid condensation during winter time and overheating during
summer. The metal structure is connected to steel plates and bolts embedded in the reinforced concrete.


                   HANGAR

                   Size:                Length = 24 m
                                        Width = 17 m
                                        Height = 6.8 m


Economy

Investments cover geotechnical and hydrogeological surveys, conceptual and detailed design, envi-
ronmental impact assessment (EIA), tendering of geo-liners, construction materials and civil works,
supervision of construction and commissioning of the entire installation.


  INVESTMENTS                                                      Danish Deliveries      Russian Deliveries

  Investigations, design, EIA tendering and supervision                   485,000 DKK         550,000 RUR

  Construction and civil works:                                           2,500,000 DKK      5,925,000 RUR



  OPERATION COSTS

  Salary, power supply, maintenance, depreciation costs etc.
  Approximate tariff for hazardous, industrial waste (in 2005 prices) :                    2000 RUR per ton
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MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL
Financial Sources

  Donations from the Danish Ministry of the Environment provided funds for the identification of design,
  civil works, materials and installation of the polymer liners.
  Novgorod City Administration provided funds for the civil works and the hangar construction.




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