KEEPING KIDS SAFE by fjhuangjun

VIEWS: 17 PAGES: 25

									KEEPING
KIDS SAFE
CHILDREN’S AND NURSERY PRODUCTS
0cm




                                       0.8cm

                                               posts	
                                               Cot	corner	
               mattress	and	cot
               Space	between	




                                                                                                                                 Gaps	between	cot	bars	and	slats
1


2     	2.5cm


3

                                                                                                                                                                                   Introduction	                 4
4




                                                             between				5cm						 												and																							9.5	cm
                                                                                                                                                                                   Cots	                         9
5
                                                                                                                                                                                   Baby	hammocks	               13	
6                                                                                                                                                                                  Portable	cots	and	play	yards	 15
7                                                                                                                                                                                  Prams	and	strollers	         17
                                                                                                                                                                                   High	chairs	and		
8
                                                                                                                                                                                   hook-on	porta-chairs	        21
9                                                                                                                                                                                  Bouncinettes	                25

10
                                                                                                                                                                                   Change	tables	               26
                                                                                                                                                                                   Baby	walkers	                28
11
                                                                                                                                                                                   Playpens	                    31
12                                                                                                                                                                                 Safety	barriers	             33
13                                                                                                                                                                                 Toy	boxes	                   35
                                                                                                                                                                                   Baby	bath	aids	              36
14
                                                                                                                                                                                   Toys	                        38
15
                                                                                                                                                                                   Bibs	                        42
16                                Standards                                                                                                                                        Children’s	nightwear	        43
                                  Cots		                                                                                                              AS/NZS	2172
17                                Portable	cots		                                                                                                     AS/NZS	2195
                                                                                                                                                                                   Jump,	swing	and		
                                  Prams	and	strollers		                                                                                           AS/NZS	2088                      play	safety	                 45
18                                Baby	walkers	                                                                                  	ASTM	F977.00
                                                                                                                                                                                   Ministry	contacts		          48
                                  Safety	Barriers		                                                                                                                    AS	1879		
19                                		                                                                                                                               or	NZS	5843                                        3
                                  Toys		                                                                                         AS/NZS	8124.1
20
                   Introduction                                       Safety standards
                                                                      Look	for	markings	or	labels	on	products	
                   Children	and	babies	have	no	sense	of	              that	indicate	that	the	product	meets	a	
                   danger	and	rely	on	others	to	keep	them	            safety	standard.	If	they	aren’t	clear	ask	
                   safe.	Because	of	this	they	are	at	risk	from	a	     the	retailer,	and	if	they	don’t	know,	shop	




                                                                                                                    introduction
    introduction




                   range	of	potential	hazards,	some	of	which	         elsewhere	or	contact	the	manufacturer	for	
                   can	involve	everyday	items	such	as	nursery	        more	information.
                   equipment	and	children’s	products.	
                                                                      There	are	a	number	of	products,	such	
                   This	booklet	is	intended	to	help	you	make	         as	cots,	baby	walkers	and	children’s	
                   an	informed	choice	about	what	products	            nightwear,	which	are	covered	by	mandatory	
                   to	buy	for	your	baby	and	how	to	use	them	          safety	standards.	These	standards	are	
                   safely.	                                           developed	by	experts	in	engineering	design	
                                                                      and	early	child	development.	Details	of	
                   Before you buy                                     the	Product	Safety	Standards	covered	by	
                   Before	you	buy	something,	shop	around.	            the	Fair	Trading	Act	can	be	found	on	the	
                   As	well	as	thinking	about	the	cost,	think	         Ministry	of	Consumer	Affairs	website		
                   about	safety.	If	it’s	your	first	child,	ask	the	   www.consumeraffairs.govt.nz/
                   shop	assistant	how	to	use	the	products	            productsafety	
                   properly.	People	selling	children’s	products	      It	is	against	the	law	to	supply	products	
                   should	be	able	to	show	you	how	the	                which	do	not	conform	to	these	standards	–	
                   product	works.                                     this	includes	selling	second	hand.		
                                                                      You	can	report	any	breaches	to	the	
                                                                      Commerce	Commission,	who	enforce	
                                                                      these	standards,	on	0800	943	600	or	email	
                                                                      contact@comcom.govt.nz.
                                                                      Other	products	may	be	covered	by	
                                                                      voluntary	safety	standards.	Current	
                                                                      standards	to	check	for	are	listed	in	this	
                                                                      booklet.

                                                                      New designs
                                                                      New	types	of	products	are	being	developed	
                                                                      all	the	time	and	may	fall	outside	the	
                                                                      standards	already	in	place	for	similar	
                                                                      products.	Check	any	claims	which	are	made	
                                                                      by	suppliers	about	standards	or	testing	
                                                                      which	the	product	has	undergone	and	
                                                                      check	that	it	is	relevant	to	the	product.	
4                                                                                                                                  5
                   Bear	in	mind	that	a	new	product	may	look	       •	 wear	and	tear	on	locking	devices	–	
                   great	in	your	home,	but	if	it	hasn’t	been	         nursery	equipment	can	collapse	and	
                   tested	properly	using	standards	which	apply	       hurt	a	child	if	locking	devices	do	not	
                   to	the	same	type	of	product,	it	may	not	be	        work
                   safe!                                           •	 clear	instructions	for	use	(where	




                                                                                                                           introduction
    introduction




                                                                      appropriate).
                   Second hand nursery products
                   You	can	use	this	booklet	to	make	sure	any	      A safe home
                   second	hand	products	you	buy	or	borrow	         Check	your	home	for	hazardous	areas	such	
                   are	safe.	Make	sure	you	check	each	item	        as:
                   carefully,	as	changes	made	to	children’s	       •	 kitchens
                   products,	and	general	wear	and	tear,	may	       •	 around	stairs	and	steps
                   make	them	unsafe.                               •	 pools	and	hot	tubs
                                                                   •	 gardening	products	and	tools	in	sheds	
                   Safety at home                                     and	garages
                                                                   •	 cupboards	containing	dishwashing	
                   Maintenance                                        powders,	cleaning	products	etc.	Make	
                   It’s	a	good	idea	to	check	nursery	products	        sure	your	child	can’t	reach	anything	that	
                   and	accessories	regularly	for	damage	or	           is	dangerous.
                   weakness	caused	by	wear	and	tear.	Do	
                                                                   Older	children	also	need	to	be	watched	
                   simple	repairs	immediately	and	use	the	
                                                                   when	they	are	playing	with	younger	
                   checklists	in	this	booklet	to	make	sure	that	
                                                                   children.	Remember,	a	toy	which	is	safe	for	
                   your	repair	is	safe.	
                                                                   an	11	year	old	could	be	very	unsafe	for	a	one	
                   If	you’re	not	confident	making	safe	repairs,	
                   get	professional	advice.	Safety	should	not	                            Photograph courtesy Rotorua Daily Post

                   be	compromised.

                   Especially check for:
                   •	 missing	or	loose	parts
                   •	 holes	and	gaps	that	can	trap	heads,	
                      fingers	and	toes
                   •	 rough	edges	or	splinters
                   •	 places	where	the	fabric	or	plastic	has	
                      ripped	or	is	tearing	away	–	small	pieces	
                      of	plastic	and	lumps	of	filling	material	
                      can	choke	a	small	child
                   •	 rusty	or	corroded	metal,	or	split	timber
                   •	 torn	straps	or	broken	buckles/fastenings	
                      on	harnesses
6                                                                                                                                         7
                   year	old.	Also,	older	children	do	not	always	    Cots
                   appreciate	that	younger	children	cannot	
                   take	the	rough	and	tumble	of	play	that	they	     Babies	spend	a	lot	of	time	in	their	cot,	so	it’s	
                   can,	and	they	can’t	be	relied	on	to	recognise	   important	to	make	sure	that	they	are	safe.	
                   when	children	younger	than	them	may		            Most	cot	injuries	happen	when	children	




                                                                                                                        cots
    introduction




                   be	in	danger.                                    fall	while	trying	to	climb	out.	If	your	child	is	
                                                                    climbing,	it	is	time	to	consider	using	a	bed.	
                   Make sure that:
                                                                    Children	can	also	get	stuck	in	gaps.	They	can	
                   •	 nursery	products	are	well	away	
                                                                    be	strangled	by	their	clothing	if	it	catches	
                      from	windows,	curtains	and	curtain	
                                                                    on	tall	corner	posts	or	fancy	cut-outs	in	the	
                      cords,	heaters,	pictures	on	walls,	and	
                                                                    head	board.	They	can	choke	on	transfers,	
                      ornaments	on	shelves
                                                                    counting	beads,	name	tiles,	or	by	curtains	
                   •	 electrical	cords	are	out	of	reach
                                                                    and	blind	cords	blown	on	them	from	a	
                   •	 there	are	safety	barriers	at	the	top	and	
                                                                    window.	
                      bottom	of	steps	and	stairs.

                   Safe use
                   Many	injuries	happen	because	a	product	
                   is	not	used	properly.	If	a	product	has	a	
                                                                    BEFORE YOU BUY
                   harness,	always	use	it.	This	develops	good	
                                                                    Look	for	information	that	the	cot	
                   safety	habits,	as	well	as	getting	the	child	     meets	the	standard	AS/NZS 2172.
                   used	to	it.
                   You	can’t	be	with	your	child	every	minute	
                                                                    Make sure that
                   and	you	don’t	have	eyes	in	the	back	of	your	
                   head.	So,	if	you	have	to	leave	the	child,	       Height:
                   even	for	just	a	moment,	first	make	sure	they	    •	 the	cot	is	more	than	60	cm	deep	so	the	
                   are	completely	safe.	Never	leave	children	          baby	can’t	climb	up	and	fall	out	of	the	cot	
                   in	or	near	water,	near	a	fire	or	heater,	or	        –	measure	from	the	top	of	the	mattress	
                   near	unfenced	stairs.	Never	leave	them	             to	the	top	rail.
                   unrestrained	in	a	pram	or	stroller.	
                                                                    The cot side:
                                                                    •	 has	no	bars,	ledges	or	other	foot	gaps	
                                                                       and	that	the	mattress	fits	firmly	–	the	
                                                                       space	between	the	mattress	and	cot	
                                                                       should	be	less	than	2.5	cm.
                                                                    •	 the	gaps	between	the	bars	or	slats	in	the	
                                                                       cot	are	between	5–9.5	cm	wide



8                                                                                                                              9
            •	 there	are	no	gaps	bigger	than	                  •	 if	the	cot	has	castors,	at	least	two		
               9.5	cm	for	a	child	to	fall	through                 of	them	should	have	brakes	–	this		
            •	 there	are	no	gaps	between	3–5	cm	to	               stops	the	cot	from	being	moved	
               trap	head,	arms	and	legs.                          accidentally.




                                                                                                                cots
     cots




            Projections:                                       Safety at home
            •	 there	is	nothing	sticking	into	or	out	of	the	
                                                               Read	the	manufacturer’s	instructions,	and	
               cot	that	the	child	could	reach,	such	as	
                                                               follow	them	when	assembling	and	using	the	
               screws,	nails	or	other	parts	of	the	cot
                                                               cot.	
            •	 the	corner	posts	do	not	stick	up	by	more	
               than	0.8	cm	–	clothing	can	get	caught.	         Maintenance
            General:                                           Normal	wear	and	tear	can	make	your	cot	
            •	 the	edges	are	smooth	and	rounded,	not	          unsafe.	Use	the	checklist	below	to	make	safe	
               sharp                                           repairs.	
            •	 the	cot	will	not	collapse	when	used	or	         Watch out for:
               moved
                                                               •	 worn	bars	or	slats	in	the	sides	and	base.
            •	 the	base	of	the	cot	does	not	sag	or	
                                                               •	 loose	screws	or	joints
               collapse	when	pushed	down
                                                               •	 peeling	paint	–	make	sure	the	paint	
            •	 there	are	no	transfers,	counting		
                                                                  is	lead	free	(you	can	ring	your	local	
               beads	or	name	tiles	on	the	cot	–	these	
                                                                  community/public	health	service	
               can	choke	a	child
                                                                  provider	for	advice)
                                                               •	 worn	or	loose	pieces	in	a	mobile	above	
                                                                  the	cot.

                                                               Inside the cot, check that:
                                                               •	 there	are	no	large	toys	or	other	large	
                                                                  objects	–	small	children	can	pile	up	large	
                                                                  toys	and	use	them	to	climb	out
                                                               •	 there	are	no	small	objects,	or	toys	that	
                                                                  could	break	into	small	parts	–	they	can	
                                                                  choke	a	child
                                                               •	 any	mobile	toy	of	a	type	suspended	
                                                                  above	a	cot	is	out	of	reach	of	your	child
                                                               •	 nothing	is	tied	to	the	cot	with	long	
                                                                  strings	or	ribbons	–	these	can	strangle	a	
                                                                  small	child
                                                               •	 the	plastic	shop	wrapper/bag		
                                                                  has	been	taken	off	the	mattress.	
10                                                                                                                     11
            Near the cot, check that:                          Baby hammocks
            •	 there	are	no	curtains	within	reach	–	a	
               child	can	be	strangled	by	curtains	or	          These	are	canvas	hammocks	which	may		
               cords	blown	into	the	cot                        be	attached	to	a	ceiling	mounting,	clamped	
            •	 there	is	no	power	point	within	reach	–	a	       around	a	doorframe,	or	supported	by	a	




                                                                                                                 baby	hammocks
     cots




               child	could	be	burned	or	electrocuted           stand.
            •	 there	are	no	drawers	within	reach	–	a	          At	present,	baby	hammocks	do	not	fall	under	
               child	could	use	them	to	climb	out.              safety	standards	for	wooden	cots	or	portable	
                                                               cots.	This	means	that	you	should	take	extra	
            Do not:
                                                               care	when	using	them	to	make	sure	your	
            •	 use	a	pillow	–	they	can	suffocate	children	     baby	is	safe.
               and	should	not	be	used	for	children	
               under	two	years	of	age                          Before you buy
            •	 use	an	electric	blanket	or	hot	water	
               bottle	–	these	can	burn,	scald	or	              Make	sure	that	any	intended	suspension	
               electrocute	young	children                      point,	such	as	doorways	or	ceiling	joists,	
            •	 use	a	wheat	bag	to	heat	up	the	blankets	        is	able	to	support	the	hammock	securely.	
               –	if	they	are	covered,	they	can	start	a	fire.   Ceiling	mountings	should	be	professionally	
                                                               installed.	If	you	intend	to	use	a	door	clamp,	
                                                               make	sure	that	the	frame	is	sound	and	can	
            Adjustable cots
                                                               support	the	clamp.	
            Some	cots	have	bases	that	can	be	raised	and	
                                                               There	are	several	different	designs	of	
            lowered.	There	should	be	only	two	positions	
                                                               supporting	frames	available	for	use	with	
            for	the	base.	Only	use	the	high	position	for	
                                                               baby	hammocks.	Make	sure	that	the	one	you	
            a	baby	who	cannot	sit	up.	Never	put	the	
                                                               choose	is	safe	by	checking:
            drop-side	down	when	the	base	is	in	the	high	
            position,	as	the	baby	could	fall	out.	Put	the	     •	 the	design	of	the	frames	–	how	easily	
            base	down	to	the	low	position	before	your	            can	it	be	tipped	over	in	any	direction?	
            baby	is	able	to	sit	up.                               Toddlers,	pets	and	domestic	activities	
                                                                  such	as	vacuuming	may	knock	the	frame	
                                                                  –	will	it	tip	over	easily?
                                                               •	 is	the	floor	surface	that	the	stand	will	be	
                                                                  placed	on	likely	to	reduce	its	stability?	
                                                                  Carpeted	floors	may	lead	to	a	greater	
                                                                  chance	of	tipping	over
                                                               •	 the	mattress	and	bedding	in	the	
                                                                  hammock	–	is	it	secured	in	place	to	avoid	
                                                                  suffocation?



12                                                                                                                               13
                     •	 joints	and	brackets	holding	the	frame	     Portable cots and
                        together	–	are	they	sturdy	and	solid?
                     •	 are	the	assembly	instructions	easy	to	
                                                                   play yards
                        follow?                                    Many	portable	cots	are	also	marketed	as	
                                                                   play	yards.	They	can	be	useful	as	temporary	




                                                                                                                     portable	cots	and	play	yards
     baby	hammocks




                     Safe use                                      beds,	but	they	are	not	as	sturdy	as	the	
                                                                   normal	cot.	Children	have	been	injured	when	
                     Remember	to	check	on	your	baby	
                                                                   portable	cots	have	collapsed	inwards,	and	
                     frequently,	as	there	is	reduced	visibility	
                                                                   when	the	bottom	of	the	cot	has	not	been	
                     when	using	a	hammock.	Make	sure	that	
                                                                   stable.
                     there	are	no	suffocation	risks	if	the	baby	
                     has	moved	in	relation	to	the	mattress	or	
                     bedding.
                     Consider	the	sleeping	position	of	the	baby	   BEFORE YOU BUY
                     in	the	hammock	and	compare	this	with	
                                                                   Look	for	information	that	the	cot	or	
                     the	current	advice	on	safe	positions.	
                                                                   play	yard	meets	the	standards		
                     Think	about	how	suitable	the	hammock	         AS/NZS 2172	(for	wooden	cots)	and	
                     will	be	as	your	baby	grows	and	becomes	       AS/NZS 2195	(for	folding	cots).
                     more	active.	As	soon	as	your	baby	is	
                     able	to	move	around	or	sit	up,	use	a	
                     wooden	cot	which	conforms	to	the	safety	
                                                                   Make sure that
                     standard.
                                                                   Height:
                                                                   •	 the	cot	is	more	than	60	cm	deep	from	
                                                                      the	base	to	the	top	of	the	cot	side,	so	the	
                                                                      child	can’t	climb	up	and	fall	out
                                                                   •	 there	are	no	bars,	ledges	or	other	foot	
                                                                      holds	that	a	child	can	use	to	climb	out.

                                                                   Gaps:
                                                                   •	 the	mattress	fits	firmly	–	the	space	
                                                                      between	the	mattress	and	cot	should	be	
                                                                      less	than	2.5	cm
                                                                   •	 gaps	between	the	bars	or	slats	are	
                                                                      between	5–9.5	cm
                                                                   •	 there	are	no	gaps	bigger	than	9.5	cm	for	
                                                                      the	child	to	squeeze	through
                                                                   •	 there	are	no	gaps	between	3–5	cm	to	
                                                                      trap	the	head,	arms	and	legs.
14                                                                                                                                                  15
                                    Locks:                                          Prams and strollers
                                    •	 the	locks	fasten	securely	and	your		
                                                                                    Babies	and	small	children	spend	a	lot	of		
                                       child	cannot	undo	them.	
                                                                                    time	in	prams	and	strollers.	Choose	a	pram	
                                                                                    or	stroller	that	is	well	designed	and	suits	




                                                                                                                                         prams	and	strollers
     portable	cots	and	play	yards




                                    Safety at home                                  you,	and	use	it	safely.
                                    Read	the	manufacturer’s	instructions,	and	      Many	injuries	from	prams	are	from	children	
                                    follow	them	when	assembling	and	using		         falling	out	when	the	pram	is	overloaded	with	
                                    the	cot.                                        shopping,	or	when	the	child	is	trying	to	climb	
                                                                                    into	or	out	of	the	stroller.	A	child	can	fall	out	
                                    Maintenance                                     of	the	pram	or	stroller	if	the	harness	is	not	
                                    Normal	wear	and	tear	can	make	your	cot	         used.	
                                    unsafe.	Use	the	following	checklist	to	know	    Little	fingers	can	also	get	in	the	way	when	
                                    what	to	look	for	and	repair:                    the	pram	is	folded	down.	Children	can	
                                    •	 worn	bars	or	slats	in	the	sides	and	base     suffocate	in	prams	if	they	are	not	strapped	
                                    •	 loose	screws	or	joints                       in	and	the	pram	is	poorly	designed	or	
                                    •	 torn	mesh	or	fabric                          collapses.	
                                    •	 cracks	in	the	side	rails                     Be	especially	careful	of	hazards	while	
                                    •	 locks	that	have	worn	loose                   getting	on	and	off	buses	and	trains	and	
                                    •	 peeling	paint	–	make	sure	the	paint	is	      when	crossing	roads	with	prams.	Make	sure	
                                       lead	free	(your	local	community/public	      the	traffic	has	completely	stopped	before	
                                       Health	Service	provider	can	give	you	        you	cross.	Don’t	push	the	pram	onto	the	
                                       advice)                                      road	unless	you	are	sure	that	traffic	has	
                                    •	 worn	out	or	loose	pieces	in	a	mobile	        stopped.
                                       above	the	cot.

                                    Mattresses
                                    •	 do	not	put	another	mattress	on	top	of	the	
                                       one	provided
                                    •	 do	not	put	a	mattress	into	a	play	yard	if	
                                                                                    BEFORE YOU BUY
                                       the	manufacturer	does	not	provide	one.       Look	for	information	that	a	pram		
                                                                                    or	stroller	meets	the	standard		
                                    See	page	8	for	general	advice	on	the	use	of	
                                    a	cot.
                                                                                    AS/NZS 2088.




16                                                                                                                                                             17
                           Make sure that                                   Brakes:
                                                                            •	 the	brakes	work	properly	and	are		
                           Stability:
                                                                               easy	to	use
                           •	 the	pram	or	stroller	is	sturdy	and	stable.	   •	 the	brake	lever	is	out	of	reach	of	your	
                                                                               child.




                                                                                                                            prams	and	strollers
     prams	and	strollers




                           Edges:
                           •	 all	edges	are	smooth	and	rounded	             Harnesses:
                           •	 all	tubes	have	their	ends	sealed	to	          •	 the	pram	is	fitted	with	a	full	body	or	
                              prevent	a	child’s	fingers	or	toes	getting	       five-point	harness	–	this	is	the	safest
                              trapped.	                                     •	 the	safety	straps	can	be	adjusted	to	fit	
                           Locking devices:                                    closely	and	comfortably.

                           •	 there	are	two	locking	devices	to	stop	the	    General:
                              pram	or	stroller	from	collapsing              •	 the	height	and	weight	of	the	pram	is	
                           •	 all	locking	devices	stay	locked.                 comfortable	for	you
                           Wheels:                                          •	 the	pram	is	easy	to	fold	and	unfold
                                                                            •	 reversible	handles	stay	in	place
                           •	 the	wheels	are	secure	and	swivel	easily
                                                                            •	 the	footrests	can	be	adjusted	to	fit	your	
                           •	 the	wheels	can	be	locked	in	position	to	
                                                                               child.
                              stop	them	swivelling	on	rough	roads.
                                                                            Test drive the pram or stroller before
                                                                            you buy:
                                                                            •	 make	sure	it	doesn’t	fold	or	collapse	
                                                                               when	you	push	it	back	and	forward,	
                                                                               shake	it,	move	it	up	or	down	steps,	or	a	
                                                                               kerb
                                                                            •	 put	on	the	brakes	–	it	shouldn’t	move	
                                                                               when	you	try	to	push	the	pram	or	
                                                                               stroller
                                                                            •	 fasten	the	safety	straps.	Make	sure	
                                                                               they	don’t	undo	when	you	pull	them.	
                                                                               Make	sure	a	child	cannot	undo	the	
                                                                               buckle.

                                                                            Safety at home
                                                                            Read	the	manufacturer’s	instructions,	and	
                                                                            follow	them	when	assembling	and	using	
                                                                            the	pram	or	stroller.

18                                                                                                                                                19
                           Maintenance                                        High chairs
                           Normal	wear	and	tear	can	make	your		
                           pram	or	stroller	unsafe.	                          A	high	chair	is	normally	used	for		
                                                                              children	between	six	months	and	two		
                           Especially check for:                              years	of	age,	so	that	they	can	sit	and	eat	




                                                                                                                               high	chairs	and	hook-on	porta-chairs
     prams	and	strollers




                           •	 locks	that	are	no	longer	firm	or	working	       safely,	and	join	the	family	at	meals.	Most	
                              properly                                        injuries	involving	high	chairs	are	from	falls	
                           •	 torn	or	worn	fabric                             when	the	child	stands	up	or	tries	to	climb	
                           •	 worn	fastenings,	such	as	domes	and	             in,	or	out.	This	can	happen	when	there	is	no	
                              Velcro                                          adult	supervision	or	when	safety	straps	are	
                           •	 torn	foam	padding	–	a	child	can	pick	out	       not	used,	or	are	not	working	properly.	
                              and	choke	on	small	pieces.
                                                                              Before you buy, make sure that
                           Other hazards                                      Stability:
                           The way you use your pram can make it              •	 the	chair	has	a	wide	base	to	stop	it	
                           unsafe for your child. Always:                        tipping	when	a	child	is	sitting	in	it
                           •	 use	the	harness	–	a	pram	is	a	vehicle,	         •	 a	folding	chair	can	be	locked	in	the	open	
                              just	like	a	car                                    position	and	will	stay	locked	under	the	
                           •	 check	that	the	locks	have	engaged	each	            weight	of	the	child.
                              time	you	use	it                                 Edges:
                           •	 adjust	the	straps	to	fit	your	child
                           •	 put	on	the	brakes	when	you	park	the	            •	 all	tubes	have	their	ends	sealed		
                              pram	or	stroller                                   tightly	to	prevent	the	child’s	fingers	
                           •	 make	sure	your	child’s	arms	are	inside	            getting	trapped
                              the	frame	when	you	are	pushing	the	             Harnesses:
                              pram	or	stroller
                           •	 keep	your	child	clear	of	moving	parts	          •	 the	high	chair	has	a	harness	or	one	can	
                              when	you	adjust	the	pram	or	stroller               be	attached	–	if	there	is	no	harness,	buy	
                           •	 when	you	have	a	choice,	use	lifts	and	not	         one	separately
                              stairs	or	escalators.                           •	 the	harness	includes	a	shoulder	strap,	as	
                                                                                 well	as	straps	that	go	around	the	waist	
                           Do not:                                               and	between	the	legs
                           •	 carry	bags	or	shopping	on	the	handles	–	        •	 the	harness	can	be	tightened	to	a	snug	
                              this	may	make	the	pram	tip	over                    fit.
                           •	 carry	extra	children	on	the	pram	if	it	isn’t	   Trays:
                              designed	for	this
                           •	 leave	a	baby	unattended	in	a	pram,	even	        •	 the	tray	can	be	adjusted	easily	and	
                              if	he	or	she	is	sleeping.                          locked	securely	in	place
                                                                              •	 the	child	cannot	remove	the	tray.	
20                                                                                                                                                                    21
                                            Safety at home                                 •	 use	the	harness	–	this	is	the	only		
                                                                                              way	the	child	can	be	safe	in	a	high	
                                            Read	the	manufacturer’s	instructions,	and	
                                                                                              chair	and	gets	the	child	used	to	it
                                            follow	them	when	assembling	and	using	
                                                                                           •	 keep	your	child’s	hands,	fingers	or	
                                            the	chair.	
                                                                                              head	well	clear	when	you	raise	or	




                                                                                                                                         high	chairs	and	hook-on	porta-chairs
     high	chairs	and	hook-on	porta-chairs




                                            Maintenance                                       lower	the	tray
                                                                                           •	 make	sure	the	chair	is	on	a	level	
                                            Normal	wear	and	tear	can	make	your	high	
                                                                                              surface	–	it	could	tip	if	one	leg	is	
                                            chair	unsafe.	
                                                                                              resting	on	a	rug
                                            Check especially for:                          •	 make	sure	the	child	cannot	reach	
                                                                                              electrical	cords	or	other	hazards	from	
                                            •	 loose	nuts	and	broken	parts
                                                                                              the	chair.	
                                            •	 torn	seats	or	foam	padding	–	a	child	can	
                                               pick	out	and	choke	on	small	pieces.         Do not:
                                                                                           •	 place	the	chair	near	a	wall,	or	another	
                                            Other hazards
                                                                                              piece	of	furniture	–	a	child	can	push	
                                            The	way	you	use	your	high	chair	can	make	         with	his	or	her	legs	against	nearby	
                                            it	unsafe	for	your	child.	Always:                 furniture	or	walls	and	tip	the	chair	
                                            •	 supervise	your	child	in	the	high	chair         over.	




22                                                                                                                                                                              23
                                            Hook-on porta-chairs                           Bouncinettes
                                            This	type	of	chair	is	clamped	on	to	the		      Bouncinettes	are	intended	for	very	young	
                                            side	of	a	table.                               babies.	They	should	not	be	used	for	
                                                                                           babies	who	can	sit	up	or	make	vigorous	




                                                                                                                                           bouncinettes
     high	chairs	and	hook-on	porta-chairs




                                            Before you buy, make sure that                 movements.
                                            •	 all	the	edges	are	smooth	and	rounded        Most	injuries	from	bouncinettes	are	from	
                                            •	 the	chair	has	safety	straps	to	hold	the	    falls.	Never	put	a	bouncinette	on	a	high	
                                               child                                       surface,	such	as	a	table	or	bench	top.	
                                            •	 there	is	a	locking	clamp	to	secure	the	
                                               chair	to	the	table                          Before you buy, make sure that
                                            •	 the	support	arms	have	rubber	or	plastic	    •	 the	bouncinette	has	a	wide	base	to	
                                               tips	to	improve	the	grip	on	the	table.         prevent	it	tipping	over
                                                                                           •	 the	edges	are	smooth	and	rounded
                                            Safety at home                                 •	 there	is	a	safety	strap	to	secure	your	
                                            Read	the	manufacturer’s	instructions	and	         child
                                            follow	them	correctly.	Pay	attention	to	the	   •	 make	sure	the	material	supporting	the	
                                            maximum	weight	they	can	support	and	do	           baby	is	not	torn	or	damaged	which	
                                            not	exceed	that	weight.                           could	cause	the	baby	to	fall.

                                            Other hazards                                  Safety at home
                                            The	way	you	use	your	hook-on	porta-chair	      Read	the	manufacturer’s	instructions	and	
                                            can	make	it	unsafe	for	your	child.	Always:     follow	them.	Always	use	the	bouncinette	
                                            •	 fasten	the	safety	straps                    on	the	floor.	Stop	using	it	as	soon	as	your	
                                            •	 fasten	the	chair	securely	to	the	table	     child	can	sit	up	or	move	vigorously.	
                                               and	not	to	an	extension                     Never	carry	your	child	in	a	bouncinette.	The	
                                            •	 make	sure	the	child	cannot	reach	any	       child	could	fall	out.
                                               hazards	on	the	table,	such	as	hot	food,	
                                               hot	drinks	or	knives
                                            •	 make	sure	the	child	cannot	reach	parts	
                                               of	the	table	with	his	or	her	feet
                                            •	 keep	electrical	cords	and	other	hazards	
                                               out	of	reach
                                            •	 watch	a	child	in	the	chair	–	if	a	child	
                                               pushes	the	chair	away	from	the	table,	
                                               they	may	fall	backwards	on	to	the	floor.



24                                                                                                                                                        25
                     Change tables                                                    General:
                                                                                      •	 the	edges	are	smooth	and	rounded
                     Change	tables	may	make	things	easier		                           •	 the	changing	surface	is	made	of	strong	
                     for	an	adult,	but	they	do	have	risks.	Head	                         material	and	is	firmly	attached	to	the	
                     injuries	from	falls	can	be	severe.	The	baby	                        frame




                                                                                                                                         change	tables
     change	tables




                                                                       baby	walkers
                     may	wriggle	or	roll	off	and	be	hurt.                             •	 there	are	no	gaps	or	spaces	near	the	
                                                                                         changing	surface	that	could	trap	your	
                     Before you buy, make sure that
                                                                                         baby’s	head,	arms,	or	legs.	
                     Stability:
                     •	 the	table	is	stable	and	sturdy                                Safety at home
                     •	 folding	tables	can	be	locked	in	the	open	                     Read	the	manufacturer’s	instructions,	and	
                        position                                                      follow	them	when	assembling	and	using	the	
                     •	 adjustable	tables	can	be	locked	in	place.                     table.	
                     Restraints:
                                                                                      Maintenance
                     •	 there	is	a	safety	strap
                                                                                      Normal	wear	and	tear	can	make	your	change	
                     •	 the	sides	are	raised	at	least	10	cm	high	to	
                                                                                      table	unsafe.
                        prevent	your	baby	rolling	off.
                                                                                      Especially check for:
                                                                                      •	 loose	nuts	and	broken	parts
                                                                                      •	 torn	fabric	or	foam	padding	–	a	child	can	
                                                                                         pick	out	and	choke	on	small	pieces.

                                                                                      Other hazards
                                                                                      The	way	you	use	your	change	table	can	
                                                                                      make	it	unsafe	for	your	child,	always:
                                                                                      •	 use	the	restraining	strap	–	this	is	the	only	
                                                                                         way	your	child	can	be	safe	on	a	change	
                                                                                         table
                                                                                      •	 make	sure	the	table	is	on	a	level	surface	
                                                                                         –	it	could	tip	if	one	leg	is	resting	on	a	rug
                                                                                      •	 have	everything	you	need	within	reach.	

                                                                                      Do not:
                                                                                      •	 leave	a	child	on	a	change	a	table,	it’s	not	
                                                                                         safe	to	turn	your	back,	not	even	for	a	
                                                                                         moment.
                                                                                      	
26                                                                                                                                                       27
                    Baby walkers                                    Edges:
                                                                    •	 all	the	edges	are	smooth	and	rounded
                    Think	carefully	before	you	decide	to	buy	a	     •	 all	tubes	have	their	ends	sealed	to	
                    baby	walker	for	your	baby.	They	allow	babies	      prevent	baby’s	fingers	and	toes	getting	
                    to	move	around	more	quickly	at	an	earlier	         trapped.




                                                                                                                      baby	walkers
     baby	walkers




                    stage	than	normal	and	they	don’t	help	child	
                    development.	The	Ministry	of	Consumer	          Locks and brakes:
                    Affairs	does	not	recommend	the	use	of		         •	 a	folding	walker	has	an	automatic	lock	so	
                    baby	walkers.                                      that	it	doesn’t	collapse	in	use
                    Baby	walkers	have	high	rates	of	injury,	        •	 all	locking	devices	are	out	of	reach	of	the	
                    mainly	head	injuries	as	a	result	from	falls.	      baby
                    Babies	can	fall	down	steps	or	stairs,	be	       •	 the	baby	walker	has	brakes	or	other	
                    scalded	or	burned	by	pulling	boiling	water	        features	to	stop	it	moving	when	it	
                    down	on	to	themselves,	or	by	reaching	             reaches	an	uneven	surface,	or	a	change	
                    open	fires	and	heaters.	Remember,	with	            in	level,	like	a	step.
                    the	help	of	a	baby	walker,	a	child	can	be	
                                                                    General:
                    across	the	room	in	seconds,	they	need	to	be	
                    watched	at	all	times.	Baby	play	stations	and	   •	 the	seat	is	firmly	attached	to	the	frame
                    other	similar	products	are	generally	safer	     •	 any	springs	are	covered	(e.g.	by	plastic	
                    alternatives.	                                     tubing)	so	they	cannot	injure	a	child	
                                                                       when	they	are	stretched
                                                                    •	 any	decorative	toys	or	beads	are	well	
                                                                       fastened.
                    BEFORE YOU BUY
                    Look	for	information	that	the	baby	             Safety at home
                    walker	meets	requirements	of		                  Read	the	manufacturer’s	instructions	and	
                    ASTM F977-00.                                   follow	them.

                                                                    Maintenance
                    Make sure that                                  Normal	wear	and	tear	can	make	your	baby	
                    Stability:                                      walker	unsafe.	

                    •	 the	base	of	the	baby	walker	is	wider	than	   Especially check for:
                       the	tray	frame                               •	 signs	of	wear	and	tear,	particularly	in	the	
                    •	 the	wheels	are	at	least	5	cm	wide	–	large	      seat
                       wheels	make	the	baby	walker	more	            •	 decorative	small	parts	that	are	likely	to	
                       stable                                          break	off.
                    •	 the	baby	walker	is	rigid	and	sturdy.

28                                                                                                                                   29
                    Other hazards                                     Playpens
                    Remember	that	a	baby	walker	helps	
                                                                      Playpens	can	help	keep	children	safe	as		
                    babies	do	things	they	may	not	be	ready		
                                                                      they	start	to	move	around.	They	can	provide	
                    for.
                                                                      separate	and	safer	play	areas	for	children	of	




                                                                                                                         playpens
     baby	walkers




                                                                      different	ages.
                    Make sure that
                    •	 the	baby	walker	is	on	a	flat	surface	–	it	     Babies	and	small	children	can	be	injured	in	
                       could	tip	if	it	runs	over	electric	cords	or	   playpens	if	they	get	stuck	in	the	gaps	between	
                       the	edges	of	rugs                              the	bars,	they	climb	out	and	fall,	or	if	the	
                                                                      playpen	is	not	properly	locked	in	place	and	it	
                    •	 there	are	safety	barriers	blocking	off	
                                                                      collapses.	
                       steps	and	stairs,	stoves,	heaters	and	
                       fireplaces                                     Before you buy, make sure that
                    •	 all	harmful	items	are	well	out	of	reach	
                       (e.g.	electric	jugs,	saucepans	and	electric	   Height:
                       irons)                                         •	 the	top	edge	of	the	playpen	floor	is		
                    •	 the	baby’s	feet	can	touch	the	floor               60	cm	or	more	from	the	floor.
                    •	 the	baby	walker	is	put	away	when	it	is	
                       not	being	used                                 Stability:
                    •	 you	always	supervise	a	child	in	a	baby	        •	 the	playpen	cannot	tip	over	if	your	child	
                       walker.	It	is	not	a	safe	to	leave	a	child	        leans	against	the	side.
                       unattended	in	a	baby	walker
                    •	 heavy	furniture	and	appliances	such	as	        Bars:
                       televisions	are	secured.                       •	 all	bars	or	slats	are	vertical	to	prevent	a	
                                                                         child	from	climbing	out
                    Do not:                                           •	 gaps	between	the	bars	or	slats	are	between	
                    •	 use	baby	walkers	if	your	child	cannot	sit	        5–9.5	cm	wide.
                       up	without	support
                                                                      General:
                    •	 use	baby	walkers	if	your	child	can	walk	
                       by	itself	without	help                         •	 the	edges	are	smooth	and	rounded
                    •	 carry	the	baby	walker	with	a	baby	in	it        •	 any	padding	is	covered	with	strong	material	
                    •	 let	a	child	use	the	baby	walker	as	a	push-        –	a	child	can	chew	or	choke	on	lumps	of	
                       along	toy                                         padding
                    •	 use	a	baby	walker	if	your	child	is	heavier	    •	 there	are	no	screws,	nails	or	other	parts	of	
                       than	the	manufacturer’s	recommended	              the	playpen	sticking	out	–	children	can	fall	
                       maximum	weight.                                   off	them	or	catch	their	clothing	and	strangle
                                                                      •	 no	parts	can	be	easily	detached	by	the	child.

                                                                      Safety at home
                                                                      Read	the	manufacture’s	instructions	and	follow	
                                                                      them	when	assembling	and	using	the	playpen.
30                                                                                                                                  31
                Maintenance                                      Safety barriers
                Normal	wear	and	tear	can	make	your	              Safety	barriers	are	useful	to	make	a	safe	
                playpen	unsafe.	Use	the	checklist	on		           area	for	your	child,	or	to	block	off	dangerous	
                page	6	to	make	safe	repairs                      hazards	such	as	fires,	heaters,	and	stairs.




                                                                                                                    safety	barriers
     playpens




                Check especially for:                            Children	can	be	injured	if	the	gaps	in	the	
                •	 loose	nuts	and	broken	parts	                  barrier	are	too	wide,	or	if	there	are	bars	they	
                •	 torn	fabric	or	foam	padding	–	a	child	can	    can	use	as	a	foothold	to	climb	over.
                   pick	out	and	choke	on	small	pieces	
                •	 locks	that	are	loose	

                Other hazards                                    BEFORE YOU BUY
                Other things can make your playpen               Look	for	information	that	the	barrier	
                unsafe.                                          meets	the	standards	AS 1879	or		
                                                                 NZS 5843.	
                Check	inside	the	playpen	that:
                •	 there	are	no	large	toys	or	other	large	
                   objects	–	small	children	can	pile	up	large	
                   toys	and	use	them	to	climb	out
                •	 there	are	no	small	objects,	or	toys	that	
                   could	break	into	small	parts	–	these	can	
                   choke	a	child
                •	 there	are	no	toys	with	long	strings	or	
                   ribbons	–	these	can	strangle	a	small	child
                •	 there	is	no	pillow	in	the	playpen	–	these	
                   can	suffocate	children	and	should	not	be	
                   used	for	children	under	two	years	of	age
                •	 there	are	no	toys	strung	across	the	
                   playpen	–	children	beginning	to	stand	
                   may	get	tangled	in	them.

                Do not:
                •	 place	the	playpen	near	a	heater	or	power	
                   point	–	your	child	could	be	burned	or	
                   electrocuted	
                •	 use	a	playpen	for	children	who	can	lift	or	
                   move	the	playpen,	they	are	too	old	for	it.
                Always	check	that	the	playpen	is	locked	in	
                position	before	putting	your	child	into	it.
32                                                                                                                                    33
                       Make sure that                                   Toy boxes
                       Height:                                          Toy	boxes	help	keep	bedrooms	tidy,	but	
                       •	 the	top	of	the	barrier	is	at	least	75	cm	     they	can	also	be	dangerous.	Children	can	be	
                          from	the	floor.                               injured	if	the	lid	falls	onto	their	head	while	




                                                                                                                           toy	boxes
     safety	barriers




                                                                        they	are	looking	into	the	box.	Fingers	can	
                       Bars:                                            also	be	jammed	or	crushed.	
                       •	 all	bars	or	slats	are	vertical	to	prevent	    Before	you	buy	make	sure	that:	
                          a	child	from	climbing	out	the	gaps	
                                                                        •	 any	lid	is	light	and	can	be	removed	
                          between	the	bars	or	slats	are	between	
                                                                           completely.	
                          5–9.5	cm	wide
                                                                        •	 locks	can	be	opened	easily	from	inside
                       •	 all	the	edges	are	smooth	and	rounded	
                                                                        •	 when	the	lid	is	closed	there	is	a	gap	of	
                          edges.
                                                                           1.2	cm	between	the	lid	and	the	box	–	this	
                                                                           will	stop	fingers	getting	crushed.
                       Safety at home
                       Read	the	manufacturer’s	instructions,	and	       Safety at home
                       follow	them	when	assembling	and	using	the	
                                                                        Read	the	manufacturer’s	instructions,	and	
                       barrier.
                                                                        follow	them	when	assembling	and	using	the	
                       Maintenance                                      toy	box.

                       Normal	wear	and	tear	can	make	your	safety	       Maintenance
                       barrier	unsafe.	Check	the	following	list	for	
                                                                        Normal	wear	and	tear	can	make	your	toy	box	
                       problems	that	might	need	repairing:	
                                                                        unsafe.	If	the	toy	box	has	a	heavy	lid,	take	it	
                       •	 loose	nuts	and	broken	parts                   off	completely.	Replace	worn	hinges.
                       •	 locks	or	latches	that	are	not	firm	or	are	
                          not	working	properly.                         Other hazards
                       Other hazards                                    Make	sure	the	toy	box	cannot	be	used	by	the	
                                                                        child	to	reach	other	places	or	objects	that	
                       The	way	you	use	your	safety	barrier	can	
                                                                        are	dangerous.	
                       make	it	unsafe	for	your	child,	always:
                                                                        Preferably,	make	sure	the	toy	box	does	not	
                       •	 check	that	the	barrier	is	held	securely	in	
                                                                        have	a	lid,	it	is	safer	without	one.
                          the	doorway	or	passage
                       •	 remove	any	large	toys	or	other	objects	       	
                          nearby	–	small	children	can	pile	them	up	
                          and	use	them	to	climb	over	the	barrier
                       •	 be	watchful	of	other	children	–	they	
                          could	move	the	barrier.
                       	
34                                                                                                                                     35
                      Baby bath aids                                    Always supervise babies and small
                                                                        children in the bath,	and	always:
                      Babies	and	small	children	should	always	be	
                      supervised	near	water.	Your	baby	will	still	      •	 prepare	the	child’s	clothes	and	towel	
                      need	careful	supervision	in	the	bath	when	           before	running	the	bath




                                                                                                                            baby	bath	aids
     baby	bath	aids




                      you	are	using	a	bath	aid.	                        •	 ignore	the	telephone	and	the	doorbell,	and
                                                                        •	 if	you	need	to	leave	the	bathroom	for	any	
                      Babies have drowned using bath aids,	                reason,	take	your	child	with	you.
                      including	products	like	baby	bath	seats	and	
                      baby	bath	rings	that	support	an	infant	sitting	   Maintenance
                      in	a	bath.	Plunket	actively	recommends	that	
                                                                        Normal	wear	and	tear	can	make	your	bath		
                      bath	aids	are	not	used.	
                                                                        aids	unsafe.	Check	the	following	list	for	
                      Bath	aids	can	be	useful	for	those	mums	and	       problems	that	might	need	repairing:	
                      dads	with	bad	backs	or	those	who	simply	
                                                                        •	 loose	or	broken	parts
                      wish	to	free	up	both	hands	while	bathing	the	
                      child,	but	it’s	important	to	remember	that	       •	 locks	or	latches	that	are	not	firm	or	are		
                      there	are	risks	when	using	these	types	of	           not	working	properly.
                      products	–	and	supervision	is	still	essential.
                                                                        Other hazards
                      Safety at home                                    A child can drown in a bath aid	when:
                                                                        •	 the	bath	aid	tips	over	in	water	–	the	suction	
                      Read	the	manufacturer’s	instructions,	and	
                                                                           cups	may	not	completely	stick	to	the	
                      follow	them	when	assembling	and	using	the	
                                                                           bathtub’s	surface
                      bath	aid.	Remember	never leave your baby
                                                                        •	 the	child	climbs	out	of	the	bath	aid	into	the	
                      unattended in the bath.
                                                                           water
                      •	 never	leave	your	child	in	the	bath	in	the	     •	 the	child	slips	through	and	becomes	
                         care	of	an	older	child	–	they	may	not	            trapped	in	an	opening	of	the	bath	aid.
                         recognise	or	react	fast	enough	if	the	
                         baby	is	getting	into	difficulty
                      •	 always	check	the	bath	aid	for	any	worn	
                         or	broken	parts	before	use
                      •	 don’t	use	a	baby	bath	aid	with	suction	
                         cups	in	a	bath	with	an	uneven	or	slip	
                         resistant	base,	or	where	the	enamel	is	
                         worn	–	the	suction	cups	will	not	stick	to	
                         this	type	of	bath	surface
                      •	 use	only	enough	water	to	wet	the	child	
                         using	your	hands.



36                                                                                                                                           37
            Toys                                               Make sure the toy

            Small	parts	of	toys	pose	a	hazard	to	babies	       Is the correct size for the child:
            and	young	children	–	they	can	cut,	choke,	         •	 the	smaller	the	child,	the	bigger	the	toy.	
            poison	or	strangle	if	they	are	not	safe,	or	not	      Remember	that	children	under	three	




                                                                                                                toys
     toys




            safely	used.                                          put	everything	in	their	mouths,	up	their	
            Young	babies	explore	their	world	by	putting	          noses	and	in	their	ears
            things	in	their	mouths,	but	children	under	        •	 if	a	toy	is	small	enough	to	fit	into	a	
            three	years	of	age	do	not	have	a	well-                container	the	size	of	a	film	canister	(no	
            developed	coughing	reflex	and	will	choke	             smaller	than	3.5	cm),	or	can	easily	break	
            easily	on	small	items.	                               into	small	parts,	a	child	under	three	
                                                                  should	not	be	playing	with	it.	Children	
            Always	buy	toys	that	are	right	for	your	child’s	      can’t	cough	things	up	if	they	are	under	
            age.	                                                 three.	

                                                               Has a safe surface:

            BEFORE YOU BUY                                     •	 check	that	paints	and	fillings	aren’t		
                                                                  toxic.	Check	with	the	sales	assistant	
            Look	for	information	that	the	toy	meets	              when	buying	toys.	Children	can	be	
            the	standard	AS/NZS 8124.1                            poisoned	if	they	lick	or	swallow	toxic	
                                                                  surfaces	of	toys.		
                                                                  Also,	check	that	soft	toys	are	fire	
                                                                  resistant	and	that	the	fillings	can’t		
                                                                  come	out	easily	and	cause	a	child	to		
                                                                  choke	on	them.	

                                                               Has safe strings:
                                                               •	 check	that	strings	or	tails	on	toys	are	
                                                                  not	long	enough	to	cut	off	a	child’s	
                                                                  circulation
                                                               •	 check	that	they	are	firmly	attached	to	the	
                                                                  toy.

                                                               It is smooth:
                                                               •	 if	toys	have	sharp	points	or	rough	
                                                                  edges	a	child	could	badly	scratch	or	cut	
                                                                  themselves.	




38                                                                                                                     39
            Age                                                2-3 years:
            Choose	the	right	toys	for	the	child’s	age.         •	 toys	to	develop	a	child’s	coordination
            0-6 months:                                        •	 good	choices	include:	crayons,	felt	
                                                                  pens,	picture	books,	sorting	games,	
            •	 toys	that	can	be	chewed,	sucked,	and	              single	musical	instruments,	balls,	hand	




                                                                                                                 toys
     toys




               tugged                                             puppets,	wheel	barrows,	slides,	sit	and	
            •	 toys	should	be	big	enough	so	the	baby	             ride	toys.
               can’t	fit	it	all	in	his	or	her	mouth
            •	 good	choices	include:	mobiles	with	             3-5 years:
               interesting	shapes	and	colours	(but	            •	 toys	that	are	used	for	imaginative	games
               keep	the	mobile	out	of	reach);	soft	toys;	      •	 good	choices	include:	toys	to	dress	
               rattles.	                                          up,	toy	telephones,	dolls	houses,	farm	
            6 months – 1 year:                                    sets,	cars,	dump	trucks,	trains,	tricycles,	
                                                                  costumes,	balls,	buckets	and	spades,	felt	
            •	 toys	that	are	strong,	easily	cleaned,	and	         pens,	paints,	chalk	and	paper.
               with	no	detachable	parts
            •	 good	choices	include:	pull	and	push	toys,	      5-7 years:
               floating	bath	toys,	large	building	bricks	      •	 toys	which	involve	action	and	
               or	blocks,	soft	toys,	large	soft	balls,	cars	      imagination
               and	lorries	marked	safe	for	children	           •	 good	choices:	skipping	ropes,	bikes,	
               under	one	year	of	age.	                            kites,	construction	sets,	puppets,	play	
                                                                  sets,	musical	instruments,	modelling	
                                                                  materials.	

                                                               7-10 years:
                                                               •	 children	follow	their	own	interests!

                                                               Safety at home
                                                               Read	the	manufacturer’s	instructions,	and	
                                                               follow	them	when	assembling	and	using	the	
                                                               toys.
                                                               Ensure	there	is	adequate	supervision	
                                                               for	children.	Small	children	need	close	
                                                               supervision	with	toys	to	help	prevent	
                                                               accidents	from	happening.	Remember,	a	
                                                               supervised	child	is	a	safer	child.	



40                                                                                                                      41
            Bibs                                               Children’s nightwear
            Suffocation	can	happen	quickly	with	babies,	       All	clothing	and	fabric	will	burn,	and	when	
            so	always	keep	an	eye	on	your	baby	when	he	        we	use	heaters	or	light	fires,	we	have	to	be	
            or	she	is	wearing	a	bib.                           extra	careful	about	the	safety	of	our	children’s	




                                                                                                                          children’s	nightwear
     bibs




                                                               nightwear.
            Before you buy, make sure that                     There	are	special	rules	for	manufacturing	
            •	 the	bib	is	a	cloth	bib	with	a	full	collar	–		   children’s	nightwear	and	the	labels	on	them	can	
               no	plastic	and	no	ties.	These	are	the		         help	you	make	safer	choices	for	your	children.
               safest	bibs.
                                                               Before you buy
            Safety at home, avoid hazards:                     Check	the	labels.	There	are	three	labels	for	
            •	 remove	the	bib	before	lying	your	baby	          children’s	nightwear:
               down                                            • White Label:
            •	 remove	the	bib	immediately	after	feeding          	            This	signifies	LOW	FIRE	
            •	 if	you	do	use	a	bib	after	feeding,	only	                       DANGER.	It	means	that	the	
                                                                 LOW FIRE
               use	it	when	you	are	holding	your	baby,	or	        DANGER
                                                                              garment	is	a	lower	fire	risk.		
               when	your	baby	is	sitting	up	and	near	you                      It	is	either	made	of	a	fabric	
            •	 plastic-backed	bibs	can	be	a	suffocation	                      that	burns	more	slowly,	or	that	
               hazard                                                         the	garment	is	close	fitting.	
            •	 tie	ribbons	can	be	a	choking	hazard	–	                         Buy	‘low	fire	danger’	labelled	
               make	sure	if	your	bib	has	ties	they	are	                       children’s	nightwear	whenever	
               fastened	securely	so	your	baby	cannot	                         possible.	Remember,	‘low	fire	
               play	with	them.                                                danger’	does	not	mean	‘NO	
                                                                              fire	danger’.
                                                               • Orange Label:
                                                                   	              This	means	that	the	garment	
                                                                     CAUTION
                                                                NOT HEAT OR FLAME is	made	of	a	higher	fire	risk	
                                                                    RESISTANT
                                                                                  fabric	and	is	designed	to	be	
                                                                WEAR SNUG-FITTING
                                                                 TO REDUCE RISK   worn	snug-fitting	to	reduce	
                                                                                  the	risk	of	the	garment	
                                                                                  catching	fire.	Make	sure	that	
                                                                                  nightwear	with	this	label	fits	
                                                                                  children	snugly.
                                                               • Red Label:
                                                                 	WARNING             This	means	that	the	garment	
                                                                 HIGH FIRE DANGER
                                                                KEEP AWAY FROM FIRE
                                                                                      is	a	higher	fire	risk.	If	you	
                                                                                      must	use	it,	it’s	better	to	use	
                                                                                      in	summer	than	winter,	as	it	is	
42                                                                                    less	likely	to	catch	fire	from	a	                          43
                                                                                      heater	or	fireplace.
                            Get the right size                                Jump, swing and play
                            Buy	nightwear	which	is	close	fitting	             safety
                            whenever	possible.	Nightwear	which	sits	
                            close	to	the	body	has	less	chance	of	             Play	equipment	means	family	fun	time.		
                            catching	fire	than	baggy,	loose	clothing.         It	also	means	parents	and	caregivers	




                                                                                                                          jump,	swing	and	play	safety
     children’s	nightwear




                                                                              need		to	know	about	buying	safe	
                            Remember,	it’s	important	to	get	the	right	
                                                                              products	and	using	them	safely.
                            size	nightwear	for	your	child.	Don’t	buy	
                            garments	for	your	child	to	‘grow	into’	–	this	
                                                                              Before you buy
                            may	mean	they	aren’t	as	tight	fitting	as	the	
                            manufacturer	intended.	Nightwear	labelled	        Second-hand products
                            ‘Low	Fire	Danger’	may	actually	have	an	           •	 if	you	are	buying	second-hand	
                            increased	fire	danger	if	the	clothing	is	loose	      products	or	you	are	given	a	hand-
                            and	baggy	on	your	child.	                            me-down	product,	check	for	worn	or	
                                                                                 loose	parts	before	letting	children	
                            Heaters                                              play,	jump	or	swing
                            •	 follow	the	‘heater	metre	rule’	and		           •	 check	that	fabric	is	not	worn	and	is	
                               keep	heaters	at	least	one	metre	away	             strongly	fixed	to	the	frame
                               from	bedding,	clothes,	curtains,	rugs		        •	 check	that	locking	clips	or	bolts	are	
                               and	furniture                                     secure.
                            •	 always	keep	young	children	away	from	
                               heaters	and	fires	and	never	leave	them	        Swings and Slides
                               unsupervised	in	a	room	where	a	heater	         •	 make	sure	that	swings	and	slide	
                               or	fire	is	on.                                    sets	are	stable	and	set	up	on	even	
                                                                                 ground
                            Hints for home sewing                             •	 make	sure	there	are	no	protruding	
                            •	 polyester	does	not	burn	as	quickly	as	            sharp	edges	from	any	of	the	
                               cotton	and	is	suitable	for	children’s	            surfaces
                               nightwear                                      •	 check	all	bolts	and	screws	are	tight	
                            •	 if	you	are	using	cotton,	make	close-              and	in	good	condition
                               fitting,	ski-type	pyjamas.	Flames	do	          •	 check	for	squeaks,	rust	and		
                               not	spread	so	quickly	over	close-fitting	         general	wear	and	tear.	If	any	
                               garments	                                         of	these	are	present,	do	not	let	
                            •	 for	either	type	of	fabric,	use	polyester	         children	use	the	swing	or	slide	–	get	
                               thread.                                           it	repaired	or	replaced.




44                                                                                                                                                      45
                                   Safety at home                                   •	 check	the	spring	is	securely	
                                                                                       fastened,	the	hooks	at	each	end	
                                   Assembling play equipment
                                                                                       are	not	damaged,	and	that	it	has	a	
                                   •	 carefully	read	and	follow	the	assembly	          safety	cord	in	the	centre
                                      instructions                                  •	 check	that	the	top	attachment	




                                                                                                                                jump,	swing	and	play	safety
     jump,	swing	and	play	safety




                                   •	 if	you	are	in	any	doubt	about	how	to	            holding	the	bouncer	is	firmly	secured	
                                      assemble	the	product,	or	if	you	think	           to	the	doorframe	or	ceiling,	as	
                                      there	are	parts	missing,	check	back	             instructed	by	the	manufacturer
                                      with	the	retailer	or	manufacturer.            •	 do	not	modify	the	bouncer.	Home	
                                                                                       made	modifications	will	affect	the	
                                   Bouncers and Jumpers                                bouncer’s	performance	and	can	
                                   •	 make	sure	the	doorframe	is	sturdy	               result	in	injury	to	your	child
                                      enough	to	hold	the	bouncer	or	jumper.	        •	 replace	or	repair	any	fabric	that	
                                      You	may	need	a	reinforcement	strip               appears	torn	or	weak
                                   •	 check	that	the	holding	clips	are	in	          •	 watch	that	the	other	children	do	not	
                                      perfect	condition.	If	your	bouncer	is	           push	or	twirl	on	the	bouncer.
                                      second-hand	or	more	than	four	years	
                                      old,	check	the	clips	regularly	and	
                                      replace	the	clips	at	the	first	sign	of	wear




46                                                                                                                                                            47
introduction




                         Contact information
                    You	can	contact	the	Measurement		
               and	Product	Safety	Service	of	the	Ministry	of		
               Consumer	Affairs	for	more	information	about		
                     children’s	and	nursery	products.



                    Ministry of Consumer Affairs
                           P O Box 1473
                             Wellington
                        Phone 0508 627 774
                         Fax (04) 473 9400
                    www.consumeraffairs.govt.nz




                      ISBN	978-0-478-31662-9	(print)
                       ISBN	978-0-478-31663-6	(pdf )	
                                 June	2009

								
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