Report Regional Training Workshop on GISGPS For Pest and Disease by sofiaie


Regional Training Workshop on GIS/GPS
Pest and Disease Monitoring and Detection

                  School of Education
     The University of the West Indies, St. Augustine
            September 28- October 1, 2004
                           Regional Training Workshop on GIS/GPS
                           Pest and Disease Monitoring and Detection

Opening Ceremony

The opening ceremony (Programme Appendix I (A)was held on 27 September 2004 at the Centre of
Excellence, Macoya Trinidad. Mr. Aaron Parke gave the opening remarks (Appendix I (B)). Dr.
Jacob Opadeyi Coordinator, Centre of GeoSpatial Studies, U.W.I., St. Augustine, Trinidad then gave
an overview of the Global Positioning System/ Geographical Information System (GPS/GIS) and
explained how it can be used to mine data for spatial and temporal analyses of important pests and
diseases. Mrs. Carolyn Cohen Caribbean Area Director USDA/APHIS/IS in her remarks (Appendix I
(C)) explained that the Caribbean is considered to be the United States America’s third boarder.
Consequently, when pests are kept out of the Caribbean through early detection, eradication and
exclusion then by extension they are kept out of the US. She added that the participants of this
workshop should not allow the training received “to go to waste” and suggested that it be passed onto
colleagues in their respective islands.

Dr. John Pegus, Deputy Permanent Secretary gave the feature address (Appendix I (D)), on behalf of
the Honourable Jarette Narine Minister of Agriculture, Land and Marine Resources.

Participants and Facilitators
The main facilitator of the workshop was Dr. Jacob Opadeyi Coordinator, Centre of GeoSpatial
Studies, U.W.I., St. Augustine, Trinidad. There were six other facilitators, four from the Centre of
GeoSpatial Studies, U.W.I. Trinidad and two from the Rural Agricultural Development Authority,

There were 18 participants from various Agricultural Organizations in 12 countries throughout the
region at the workshop (Appendix II).

Each participant was presented a training manual and a Schedule of Sessions (Appendix III) at a
registration session preceding Day 1.

Workshop Session

Day 1


A pre-evaluation form (Appendix IV) was distributed “ to capture a considered review by of the
workshop participants. It sought to assess the effectiveness of training provided and would be used to
gauge progress with the technology over time and guide follow up technical support.”

Use of spatial & Temporal Data in Integrated Pest Manager – Mr. Phillip Chung, Regional
Coordinator, Caribbean IPM Network Rural Agricultural Development Authority Hope Gardens

Mr. Phillip Chung gave an overview of the use of spatial and temporal data in plant health
(Appendix V (A)). He indicated that plant health is a multi-component discipline that encompasses
plant pests, their impact on plants and their management. He made reference to the different types of
data that can be collected and emphasized that data must adequately represent the actual situation, be
accessible on at timely basis and be readily understood. Mr. Chung added that data collected could
be used in planning, field management interventions, evaluation and forecasting and early warning
systems. He explained that Geographical Information Systems (GIS), computer systems capable of
storing and using data describing places on the earth’s surface, can enhance data management by
answering questions on pest location, trends, patterns and modeling. He also explained that GIS
displays data using digital maps.

GIS in Aphis, USDA, Mexico Plant Pest and Animal Programs – Mrs. Carolyn Cohen Caribbean
Area Director USDA/APHIS/IS

Mrs. Carolyn Cohen gave a presentation (Appendix V (B)) on behalf of Mr. Leo Charles who was
unable to attend the workshop.

Introduction to GIS Concepts – Dr. Jacob Opadeyi, Coordinator, Centre of GeoSpatial Studies, The
University of the West Indies (U.W.I.), St. Augustine, Trinidad

Notes on presentation (Appendix V (C))

 -       The fundamental concepts of all GIS systems were explained and the working definition of
         what GIS was given as follows
         “ A n organized collection of computer hardware, software, geographic data, and personnel,
         designed to efficiently capture, store, update, manipulate, analyze, and display all forms of
         geographically referenced information.”
     -   in the user interface it is important to have personnel who can think about the problem and
         solution for the organization
     -   with regard to costs of GIS 60% of the costs attributed to data, 30% to personnel and 10% to
         system hardware and software. It is easier to get hardware & software donated but no one can
         give you your data
     -   Basic GIS functions – data entry, data display (maps and reports) can never be out of print,
         manipulation and analysis (need mathematical models for data to work), data management
     -   GIS can answer a number of questions location, condition, trend, patterns (what kinds of
         patterns exist and where do they occur e.g. rainy/dry season afternoon/ morning) and
     -   Common sources of error encountered in using GIS were identified
     -   A lot of effort is placed in entering data in GIS. Actually taking information in the real world
         and putting it into the abstract
     -   The Layer Concept. The real world consists of many geographies which can be represented as
         a number of relate data layers. A layer is a logical collection of user-defined geographic
         phenomena or objects
     -   Two major data models

                     1. Raster
                            • Area divided into grid of cells, each cell contains a value
                            • Cells numbered, one set of cells and values forms a layer
                            • Model tells “what occurs everywhere”
                     2. Vector
                            • Data represented by points, lines, areas/Polygons
                            • Model tells “where everything occurs”
     -   Four types of data

                    1. Spatial data - describes locations of entity (where) i.e. map of
                       Points, lines and polygons
                    2. Attribute data– characteristics of spatial answers (what)
                    3. Image data- gives feel of entity use camera or video (how it looks)
                    4. Identifiers – link mechanism for spatial attribute an image data, very important
                       must be unique, used to control data management process


Building GIS Applications in Integrated Pest Management – Dr. Jacob Opadeyi, Coordinator,
Centre of GeoSpatial Studies, U.W.I., St. Augustine, Trinidad

Notes on presentation (Appendix V (D))

   -    Areas of GIS application – landslide and erosion mitigation, land tenure
        management, reforestation management, environmental monitoring, land
   -    Conceptualizing the design is the basis of the GIS application
   -    Define application by mapping for (i) modeling (ii) trend analysis
   -    Steps in the development of GIS applications
                Design Stage- objectives and decisions required, criteria for decisions, information
                needed to evaluate criteria, data acquired to generate the information, what GIS
                functions will turn the data into information
                Once the design is finished, document it then let client sign it off
                Developmental stage – prepares the data for spatial operations, perform spatial
                operations, prepare derived data for tabular analysis, perform tabular analysis, evaluate
                and interpret results, refine analysis (may not be applicable to site or country), produce
                the final maps and tabular reports of the results

- Logical Design of Spatial Databases

       Database Design Procedure

        Conceptual design
        Uses- identifies and evaluates, builds framework, represents a generalized ‘user’ view of data,
        software and hardware independent, identifies how entities will be represented in database
        e.g. point, lines, areas, cells, identifies how relationships will be represented.
        Stages- identify database issues, evaluate data sources, select data model, conceptualize layer
        design, normalize data structures, develop implementation plan, prepare documentation,
        present, review and approve
        Logical design
        Uses – converts conceptual plan to physical structure, develops selected alternative, sets out
        structure of database elements, based on DBMS software, data structure, software specific and
        hardware independent. Conclusion of logical design is the physical design
        Stages – on basis of data model selected determine feature class structure e.g. vector point,
        line, polygon; determine related tables; prepare data dictionary (contains all specifications for
        data content and structure
        Physical design
        Pilot Test – implements a portion of database over pilot, test physical design for functionality,
        performance, flexibility, requires careful selection of Pilot Area and definition of scope area
        (must have attributes of the real area), prepare a pilot study report, the results used to refine
        physical design and can prevent expensive mistakes. Need feedback from people on
        developed GIS systems
        Implementation Process – shows how data is going to be digitized. This process may take a
        whole year
        Operational GIS – project is completed and handed over to client; a robust implementation
        plan and database management system will support cyclic development
Tutorial: Introduction to ArcGIS software8.3TM – Shahiba Ali, Associate, Centre of Geospatial
Studies, The University of the West Indies, St. Augustine

Participants were guided through a practical session with desktop applications in ArcGIS 8.3TM
software. Features of two of three desktop applications in ArcGIS8.3TM, ArcCatalog and ArcMap,
were explored in this tutorial using sample data sets, the third application, ArcToolbox, was dealt
with a later tutorial. ArcCatalog was used to browse, organize and store data sets. It was also used to
preview, document and create or import feature classes and tables geographic data. In ArcMap data
was viewed, edited, analyzed. Relationships were examined and data symbolized. Maps and charts
were generated in layout view to display data.

Day 2


Map Projection in ArcGIS software8.3TM - Shahiba Ali, Associate Centre of Geospatial Studies,
The University of the West Indies, St. Augustine

Notes on presentation (Appendix V (E))

- Map projections in Arc GIS and coordinate systems vital in assessing the quality of
  digital data
- A map is a flattened version of earth sphere or a scaled down version of the view of the
  earth surface rendered flat, which causes distortion.
- Because of distortion scales and resolutions become important. In digitizing, large scale
   maps (1:1000) show more detail e.g. land use, footpaths, gives best representation of
  features in overlays, shows more coastline contours. Small scale maps (1:150,000) gives
  less details and is more generalized
- Scales should not be mixed up. This is important since they affect the levels of
  confidence, hence the levels of accuracy. Scales should be the same, however in the
  real world this is not always possible. It is necessary therefore to provide information on
  derivation of scales
- It is important to understand the nature of distortion because it is important for overlay projections.
Therefore explain the nature of error.
- Map projection distorts (transforms) the three-dimensional earth surface in a sensible
  way onto a two-dimensional map and brings the datum into one coordinate system.
  Things closest to equator are less distorted because it is the broadest area of the earth.
          The United States uses the plane co-coordinator system
          The Caribbean now uses the transverse locator (mercator WGS84 TM ellipsoid)
          because in terms of ribs, the elongation of the plane gives the best representation
- Because projection distorts the shape, area, distance (along roads), direction (sadd)
  transformation maybe necessary
- A map represents geographic features and spatial phenomena
- Data is digitized because it must be georeferenced to make any use of it.
- The source map from which data is derived is very important.
- It is also important to know how the data is georeferenced i.e. what coordinate system is being
  used (UTM, TM or lat/long coordinates)

Tutorial: Introduction to ArcGIS software8.3TM (cont’d) Shahiba Ali, Associate Centre of
Geospatial Studies, The University of the West Indies, St. Augustine

In this tutorial the third desktop applications in ArcGIS, Arctoolbox, (provides a set of geoprocessing
tools), was explored. In this session the coordinate system for data layers was defined with the
national grids using the Projection Wizard for shapefiles and geodatabases. The Project Wizard was
also used to re-project layers from one coordinate system (TM) to another (UTM).

Tutorial: Manipulating spatial data themes in ArcGIS software8.3TM - Shahiba Ali, Associate,
Centre of Geospatial Studies, The University of the West Indies, St. Augustine

In this tutorial, was conducted as a demonstration due to time constraints, spatial data was
manipulated using the ArcMap application in the following ways:

                       Adding XY data
                       Selecting by attributes, location and graphics

Introduction to GPS concepts - Keith Miller Head, Department of Surveying and Land Information
The University of the West Indies, St. Augustine Campus

Notes on presentation (Appendix V (F))

- The GPS Satellite System consists of 24 satellites, 4 in each of the 6 orbital places,
   controlled by the US Department of Defense and paid for by the US taxpayer but
  provides Free commercial service to everyone
- No satellite passes over the poles. They are at angles to the pole and in this position they
  give more coverage over equatorial regions
- Modes of operation
         Stand alone (pseudo range)- single receiver, view of at least 4 satellites,
          ~ 10m horizontal accuracy (68%), performance deteriorates at dusk when there
          is greater refraction due to instability of the atmosphere
                 Receivers: Garmin 12(navigation by waypoint), Blaupunkt in car navigation system
                 (digital road map), Magellan Promark X (GIS, data recorder with attributes)
        Differential (pseudo range)- pair of receivers, same satellites, improved accuracy 1-3m,
        available in real time, mobile calculates error
                 Sources of correction
                  * User owned base stations- capital outlay, secure location with power,
                    VHF radio with limits, radio license, sub horizontal accuracy < 50km
                  * Free Correction Services- often along coastline, standard format need
                   radio/demodulator, horizontal accuracy 1-3m, free e.g. USCG in USA,
                   Trinity House UK.
                 * Providers using satellite communications- wide area differential
                   services e.g. Free Service FAA accuracy 5m; Commercial Service,
                   Ominstar accuracy 1m costs US$3500 for equipment and ongoing cost
                   $US800 /yr
                 Receiver :WAAS/EGNOS receiver
        Static (carrier phase)- use a pair of static receivers (fixed in position), accuracy to a few mm
        e.g. (i) High Accuracy Survey to detect movements in tectonic plates and to establish control
        points Receiver: Dual frequency geodetic receiver (ii) Precise land survey – static baselines, >

        20km every 30 mins. (iii) National Geodetic Survey (NGS). Looking to put a NGS in
        Geodetic Control for GPS consists of continuous operating reference stations (CORS) and
        replaces traditional control monuments
        Intermediate systems- single units moved occasionally, for high precision GIS use, 10cm
        accuracy e.g. Magellan ProMark X CM
        Real Time Kinematic – provides cm accuracy in real time, need continuous lock on > 5
        satellites, must be within 20km of base station
- At present countries in the region are moving away from traditional mapping into the
  International framework e.g. Jamaica has 3 stations running at present with plans for
  12 more; Trinidad and Tobago will commence shortly
- Problems with changes from Traditional maps to GPS (Horizontal datum) – Traditional
  maps are based on traditional control are not accurate, while GPS provides International
  control. Consequently, International datum is not compatible with traditional datum.
- Notwithstanding the above St. Kitts has moved to a mapping UTM projection of WGS84 and
  Jamaica is moving to WGS84. Barbados has a GPS grid, but has not yet used it for mapping.
- Transformation parameters are available to convert traditional maps to GS of WGS84. However,
  these can degrade accuracy of GPS derived. Values should therefore be tested against concrete
  monuments to see if transformed data is accurate.

Acquiring Point Positions using the Magellan eXplorist GPS receiver (Building point layers
using GPS) - Anesh Gopee, Research Assistant, Department of Surveying and Land Information,
U.W.I, St. Augustine Trinidad

Notes on Discussion

- The GPS Satellite System consists of 24 satellites, 4 in each of the 6 orbital places. The GPS
   receiver sees 14 satellite at one time, but the intersection of 3 ranges (distance) from 3 satellites will
   define a unique position.
- The time the signal takes to receiver (time signal) X the electromagnetic signal (speed signal)
           = Distance (acquiring a point position therefore it is a time observation)
- In actuality a third component is required, which is a correction factor for time, therefore 4 satellites
  required for 1 position fix
- Initialization. A new GPS receiver needs to be initialized before a reading is taken because has no
  memory of where satellites are located. This process may take 3-5 mins.
- Selecting map datum and coordinate system.
         * Before recording positions, the map datum and coordinate system to be used to display the
           point position must be specified.
         * 5 fields used to define map datum. However, a mathematical model of the earth is needed
           to reference position to something. The GPS system is based on WGS84 UTM projection
         * There are different models of the earth, e.g. International 1924 a,b; Clarke 1880, a2, b2; GRS
           80, a2, b2, that have difference dimensions of the earth
         * Trinidad uses the International 1924 model to reference their position for mapping
         * Where the mathematical spheroid (ellipsoid) and the actual position on the earth (irregular)
            intersects is a called a datum point e.g. in Trinidad that point is the Naparima Hill in south.
           From this point all other positions in the country are referenced.
         * Parameters are used to convert datum point to WGS84 i.e.
                       spheroid + datum point = GPS
         * The spherical earth is transformed to a flat plane i.e. lat/long or Northings/Eastings
       * Positions may be required in a grid system (Eastings and Northings instead of Latitude and
         Longitude). Hence, a specific coordinate system must be used together with the local map
         datum, in order to produce the Eastings and Northings of points

Tutorial: Building Point layers using GPS

Magellan eXplorist GPS receivers were distributed to participants. This receiver is a handheld device
with an accuracy of 3m. However, it does not have a downloadable feature. In a practical session,
participants were guided some basic operations of the receiver including initialization and selecting
map datums and coordinate systems, after which they proceeded outdoors to begin tracking satellites
and computing different positions of points of interest using the Magellan eXplorist receiver.


Introduction to Attribute Databases Using MS AccessTM - Eva Chin, Lecturer Centre of
Geospatial Studies, Engineering The University of the West Indies, St. Augustine

Notes on presentation( Appendix V (G))

- GIS depends on a database. i.e. each map layer has an internal table as well as an external. Once
  there are two tables they can be linked to give data integration.
- A Database is a series of tables linked together by keys
- There are 11 basic steps in designing a database, which requires a lot of paper work.
- It is important to determine the purpose of the database (use, users, information required etc.)
- A database file contains the following objects, which are created by the user
       iTables - stores data in columns and rows, can toggle between tables
       iForms - Data forms (for data entry/retrieval; should exist in hardcopy and digital format)
                 - MS Access forms have views (design, form and datasheet views)
       iQueries – are virtual tables, which can be created and stored; used to view, change and
          analyze data; used a source of records for reports or forms. GIS can link queries and data.
          GIS actually links to a query rather than a table. Types of queries cross tabs, make-table,
          update, append, delete, select. Select query can select fields
          from different tables. ArcGIS software will not see query by default, but will see Tables. A
          connection will first have to be established to view queries)
       iReports- are effective ways to present data in printed form and are more formatted versions of
       iMacros- is a set of 1 or more actions that perform a particular operation, such as opening a
          form or printing a report
       iModules- collection of Visual Basic for applications declarations and procedures stored as a
          unit. e.g. land deeds
- Data issues. data sources (1° and 2°), data format, mode of data entry (keyboard, scanning,
  importing), time and cost of data entry, staff training in data digitizing, data quality
- Data quality Assurance consists of data checks before, during and after data entry. In MS Access
most data controls set in the Table Design. Types of controls: data entry form, data table design, and
DBMS controls. Can validate or restrict data entry in forms by adding controls. Specific table
properties can be set in table design view i.e. default value, validation text, and input mask. Enabled,
locked properties can also be set in the property sheet for the control.
- Database documentation truly ‘establishes’ a system and ensures continuity. Consists of general
  description of database system, rules of organization, data flow diagrams, entity relationship
  diagrams, data dictionary (a critical descriptive documentation of the database)
- Data dictionary includes storage location of database and all related tables, a listing of all tables,
  table structures, item names and definitions, table relationships, code tables with item names, codes
  and descriptions
- Relationships can be established between tables, using the relationship window in MS Access
  Database Analysis Tools. Only one relationship at a time can be established between any two

Tutorial: Building attribute databases for IPM - Eva Chin, Lecturer Centre of Geospatial Studies,
Engineering The University of the West Indies, St. Augustine

In this tutorial session participants developed a simple attribute database for simulated data on the
points where pests have been located (occurrence of pests) within an area of Jamaica. Tables were
created in design view where field names, data types, descriptions were entered for each attribute and
the primary key identified. Data fields were also formatted and relationships established between

Integration of databases including hot links - Eva Chin, Lecturer Centre of Geospatial Studies,
Engineering The University of the West Indies, St. Augustine

Notes on Presentation (Appendix V (H))

- Major strength of GIS is its ability to integrate spatial data
- Multi-layer map concept. Data can be integrated because of the layer concept. Map layers are based
  on feature tables. Data can be added to feature table and can be linked to features on a map layer
- Data that can be integrated include vector map layers (points, lines, polygons), raster images
  (pixels), database tables and queries (Attribute data), text files e.g. deeds, video/audio, GPS
- There are internal spatial tables (automatically created; facilitates updating by adding attributes)
  and External Attribute Tables (facilitates access to database)
- Joining spatial and Attribute Tables. Virtual join (temporarily, tables unchanged when closed),
  Permanent join (one of the tables is updated with new fields, permanent)
- Linking Tables one-to-one, many-to-one
- ArcGIS works with Access by default and by default will only allow you to see tables. Queries can
  be accessed and links made through Microsoft’s Open Database Connectivity (ODBC)
- Integration of Multimedia Data e.g. aerial photographs, infra-red images, satellite images, scanned
   images, video/audio was demonstrated
- Image formats: Vector (points, lines, polygons) Bitmap (pixels) e.g. Jpeg. TIFF and GIF. ArcGIS
  likes GIF and TIFF but prefers TIFF
-Raster image characteristics: image ID, format, resolution (e.g. 300 dpi, 600dpi), capture – date,
 X, Y color, dealing with large files that therefore have to be compressed e.g. lossless and lossy
- Picture elements have X, Y coordinates which result in cells. Each cell has a value that represents a
  colour of grey scale value.
- Georeferenced map sheets can be a layer and we start to see layering and relationship building
- Hyperlink connects features of a layer to other objects e.g. hyperlink to data tables, scanned image,
  to a video
- Applications of integrated data e.g. urban and regional planning, hazard prevention, estate
  management/sales, tourist industry, geology and geomorphology

Tutorial: Manipulating attribute databases in ArcGIS software8.3TM - Eva Chin, Lecturer
Centre of Geospatial Studies, Engineering The University of the West Indies, St. Augustine
In a tutorial session participants were provided with simple examples which demonstrated the ability
of a GIS to be manipulated and to integrate datasets. In this session data layers were added, legends
modified, tables and queries were added from external databases. XY data themes queries were also
added. Attribute data tables were joined through shared fields and image files linked to the document
by selecting hyperlinks.

Day 3


Spatial analysis in GIS – Shahiba Ali and Dr. Jacob Opadeyi Centre of Geospatial Studies, The
University of the West Indies, St. Augustine

Notes on presentation (Appendix V (I))

- Buffering an area, a point or a line will result in a polygon. The end result of buffering
  is therefore a polygon feature.

- Operands (and, or, like not) were used to query attributes in a Structure Query Language (SQL)
        Intersect uses the and operator e.g. 2 conditions (crop and soil type) must be present for pest
        to occur. When 2 conditions are true you are looking for the potential for pest to occur. Use
        the dissolve command to dissolve all common boundaries. Overlay pest location to confirm
        that the and operator is true. If it is not true then it may not be applicable to Trinidad or there
        may other inputs in the model, which makes not true (elevation). We are trying to examine
        factors i.e. modeling so that we can predict.

        Union uses the or operator e.g. pest will if soil type is present or crop is present

- Buffering can be to do proximity analysis of points, lines and polygon
  Question: Are we are looking for what is inside or outside the buffer
  Answer: The result of a buffer is really a “ cookie cutter” which is used to get what is
             Inside the buffer e.g. find out land use in that area “ to pool information on
             Other areas.” The layer of pest zone with 500m of influence. The area of pest
             influence is 200m or 500m (Buffer area (500m) is determined by literature or
             through experimentation
 Can now overlay this on crops, vegetation, humidity etc.

- The value of the overlay is that you can get a new layer that has combined 2 attributes.
  At this stage you are really preparing data.

- Use the system to create a new layer that answers the question in the beginning.

- Clip is used as a cookie cutter when we are only interested in a particular point of interest

Tutorial Session: Spatial analysis using ARCGIS

“Problem Concept”
Using the data sets provided for Jamaica, you may want to:
       1. create a pest count surface interpolated from point locations of pest occurrence
       2. find out what integrated pest management strategies
Data sets on pest counts in Jamaica from a particular area were used in a tutorial session to
demonstrate spatial analysis.”
“Query Concept”        IPM strategy
                       Crop (banana)
                       Farms (Parcel)

Tutorial: Spatial analysis using ArcGIS - Shahiba Ali and Dr. Jacob Opadeyi Centre of Geospatial
Studies, The University of the West Indies, St. Augustine

In this tutorial the following functionalities were explored: overlaying layers, querying layers,
clipping layers, creating buffers, dissolving fields based on a common attribute. The data set used
consisted of pest data for banana in Jamaica. And the problem statement was to determine “whether
‘bad pests’ are found in a zone 100m along the banks of rivers that flow through the agricultural
parcels that are irrigated.”

Displaying & Manipulating Data - Shahiba Ali, Associate Centre of Geospatial Studies, The
University of the West Indies, St. Augustine

Displaying Data in ArcMap (Appendix V (J))

Notes: On maps there are certain rules (Symbology)
Water is blue
Railroads black
Roads red to gray 1st, 2nd class and footpath
Vegetation green
Building greys
Settlement red or gray

Exercise: Displaying Data in ArcMap
Adding a shapefile
Changing a layer name
Classifying & symbolizing
Spatial data
Labelling a feature
Creating a map layout
Adding a second data frame to a map

Cartography and Visualization in GIS – Shahiba Ali, Associate Centre of Geospatial Studies, The
University of the West Indies, St. Augustine

The presentation of the Data in ArcMAP (Appendix V (K)) was discussed.

Tutorial Visualization using ArcGIS– Shahiba Ali, Associate Centre of Geospatial Studies, The
University of the West Indies, St. Augustine

The cartographic design process was used to create a map.

Discussion: Data Issues- Dr. Jacob Opadeydi Coordinator, Centre of GeoSpatial Studies, The
University of the West Indies (U.W.I.), St. Augustine, Trinidad

Difficulties in Spatial analysis

1. Knowing what you want to do? Knowing if your query makes sense. Write it down. If it
   is applicable
2. If analysis not simplified
3. Identify data required based on statement of analysis. What are variables and entities?
   required and what is the source, format, scale, map projection, map datum and date

        Sources        Who has it? Lands and surveys, Ministry of Agriculture, nobody etc. If no one
                       has collected and therefore not available then decide on strategy to collect,
                       bring in dummy data or eliminate. But if you take a short cut then note it.
        Format         If Hardcopy, then digitize it. If Digital is it saved as – dxf, mdb, dbf or xxls
        Scale          Of input data i.e. what is the scale used to digitize data. This important for
        Date           Which variable is date sensitive crop date sensitive e.g. crop data might be date
                       sensitive. Pest data can be historical or current data

   - It is important to identify the cost of the project and the level of effort needed to appropriately
     carry out project. If you take a short cut say why it was taken Then determine (i) the time that it
     takes to carry out project and (ii) the cost of project. This is all part of the Conceptual Design.

   - Know long cut before you take a short cut. If you take a short cut then note it.

Day 4


Introduction to Web-based data management – Mr. Hartnell Campbell, Web designer Rural
Agricultural Development Authority, Jamaica

Remote Data Manager
- A remote data manager(RDM) is a simple (more simple than Arcview and Arcmap
  applications) web application programme written and used to show the occurrence of
  pests or disease over a landmass on a map. For example Jamaica uses RDM to obtain
  information on the occurrence of hot pepper gall midge.
- Additionally, RDM has animated features which can show immigration of pests or
  diseases that are being are tracted
- In the background of each map is a database stored in Microsoft Access

Demo: Remote Data Manager

In a practical session participants accessed the Caribbean Pestwatch System (CPS) website at the url
    - Because it is a website it enables anyone from anywhere to access it and may wish to add or
        change data in the database. However, permission is required from the administrator to access
        the database to make any changes
    - In an interactive session using a database with dummy data on Hot pepper gall midge in
        Jamaica was accessed with permission of the administrator, Hartnell Campbell and updated
        (changed) by:
                - Firstly getting permission from the administrator
                - Changing the user ID and password to new user IDs and passwords
                - In the exercise, new pest and commodities were included on the pest list,
                   commodity lists respectively
                - Pests were then associated specified crops e.g.
                - Selected commodity were then affiliated to pest
                - Farmer affiliated with pest
                - Site was edited by entering new site coordinates in point form
     What we were actually doing was entering data on the internet

Shellby Application Programme
- In the Shellby Application Programme (SAP) one must determine which map is required.
- It allows you to reconfigure maps by downloading most of the information changing it
   and putting it back up on the Internet
- ShelbyApp takes coordinates hooks to the website pulls down coordinates organizes it
  on map shapefiles, saves it as a jif image then puts it back up on the Internet
- The program performs the following tasks:
                        Downloads data from the RDM
                        Allows review and annotation of the data
                        Generates text-based reports
                        Generates map and time-series charts and the HTML needed for a complete
                        web site
                        Posts the web site onto a web server
- The program works with coordinates in UTM, which have false northings and eastings, but allows
   the measurement of distance in metres. However, coordinates on maps are represented as latitudes
   and longitudes. The Shelby App can change UTM coordinates to Lat/Long coordinates
- The system is not geared towards generating data on infestation levels but represents
  Pest occurrence and immigration
- ShelbyApp’s main window is the control window first tow buttons new (creates new
  project), while open (opens exiting project).
- Next is the settings window which has 5 tabs:
                 * Map – shapefiles provide geometry for displaying maps e.g.
                       Major Divisions define large-scale divisions typically political
                      country or state
                      Minor divisions define smaller scale divisions, typically smaller
                      political units such as county, parish, township etc.
                 * Legend – in legend map type selects between Buffered point and
                   interpolated surface and represents each differently
             * Time series – generated for each site, where maps are generated for each
               week. This can give a view over time of occurrences at the site. This is
               easy in the Caribbean because we plant all year round
             * Strings
             * HTML (customizing web site)
   -   The ShelbyApp can be implemented anywhere in the world

Building the Caribbean GIS-based IPM

Mr. Chung led a discussion (Appendix V (L)) on building the Caribbean GIS-based IPM.

Question: How will this workshop help with building the Caribbean GIS?

Answer: Phillip Chung, Jamaica
   We need to get access to ArcGIS.                   CIPMNet will be writing formerly to
   Institutions/Organizations who can fund the purchase of the ArcGIS software for countries
   represented so that we can begin georeference pest and diseases of economic importance
   Example: WIFF (West Indian Fruit Fly data is available in many countries but this data has not
   been georeferenced.

Question: How is The University of the West Indies (U.W.I.) assisting in GIS?

Answer: Dr. Jacob Opadeyi, U.W.I.
   - We have data sets for each country, with the exception of Dominican Republic and Suriname,
      which will be distributed on CDs to participants.
   - U.W.I. can give technical support with the conceptual design.
   - Free software can be accessed. However, priority will be given to programmes related to
      environment, poverty or gender.
   - Experts at the University can do seminars in different countries at no cost. For example several
     one-day seminars have been conducted in OECS countries by experts in the Centre of
     GeoSpatial Studies.
   - If anyone is inclined to do a Masters in Geospatial Studies at U.W.I., I will be glad to assist
   -There is also an opportunity for scholarships such as Full bright through the US Embassy

Answer: Sumatie Gosine, Trinidad
       There are also OAS scholarships which are available for study out of your native country.

Question: Marcus Richards, St. Vincent and The Grenadines
              How much would it take for The University (U.W.I) to do baseline maps?
Answer: Dr. Jacob Opadeyi, U.W.I.
              It will take a lot of time. But it has to be done through official means. IICA can play
              a critical role in helping to set this up.

Question: Phillip Chung, Jamaica
              We you think that we should be concentrating on regional surveillance of WIFF?
Answer: Lucius Alexander, St. Lucia
              How is significant is this, seeing that very little fruits are allowed into the US?
              Additionally, in St. Lucia a lot of effort is being placed on the surveillance for Black
              Sigatoka in Banana. However, there is some fruit fly monitoring at both official and
              non-official ports.
         Answer: Phillip Chung, Jamaica
             Purpose of the WIFF surveillance is not only for trade but also more importantly it is
             to find out the status of fruit fly and to see how it is being managed regionally.

Question: What is the role of IICA in carrying GIS forward?

Answer: Wayne De Chi, IICA Trinidad
   - The main idea of the workshop was to introduce the concept of GIS i.e. to sensitize
      participants to the process
   - IICA does not have any networking system designed to coordinate such an activity. This is
      why Mr. Chung was called in from CIPMNet.
   - IICA has however; conducted training in fruit fly identification and it can again facilitate Dr.
      David Dean to do training in fruit fly identification in other Caribbean countries.
   - IICA can ensure that networking continues and remains active.
   - Carolyn Cohen USDA has also been very supportive in this regard

Question: How is the Caribbean Integrated Pest Management (CIPMNet) assisting with GIS?

Answer: Phillip Chung, Jamaica
      CIPMNet is developing a regional database in plant health. However, this needs to be
      coordinated and circulated. I have had discussion with Winston Small in Barbados. But I am
      asking for assistance to help develop this database.
      : Wayne DeChi, IICA
      At present IICA has data on pest and disease of economic importance, which is updated every
      month. We can discuss this further.
      :Hartnell Campbell, Jamaica
      The database can be developed on a website.

Question: What is the role of USDA help with the fruit fly surveillance and development regional
          database in plant health?

Answer: Carolyn Cohen, USDA
      - The USDA is always pleased to offer support particularly with fruit fly traps and
        trapping supplies. USDA assisted in the identification of fruit flies in Grenada.
      - USDA only has parts of database on pest of concern to the Caribbean which I
        will distribute to participants
      - Additionally there is funding for pest detection workshops, traps and trapping
        supplies. However, there is no funding for scholarships.

Vote of Thanks

The vote of thanks was given by Dr. Patrick Chesney, the participant from Guyana.

Post Evaluation

Post Evaluation forms (Appendix VI) were completed and submitted by participants at the end of the
training session.

Presentation of Certificates and GPS receivers

Certificates of Participation and GPS receivers (one per country) were presented to participants by
Mrs. Carolyn Cohen and Dr. Jacob Opadeyi. Participants from ten of the twelve countries
represented, were also presented with CDs containing data sets for their respective countries. Data
sets were not as yet available for the Dominican Republic and Suriname.


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